Funding allows schools to meet the challenges of providing up to date equipments and technological training by looking for available financing resources. It is very important for school districts to have a funding plan as the part of technology plan. There are numerical outside sources of funding which support technology education with the help of cash, hardware, software, and staff professional training, as well as funding of E-rate. A technology director should know about grant and E-rate application process to find and get additional funding for technology projects.
Even though it is not a routine part of the regular technology budget, grant has become a useful additional funding resource for educational technology. Grants can support school district with new technologies, innovative curriculum projects and professional development opportunities. A successful grant application often requires a technology director to plan in advance and involve a variety of people in the planning process. The technology director should help locate needed funds and construct an effective grant application for schools’ innovative projects.
Basically, there are two types of grant for schools: entitlement grants and competitive grants.
1. Entitlement Grants
Entitlement grants provide funds to school districts on the basis of a formula, given in legislation or regulation, rather than on the basis of an innovative project evaluation. The formula is usually based on student population, per capita income, or other financial needs. Title I , Title VI  and Eisenhower funds  are all entitlement grants. To get entitlement funding, school districts should report a variety of data such as student enrollment and participation in the free and reduced-fee lunch program, and so forth.
2. Competitive Grants
Competitive grants are given by means of a review of the applicant’s project proposals. The grant agency selects proposals and decides grant amounts. The grant proposals designing projects with greater impact and more certain outcomes are given priority over proposals where projects will have less impact and less certain outcomes. Typically, most competitive grant applications will be evaluated based on the applicant’s educational goals such as potential benefit to the students and how well the project deals with an educational need. In general, the source of competitive grant funds fall into four main categories: federal, state, corporate, and foundation. For details on the requirements of these types of grants, the applicant should check out the specific grant program’s website or contact the grant agency.
- Grants opportunities:
http://www.grants.gov This website lists all U.S. Government grant opportunities and provides electronic grant submission. Grants are usually posted about two months before the applications are due. It is very important to learn when grants are likely to be posted so that you are prepared to successfully compete with other applicants. Many of grants listed here are highly competitive.
http://www.edutopia.org/grantinfo This website lists all kinds of educational grants including government grants, corporate and foundation grants.
http://lnp.fdncenter.org/finder.html This is a free grants finding service run by the Foundation Center. You can search for foundations that may be interested in supporting your projects.
Most successful grant applicants give the same advice: have a project in mind and make sure you have the commitment from administration to carry out the project. Generally, developing successful grant application is a time-consuming process. It is important to develop a project plan that meets the criteria of the grant and is based on a need of the organization. Once a project plan has been selected and support for the project assured, the actual writing of the proposal can begin.
While each grant has different requirement, most grants tend to include the same basic narrative sections: a project overview, a statement of needs, the project’s goals and objectives, a project narrative, a budget for the project, your organization information and a conclusion.
The project overview provides a clear summary of the project in a concise format. Be sure to include a brief statement of the problem, a short description of the project and an explanation of the amount of grant money required for the project. In order to demonstrate your capability to carry out this proposal, it is helpful to provide a brief statement of the history, purpose and activities of your school district.
A statement of needs
The statement of need provides the facts and evidence that support the need for the project and it helps the reader understand the problems you address. While the statement of need must provide background and tie the project to the solution, it does not have to be long. The writing should be concise and persuasive.
The project’s goals and objectives
A goal is the concrete results you want to achieve in the long run. Objectives are the measurable outcomes of the project. Your objectives should be specific, realistic and measurable in a specified time period.
The project narrative should include an explanation of how the project’s goals and objectives will be met and what activities will be involved. In addition, you will need to talk about this project’s personnel issues: the number of staff, their qualifications, and which stuff will work full time and which will work part time etc. Finally, an assessment plan would indicate that you have a well-prepared project in mind and seriously want to know how well your project will meet the initiative objectives.
helpful hint To prepare project narrative, ask yourself the following questions: • What do you want? • What problem will be addressed and why it is important? • Who will benefit and how? • What objectives can be accomplished and how? • How will achievements be measured? • Who are you and how do you qualify to meet this need?
Budget for the project
The budget can help the funders to understand how the money will be spent. Sometimes, funders provide mandatory budget forms that must be submitted with the proposal. You should be flexible about your budget in case the funder negotiates costs.
