Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant: The WikiBook/The 2011 Japan Earthquakes 2
Telecommunications[edit | edit source]
Cellular and landline phone service suffered major disruptions in the affected area. On the day of the quake, American broadcaster NPR was unable to reach anyone in Sendai with working phone or Internet. Internet services were largely unaffected in areas where basic infrastructure remained, despite the earthquake having damaged portions of several undersea cable systems landing in the affected regions; these systems were able to reroute around affected segments onto redundant links. Within Japan, only a few websites were initially unreachable. Several Wi-Fi hotspot providers have reacted to the quake by providing free access to their networks, and some American telecommunications and VoIP companies such as AT&T, Sprint, Verizon and VoIP companies such as netTALK and Vonage have offered free calls to (and in some cases, from) Japan for a limited time.
Space center[edit | edit source]
JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) evacuated the Tsukuba Space Center in Tsukuba, Ibaraki. The Center, which houses a control room for part of the International Space Station, has been shut down, with some damage reported. The Tsukuba control center resumed full operations for the space station's Kibo laboratory and the HTV cargo craft on March 21.
Cultural Properties[edit | edit source]
Five hundred and forty-nine Cultural Properties of Japan|Cultural Properties were damaged, including five National Treasures of Japan|National Treasures (at Zuigan-ji, Ōsaki Hachiman-gū, Shiramizu Amidadō, and Seihaku-ji); one hundred and forty-three Important Cultural Properties of Japan|Important Cultural Properties (including at Sendai Tōshō-gū, the Kōdōkan (Mito)|Kōdōkan, and Entsū-in (Matsushima)|Entsū-in, with its Namban art|western decorative motifs); one hundred and twenty Monuments of Japan (including Matsushima, Rikuzentakata, Iwate#Takata-matsubara|Takata-matsubara, Yūbikan and the Site of Tagajō); seven Groups of Traditional Buildings; and three Cultural Properties of Japan#Folk Cultural Properties|Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties. Stone monuments at the UNESCO World Heritage Site: Shrines and Temples of Nikkō were toppled.[dead link] In Tokyo, there was damage to Koishikawa Kōrakuen, Rikugien Garden|Rikugien, Hamarikyu Gardens|Hamarikyū Onshi Teien, and the walls of Edo Castle. Information on the condition of collections held by museums, libraries and archives is still incomplete. There was no damage to the Historic Monuments and Sites of Hiraizumi in Iwate prefecture, and the recommendation for their inscription on the World Heritage Sites in Japan|UNESCO World Heritage List in June has been seized upon as a symbol of international recognition and recovery.
Aftermath[edit | edit source]
The aftermath of the earthquake and tsunami included both a humanitarian crisis and a major economic impact. The tsunami resulted in over 300,000 refugees in the Tōhoku region, and shortages of food, water, shelter, medicine and fuel for survivors. In response the Japanese government mobilized the Self-Defence Forces, whilst many countries sent search and rescue teams to help search for survivors. Aid organizations both in Japan and worldwide also responded, with the Japanese Red Cross reporting $1 billion in donations. The economic impact included both immediate problems, with industrial production suspended in many factories, and the longer term issue of the cost of rebuilding which has been estimated at ¥10 trillion ($122 billion).
Media coverage[edit | edit source]
Japan's national public broadcaster, NHK, and Japan Satellite Television suspended their usual programming to provide ongoing coverage of the situation. Various other nationwide Japanese TV networks also broadcast uninterrupted coverage of the disaster. Ustream Asia broadcast live feeds of NHK, Tokyo Broadcasting System, Fuji TV, TV Asahi, TV Kanagawa, and CNN on the Internet starting on 12 March 2011. YokosoNews, an Internet webcast in Japan, dedicated its broadcast to the latest news gathered from Japanese news stations, translating them in real time to English.
NHK has been noted for its calmness, in comparison to foreign television news such as CNN and Fox News Channel, whose coverage has contained factual errors and raised alarm among foreign residents of Japan. The same critics note that the Japanese news media has been at times overly cautious to avoid panic and reliant on confusing statements by experts and officials.
In this national crisis, the Japanese government provided Japanese sign language (JSL) interpreting at the press conferences related to the earthquake and tsunami. Television broadcasts of the press conferences of Prime Minister of Japan|Prime Minister Naoto Kan and Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano included simultaneous JSL interpreters standing next to the Japanese flag on the same platform.
Scientific and research response[edit | edit source]
A large amount of data was collected that provides "the possibility to model in great detail what happened during the rupture of an earthquake." The effect of this data is expected to be felt across other disciplines as well, and this disaster "would provide unprecedented information about how buildings hold up under long periods of shaking – and thus how to build them better. We had very little information about that before now".
Seismologists had anticipated that the "big one" would strike the same place as the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake—in the Sagami Trough, southwest of Tokyo. Since 1976, when Katsuhiko Ishibashi said a large earthquake in the Suruga Trough was forthcoming, the government tracked plate movements, in preparation for the so-called Tokai earthquakes|Tokai earthquake. Occurring 373 km (232 mi) northeast of Tokyo, the Tōhoku earthquake came as a surprise to seismologists, since the Japan Trench was known for creating large quakes, but was not expected to generate quakes above an 8.0 magnitude.
References[edit | edit source]
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- "Map of National Treasures, Important Cultural Properties (Buildings) Damaged". Ritsumeikan. http://www.rits-dmuch.jp/jp/project/dl_files/c_h/E/tohoku0408E.pdf. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Damage to Cultural Properties". Agency for Cultural Affairs. 27 April 2011. http://www.bunka.go.jp/bunkashingikai/seisaku/09_01/pdf/shiryo_6.pdf. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "An Interim Report on the Situation of Cultural Heritage in Japan after the Tohoku district -off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake (or Tohoku Earthquake)". ICCROM. http://www.iccrom.org/eng/news_en/2011_en/various_en/13_24earthquakeJapan_en.pdf. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- "UNESCO move brings joy". Daily Yomiuri. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T110507002957.htm. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- NHK News, 14:40 JST.