For most projects, costs should be divided into subcategories. You might group the expense into two sections: personnel and non-personnel costs. Also, in the following sample table, costs are divided into two columns: "requested" and "match." The "requested" column is for items we are asking the funding source to pay for. The "match" column represents those items that are to be paid from some other source of funds.
|Items||Total||Total Requested||Total Match|
|Total this Grant||$102,900||$85,300||$17,690|
|Salaries and Wages||55,690||53,200||2,490|
helpful hint Be sure to check your budget with the following questions: • Can the job be accomplished with this budget? • Are costs reasonable for the market? • Is the budget consistent with proposed activities? • Is there sufficient budget detail and explanation? • Are there any other available revenue sources?
You need give a brief introduction of the project’s management plan. Tell the funding reviewer your school district‘s structure, programs and leadership. It is wise to state your school district’s mission to demonstrate how the subject of the proposal matches within or extends that mission. Probably, the funding source will want evidence that key personnel have the qualifications for their roles in the project. You'd better to provide summaries of their backgrounds or resume included in an appendix.
Every proposal should have a concluding statement. This section allows you to provide information for demonstrating why the project is important to your school district and that you’re excited about the funding possibilities.
- Sample Grant Proposals
It is always a helpful way to learn proposal writing by looking at other people’s successful proposals.
http://www.k12grants.org/samples/samples_index.htm This site lists various successful proposals. These samples can help you to know what a good needs statement contains, how the activities relate to their goals objectives, and how an evaluation plan is used.
http://www.ed.gov/about/inits/list/fbci/grants2.html Here are a few sample proposals from the U.S. Department of Education.
Tips for grantwriting
Here are 10 tips for prospective grant writers:
1. Follow guidelines. Read the funder’s guideline carefully. You should remember that the basic requirements, application forms, information, deadlines and procedures will vary for each grant maker.
2. Shorter is better. There’s no perfect length for a proposal, but you just need to explain your idea clear and your plan reasonable. Keep the proposal short.
3. State needs not problem. Focus on opportunities that result from the challenges your school district faces.
4. Well structured. Think of the basic proposal components and write it accordingly. A proposal should have summary, detailed statement, and conclusion.
5. Avoid spelling and grammatical problems. A proposal with spelling errors is unacceptable. Have someone else read it.
6. Do not make your grant tech heavy. Everyone wants equipment, but it should not be the main emphasis of your proposal. Student achievement should be the focus of your proposal.
7. Don't work alone. Ask your supervisor and colleagues to help with the application process.
8. Start the application early. If you need the funding now, you have started too late. It may take months or one year to receive your funds.
9. Write a thank you notes. Thank the grant funder for giving you a grant opportunity.
10. Don't give up because you’re rejected. It takes time to get proposals funded. If you are rejected, submit the same project to different funding sources. Remember to make change to meet the new criteria.
The Grant Application Process
A grant application usually consists of three parts: filling out the application form, submitting the grant proposal, and following up to track your application status.
1. Application form: Read the questions carefully, write down your answers completely, and then proofread your answers.
2. Proposal: Before submitting your proposal, make sure your narrative clear, concise, and interesting to read. If the funding sources require a variety of supporting documents as part of the application, you’d better to provide related information including endorsements, resumes, additional project information and so on.
3. Follow up: Contact the grant funder about the status, evaluation, and outcome of your proposal.
- Additional Grant Resources
http://www.ed.gov/fund/grant/apply/grantapps/index.html The U.S. Government offers this list of application packages for currently open Department of Education grant competitions.
http://www.neafoundation.org/grants.htm The National Education Association Foundation offers information, guidelines, and other resources related to educational grants.
http://www.acape.org/garrigans/wkshp/grantwriting/links.html The CAPE (Center for Advancing Partnerships in Education) offers some excellent grant writing tutorials and resources.
Locating adequate funding to support technology programs is always a challenge for schools and school districts. Technology coordinators can help bridge funding gaps by participating in the Schools and Libraries Program of the Universal Service Fund, more commonly known as the E-rate program. As a result of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) adopted an order creating the E-rate program. The goal of the program is to ensure schools and libraries have access to affordable advanced telecommunications services. Under the program, discounts ranging from 20% to 90% on Telecommunications Services, Internet Access, and Internal Connections are provided to eligible schools and libraries. The award amount granted each year to schools and libraries is subject to a $2.25 billion annual cap.
EXAMPLES OF ELIGIBLE AND INELIGIBLE SERVICES UNDER E-RATE INCLUDE
All public schools, school districts, charter schools, private schools and libraries are eligible to apply for discounts each year of the E-rate program. In order to successfully apply for E-rate discounts, all schools and other eligible organizations must following the guidelines set forth by the Schools and Libraries Division (SLD)of the Universal Service Administrative Company (USAC) SLD Website. All schools can participate in E-rate by developing a technology plan, determining the services they currently use or wish to acquire, soliciting any necessary bits for those services, and awarding contracts based on the bids. Bids must be solicited to determine the actual cost of the services and for any improvements. The amount of discount awarded is dependent on the economic need and location (urban or rural) of the school or school district. The level of economic need is determined by the percentage of students eligible for participation in the National School Lunch Program or by other federally approved alternative mechanisms. Districts serving students with the greatest level of need receive the highest discounts, as indicated by the discount matrix below.
E-RATE DISCOUNT MATRIX
|Income Measured by % of students
eligible for the National School Lunch Program
|If the percentage of students in the school qualifying
for the National School Lunch Program is...
|...and the school is in a URBAN area,
the E-rate discount will be...
|...and the school is in a RURAL area,
the E-rate discount will be...
|Less than 1%||20%||25%|
|1% to 19%||40%||50%|
|20% to 34%||50%||60%|
|35% to 49%||60%||70%|
|50% to 74%||80%||80%|
|75% to 100%||90%||90%|
E-rate Funding Process
In most cases the coordination of the E-rate funding process is the responsibility of the technology director. The technology director is responsible for overseeing the E-rate process step-by-step, including the filing of appropriate forms, adhering to due dates and time lines, as well as directing the bidding and overall planning process.
The technology director begins the formal E-rate funding process by filing Form 470, which provides the SLD with a description of services and improvements requested. The discount matrix (provided above) determines the overall discount the school or district is eligible to receive. Bids must be submitted to determine the actual cost of these services and improvements. After bids have been solicited from approved E-rate service providers, final negotiations completed, and agreements made, the technology director takes the second formal step in the process. The technology coordinator will file Form 471, Services Ordered Confirmation Form. This form descries the actual costs of the services selected and determines the level of discount available to the district. Form 471 must be submitted before the deadline date, determined by the SLD.
Once the E-rate filing deadline has passed, the SLD processes all Form 471 applications to determines the amount of funds requested across the nation. The SLD then verifies applications, and decides the E-rate awards for each applicant. All schools that apply within the eligibility window qualify for discounts on eligible telecommunications services, such as basic telephone, long-distance, and internet access. Discounts for these services alone can save school districts thousands of dollars, providing for the reallocation of funds to other technology projects. Once all applicants have been provided with discounts on telecommunications services, any remaining E-rate funds will be distributed to schools for requested network infrastructure (internal connections), beginning with those in greatest need. Once the SLD makes the final decisions on the discounts available to the school district, an official Funding Commitment Decision letter will be issued. The letter identifies the level of discounts and the amount of funding available from each service provider identified on Form 471. Following the receipt of the funding letter, the district must file Form 486, acknowledging the receipt of services from vendors. Therefor allowing the district to officially begin receiving discounts or rebates on services. The technology director should work with the administration, business officials, and service providers to determine the most effective method of discount receipt.
Ten E-rate Mistakes to Avoid at All Costs
October 5, 2005—During an E-rate training session in Washington, D.C., on Sept. 30, Universal Service Administrative Service Company (USAC) Catriona Ayer listed the 10 primary reasons E-rate applications are :
1. Applications request ineligible products and services. If 30 percent or more of the services requested in an E-rate funding application are deemed ineligible, the application is automatically denied. This is known as the "30 Percent Rule," Ayer said; the best way to avoid an automatic denial because of this rule is to "break out," or separate, funding requests as much as possible. When in doubt, she said, do the math. If your calculations for ineligible services come in over 30 percent, revise your application before submitting it to USAC.
2. Contracts are not signed or aren't in the right place. When asked to supply contract information, make sure the documents are signed and are included in the right place throughout your funding application. If there is no signature, or if the reviewer cannot find the appropriate documentation within the application, Ayer said, USAC has no choice but to deny the request.
3. Applications include unauthorized consortium members. If you're applying with an education service agency or consortium, Ayer said, make sure you have the proper Letters of Agency—and that you meet the requirements posted on the SLD web site. If not, your application will be denied.