- "Ustream Asia、民放TV各局の東北地方太平洋沖地震報道番組を同時配jmjffr -INTERNET Watch". Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2wpuUWE.
- Pinola, Melanie. Listen to Live Coverage from Japan In English from YokosoNews, "lifehacker", 13 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Archived April 18, 2011 at WebCite
- Brasor, Philip. "Local broadcasters remain calm during the quake crisis," Japan Times. 20 March 2011; Johnston, Eric. "Foreign media take flak for fanning fears," Japan Times. 21 March 2011; Harlan, Chico and Akiko Yamamoto. "In Japan, disaster coverage is measured, not breathless," Washington Post (US). March 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-15. Archived April 18, 2011 at WebCite
- Link redacted due to spam protection blacklist please see May 23 3:24 PM Discussion page for ref
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- 【中日新聞からのお知らせ】. "中日新聞:災害義援金受け付け 東日本大震災:中日新聞からのお知らせ(CHUNICHI Web)". Chunichi.co.jp. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2x7VS0y. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
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[edit | edit source]
- Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale|Shindo scale map throughout Japan on 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami from Japan Meteorological Agency (Japanese)
- Countdown to Catastrophe: MegaQuake – Japan and Beyond (documentary)
- Earthquake Report from United States Geological Survey (USGS)
- Poster of the Great Tohoku Earthquake from United States Geological Survey (USGS)
- Scientific information about the Tohoku earthquake
- Pacific Tsunami Warning Center at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
- Japan Earthquake 2011 All Partners Access Network (APAN)
- Japan Incident Map at Esri
- Map of Tsunami Innundation Areas in Japan from ReliefWeb
- Japan Disaster: Most Shocking Pics – slideshow by Life (magazine)|Life
- Massive earthquake hits Japan Photos from The Boston Globe
- Japan Earthquake: before and after aerial and satellite images from ABC News, credited to Post-earthquake images of Japan
- Satellite Photos of Japan, Before and After the Quake and Tsunami The New York Times
- Diverse satellite imagery taken under the aegis of the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters
- 110311 JapanEarthquake at the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation)
- 2011 Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami at Google Crisis Response
- Red Earthquake and Tsunami Alert in Japan at the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS)
- Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Datafeeds gathering and Japan Data Profile inputs for Common Operational Datasets at CrisisCommons
- Japan: Earthquake and Tsunami – Mar 2011 ReliefWeb
- Map of the Damage From the Japanese Earthquake The New York Times
- Japan in Crisis: A Series of Interviews with Scholars by Peter Shea at the University of Minnesota
- Special: The Tohoku-Oki Earthquake, Japan - free-access scientific papers from Science magazine
Tsunami videos[edit | edit source]
- Minamisanriku, Miyagi|Minami Sanriku
- video of tsunami, shot from Shizugawa High School (志津川高校): "南三陸町志津川高校から見た津波の様子 [Tsunami attacking in Minami-Sanriku]" (in Japanese) (video). YouTube.com. 11 March 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vZR0Rq1Rfw. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- video of tsunami, shot from Shizugawa Junior High School (志津川中学校): "南三陸町を襲った津波の一部始終 [tsunami Minamisanriku, Miyagi, japan]" (in Japanese) (video). YouTube.com. 11 March 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxng4VE8ptw. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- Miyako, Iwate|Miyako
- cars tossed and ships tipping over: "東北・関東地震 宮古市の港に到達した津波" (video). YouTube.com. 11 March 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NztouaHuCXw. Retrieved 201-04-25.
- Kamaishi, Iwate|Kamaishi
- From a hillside: "Fresh footage of huge tsunami waves smashing town in Japan" (in Japanese) (video). YouTube.com. RussiaToday. 11 March 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRDpTEjumdo. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- From the Post Office building near the waterfront: "Caught on Tape: Tsunami hits Japan port town" (video). YouTube.com. CBS. 11 March 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ikus_TEaGI. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Kesennuma, Miyagi|Kesennuma
- from the waterfront: "Japan Earthquake 2011 - Japan Tsunami 2011.mp4" (video). YouTube.com. 11 March 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQfdl7y-blE. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Shiogama, Miyagi|Shiogama
- spilling into the streets: "高画質調整版 2011年3月11日 15時54分～ 塩釜港の津波 tsunami shiogama" (video). YouTube.com. 11 March 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PR_jGb4flt8. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- same incident as above, shot from rooftop parking lot: "東北地方太平洋沖地震 津波 塩竈港.mov" (video). YouTube.com. 11 March 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjHLeGYxdq4. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- Sendai, Miyagi|Sendai
- spreading across farmland towards a road, near the Miyagi Prefecture Route 10 (県道10号) bridge across the Natori River: "Raw Video: Tsunami Slams Northeast Japan" (video). YouTube.com. Associated Press / NHK World. 11 March 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k4w27IczOTk. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- Sendai Airport: cars and aircraft being washed away: "【海上保安庁提供】仙台空港を襲う津波" (in Japanese) (video). YouTube.com. Asahi.com. 11 March 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YANatbCq9Zw. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- Gross, Richard. (2011, March 19) “Japan Earthquake May Have Shifted Earth’s Axis” NPR online, http://www.npr.org/2011/03/18/134658880/Japan-Earthquake-May-Have-Changed-Earths-Axis