4. Insufficient documentation. USAC requires applicants to be prepared to respond to a Program Integrity Assurance Review with copies of their service contacts and other relevant document information. If the documentation is lost or cannot be located in time, Ayer cautioned, the application could be denied. Applicants must keep all documentation for five years after their initial application is submitted. Failure to do so could lead to penalties, including potential program disbarment and funding recovery.
5. Insufficient support resources. Program applicants also must prove that they have the appropriate support resources to complete their intended projects. While the E-rate pays for a portion of the technology necessary to make infrastructure upgrades, no amount of program money is intended to fully finance any one project, explained Ayer. To avoid having your application denied, you must secure access to the equipment and resources necessary to complete the upgrade. This includes sufficient funds to pay your share, minus the E-rate discount, as well as additional hardware, software, electrical capacity, and support.
6. A Form 470 is not filed. Applicants are not allowed to extend contracts to service providers until their Form 470 application is posted and approved by USAC.
7. Competitive-bidding violations. One of the most common—and certainly the most controversial—reasons for denial is a violation of the competitive-bidding process. Throughout the day, USAC officials stressed the need for applicants to engage in a "fair and open" competitive-bidding process, where eligible service providers are given ample opportunity to compete for technology contracts. During this phase, officials warned, no service provider should have contact with the applicant, except with regard to the bid itself. That means no helping with official E-rate forms—and absolutely no assistance with creating the technology plan. Remember, bidding is the applicant's responsibility, "not the service provider's," Ayer said.
8. Failing to wait the required 28 days before signing contracts. Once a Form 470 is posted to the SLD web site, applicants must wait 28 days before contracts are signed. Jumping the gun could result in a denial of funds.
9. Requesting services from an ineligible telecommunications provider. Under E-rate rules, telecommunications services must be provided by an eligible provider. These providers, which pay into the Universal Service Fund that supports the E-rate, can be found through a search on the SLD web site, officials said.
10. Failing to certify required forms on time. Submitting and certifying forms are two different things, USAC officials warn. To avoid having your request for funds denied, certify your forms online before the filing window closes.
In order to support a technology program, an adequate budget is necessary. State and Federal Laws clearly define some of the processes that must be followed for a school district budget. These processes are clearly defined by the Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB). As the Technology Director, it is your responsibility to understand and conform to these regulations. The following section will help a new Technology Director understand some best practices when it comes to preparing and presenting the organization's technology budget.
GASB - 12 Principles
1. Accounting and Reporting Capabilities
- Governmental organizations must be able to disclose the financial status of the organization in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
2. Fund Accounting System
- Government accounting systems must be separated into various funds.
3. Types of Funds
- Explains the three categories of funds used in governmental accounting: Governmental Funds, Proprietary Funds and Fiduciary Funds.
4. Number of Funds
- Organizations should maintain all funds required by law.
5. Accounting for Capital Assets and Long-Term Liabilities
- Capital Assets must be accounted for and reported.
6. Valuation of Capital Assets
- Capital Assets must be accounted for at cost or a fair estimate if cost is not available.
7. Depreciation of Capital Assets
- Organizations should follow IRS guidelines for depreciation.
8. Accrual Basis in Government Accounting
- Accrual should be used in measuring financial position.
9. Budgeting, Budgetary Control & Budgetary Reporting
- Organizations must prepare an annual budget.
10. Revenue, Expenditure, Transfer & Expense Account Classification
- A Chart of Accounts should be used to classify all budgetary items.
11. Common Terminology & Classification
- Common terminology and classification should be used consistently throughout the budget.
12. Interim and Annual Financial Reports
- A comprehensive annual financial report should be prepared and published.
Additional Information on the GASB Principles can be found at: http://www.osc.state.ny.us/localgov/pubs/arm/arm2.htm#Principle1
Process of Budgeting
The Technology Director is responsible for budgeting for all technology needs for the District. Budgeting is a time-consuming process that takes months to complete properly. An experienced Technology Director will rely heavily on the previous year’s budget during planning for the new year. There are many items that will help the director during planning. Let’s look at some of these items in detail.
Long Range Planning
The budgeting process is made easier by how well the district long range technology plan was developed. The long range technology plan governs the overall direction of technology in the district. They often project years into the future so the director must always be aware of what is coming down the road. The plan must provide a clear vision of where the district wants to be all throughout the plan. A well developed plan will be as useful in its last year as it was in its first. The importance of a plan is clearly visible. The administration and the School Board rely on you to tell them where the district will need to be in future years. This will give the board an understanding of future budgetary needs long before they are needed.
Let’s look at adding wireless to your high school. First adopters started installing wireless into schools as early as 2002. You are writing a long range plan in 2002 that lasts until 2007. You know the technology is there but aren’t sure if you will need it. Costs in 2002 show it would take at least $500,000 to complete the project. You estimate that there is a better chance than not that you will need to address this down the road. You decide to include it in your long range plan for the last year, 2007. As a result, the school board is aware of the plan. They know there will be a substantial cost to complete the project and they can plan for it. The end result is that you install wireless around the time the state releases its one to one plan. Had you not planned for it, it would have been much harder to secure funding for such a large project.
The more time you spend on the long range plan, the easier you make your budget process each year.
A technology department relies on proper documentation to run. It isn’t the most glorious job but it is essential to many different areas such as disaster recovery and of course, budgeting. A district will have countless systems that carry annual maintenance contracts, have fixed terms, or need frequent replacement. Knowing these items will help you to know what is needed each year. Unfortunatley, as a new director, you need to rely on the documentation the previous director left. Hopefully, it is complete and accurate. If not, begin creating a new document immediately.
|Product||Description||Term||Start Date||End Date||Cost||Next Budget|
|Microsoft SLA||Site License Agreement||1 Year||7/1/2007||6/30/2008||$110,000||2008|
|Cisco SmartNET||Cisco Maintenance||1 Year||8/1/2007||7/31/2008||$48,000||2008|
|SurfControl||Content Filter||3 Year||8/1/2005||7/31/2008||$35,000||2008|
|Sophos AV||District Anti Virus||2 Year||7/1/2007||6/30/2009||$30,000||2009|
|CLIU||Student Information System||1 Year||7/1/2007||6/30/2008||$48,000||2008|
This document helps you plan the costs year to year. By looking at this, you can tell that you don’t need to worry about Anti-virus this year.
In addition to the long range plan, a district should have well documented replacement schedule. A director should be able to tell what equipment is scheduled to be replaced this year in a matter of moments. A replacement schedule documents how long equipment will last before it needs to be replaced. This schedule will serve as a guide since technology is not always replaced on a one to one basis. Some equipment may not get replaced or will be replaced with something new when the useful lifespan has retired. An added bonus of replacement schedules it that staff will also know when their equipment is due for replacement, thus eliminating the constant questions of “when will my computer will be replaced.” Many organizations have classically used three to five replacement schedules. With the addition of Act 1, many districts have opted to move toward plans that span five or more years. Here is an example of a fairly simple replacement schedule..
|Product||Quantity||Schedule||Year Purchased||Year Replaced|
Take note that the 300 Desktops purchased in 2006 may be replace with laptops once 2011 arrives.
All of these items help the technology director prepare to draft a budget. They serve as a point to start. There is still much work to be done towards presenting a complete budget. Inevitably, items will appear that are not in use and were not planned on in the long range plan. The tech director needs to evaluate them and determine if they should be included.
How, as the technology director, do you decide what the district needs? Hopefully, you do not need to do this alone. The direction of the technology in a school district should be governed by a committee with representatives from the various groups of stake holders. This group should perform a needs assessment to help aide this process.
Draft and revision
During the budgeting process, the technical director will find the budget going through numerous revisions. The budget starts as a draft and will certainly look much different once completed and approved.
The first draft acts much like a wish list. It should include everything that you would like to fund for the upcoming school year. At this time, exact prices are not necessary. Instead, gross estimates should be made. When estimating, always be certain to estimate high. You certainly do not want to be in the position of underfunding a project as the budget gets revised. The document does not need to adhere to budgeting codes at this time, however, if the code is already defined, it should be included.
The draft should be separated into at least three sections. The first section should list your all recurring costs such as support contracts or licensing agreements. This is where your documentation becomes necessary. With proper documentation, you will ensure that all your recurring costs are covered and none are forgotten. If the district is experiencing growth in any of these contracted areas, be certain to account for this when estimating the new costs. Most, if not all of these items are required and therefore cannot be cut as the budget goes through revision.
The next section of the draft should list new projects or objectives the district may fund that are included in the long range technology plan. These items are not technically required, however, they have been taken from the long range plan. The technology director should strive to obtain funding for each item in this section, even if it means nothing from the last section makes the final budget. Once this section is complete,it is often helpful to compare the draft with the previous years final approved budget.
The last section should list the projects that the district would like to fund but have not been accounted for already. This section will usually see the most cutting. Rarely will you be able to fund all three sections completely. This is where the process of revising becomes critical.
Once the "draft" budget has been completed,it should be reviewed and compared to the current year's budget. You should be able to speak with your Chief Financial Officer or your Superintendent to determine how much,if any, growth will be allowed in the technology budget. Once you have this information, you will be able to begin the revision process.
Once the initial comparison is complete, the technology director should begin the process of obtaining official quotations on each item. If using PEPPM pricing, there is no reason to shop around for better pricing, however if PEPPM is not used, it is a best practice to obtain multiple quotes. At this point, the lowest price should be inserted into the budget.
Once the technology director has real numbers, a more accurate picture of the budget begins to form. The director can compare his draft to the allowable budget. Now, items need to be prioritized to determine which projects or objectives will fit under the budget cap. From this point, the budget begins to get revised. The revisions mostly come by the way of cuts. Items that are low on the priority list are the first to be sacrificed. Eventually, a final proposed budget will be produced. This proposed budget needs to be aligned to the proper budget codes (reviewed later in this chapter) and then gets presented to the CFO and Superintendent.
The final revisions to the budget will be completed once the proposed budget has been reviewed by the district administration. The best possible outcome would be that the budget is approved with no cuts or modifications. Most likely, this will not happen. Instead, the technology director will be told either to cut projects or a certain dollar amount. Once the director makes the final revisions, the final budget is forwarded to the business office to be inserted into the district's operating budget to be approved by the school board.
Budget Coding Structure
A school district budget must adhere to a strict coding structure. This structure is comprised of the following dimensions.
The Fund section classifies where the money will come from to pay for the expense. The vast majority of Technology Budget items will come from fund 10, the General Fund.
The Function section allows budgetary items to be separated into five broad areas. The areas include Instruction, Support Services, Operation of Non-Instructional Services, Facilities Acquisition, and Construction and Improvement Services.
The Object section allows budgetary items to be separated into very specific types of expenses. This section is highly detailed and will be the most important section for segmenting technology expenses. Items such as salaries, Equipment repairs, hardware leasing, and technology infrastructure all have their own object codes.
The Funding Source section allows for the budget to be separated to meet State and Federal Reporting Requirements. The Technology Budget will mainly be concerned with code 000, Non-Categorical, and code 340, which includes grants such as Classrooms for the Future.
The Instructional Organization section allows budgetary items to be separated by the instructional level, such as elementary schools. It can also be used to break down to the level of a specific grade level such as 3rd grade.
The Operational Unit section allows budgetary items to be separated by schools, such as Senior High School Buildings, or Middle High School Buildings.
The Subject Matter section allows budgetary items to be separated by separate content areas, such as software for Social Studies.
Budget Account Samples
The following examples will show how a Budget Code is arranged.
There is both a long code, and a short code. Both are shown below.
The example below is for new math text books for the high school math department.
|Function||1100||Instruction - Regular Programs|
|Object||640||Supplies - Books & Periodicals|
|Instructional Organization||30||Secondary Level|
|Operational Unit||810||High School|
The following example shows how the code would be written in a proposed budget.
|Fund||Function||Object||Funding Source||Instructional Organization||Operational Unit||Subject Matter||Written As|
Technology Budget Examples
1. New computers for high school World Language lab
2. Replacement printers for elementary school classrooms
3. Internet Content Filter District wide
4. Technology Director Salary
|Fund||Function||Object||Funding Source||Instructional Organization||Operational Unit||Subject Matter||Written As|
For more information on Budget Codes, please reference the Public Schools Chart of Accounts.
1. http://www.pde.state.pa.us/k12/cwp/view.asp?a=166&q=108398&k12Nav=%7C6402%7C&k12Nav=%7C1141%7C3137%7C Federal program: Title I School Improvement
2. http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/pg87.html Federal grants: Title VI
3. http://www.ed.gov/inits/teachers/eisenhower/chap4b.html Eisenhower-Assisted Professional Development Act
4. http://www.eschoolnews.com//news/showstory.cfm?ArticleID=5902 eSchool News Online: Ten eRate mistakes to avoid at all costs
- Frazier, Max, Gerald D. Bailey (2004). the Technology Coordinator's Handbook. International Society for Technology in Education. ISBN 1-56484-211-8.
- United States Department of Education. (2007, April) E-rate Program: Discounted telecommunication services. http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/oii/nonpublic/erate.html
- What is e-rate? http://www.eratepa.org/