Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant: The WikiBook/The 2011 Japan Earthquakes 2

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Telecommunications[edit | edit source]

Damaged utility pole in Ishinomaki

Cellular and landline phone service suffered major disruptions in the affected area.[1] On the day of the quake, American broadcaster NPR was unable to reach anyone in Sendai with working phone or Internet.[2] Internet services were largely unaffected in areas where basic infrastructure remained, despite the earthquake having damaged portions of several undersea cable systems landing in the affected regions; these systems were able to reroute around affected segments onto redundant links.[3][4] Within Japan, only a few websites were initially unreachable.[5] Several Wi-Fi hotspot providers have reacted to the quake by providing free access to their networks,[5] and some American telecommunications and VoIP companies such as AT&T, Sprint, Verizon[6] and VoIP companies such as netTALK[7] and Vonage[8] have offered free calls to (and in some cases, from) Japan for a limited time.

Space center[edit | edit source]

JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) evacuated the Tsukuba Space Center in Tsukuba, Ibaraki. The Center, which houses a control room for part of the International Space Station, has been shut down, with some damage reported.[9][10] The Tsukuba control center resumed full operations for the space station's Kibo laboratory and the HTV cargo craft on March 21.[11]

Cultural Properties[edit | edit source]

Mito City

Five hundred and forty-nine Cultural Properties of Japan|Cultural Properties were damaged, including five National Treasures of Japan|National Treasures (at Zuigan-ji, Ōsaki Hachiman-gū, Shiramizu Amidadō, and Seihaku-ji); one hundred and forty-three Important Cultural Properties of Japan|Important Cultural Properties (including at Sendai Tōshō-gū, the Kōdōkan (Mito)|Kōdōkan, and Entsū-in (Matsushima)|Entsū-in, with its Namban art|western decorative motifs); one hundred and twenty Monuments of Japan (including Matsushima, Rikuzentakata, Iwate#Takata-matsubara|Takata-matsubara, Yūbikan and the Site of Tagajō); seven Groups of Traditional Buildings; and three Cultural Properties of Japan#Folk Cultural Properties|Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties. Stone monuments at the UNESCO World Heritage Site: Shrines and Temples of Nikkō were toppled.[12][dead link][13][14][15] In Tokyo, there was damage to Koishikawa Kōrakuen, Rikugien Garden|Rikugien, Hamarikyu Gardens|Hamarikyū Onshi Teien, and the walls of Edo Castle.[16] Information on the condition of collections held by museums, libraries and archives is still incomplete.[17] There was no damage to the Historic Monuments and Sites of Hiraizumi in Iwate prefecture, and the recommendation for their inscription on the World Heritage Sites in Japan|UNESCO World Heritage List in June has been seized upon as a symbol of international recognition and recovery.[18]

Aftermath[edit | edit source]

Rescue operations in the floodwaters

The aftermath of the earthquake and tsunami included both a humanitarian crisis and a major economic impact. The tsunami resulted in over 300,000 refugees in the Tōhoku region, and shortages of food, water, shelter, medicine and fuel for survivors. In response the Japanese government mobilized the Self-Defence Forces, whilst many countries sent search and rescue teams to help search for survivors. Aid organizations both in Japan and worldwide also responded, with the Japanese Red Cross reporting $1 billion in donations. The economic impact included both immediate problems, with industrial production suspended in many factories, and the longer term issue of the cost of rebuilding which has been estimated at ¥10 trillion ($122 billion).

Media coverage[edit | edit source]

Protesting following the disaster

Japan's national public broadcaster, NHK, and Japan Satellite Television suspended their usual programming to provide ongoing coverage of the situation.[19] Various other nationwide Japanese TV networks also broadcast uninterrupted coverage of the disaster. Ustream Asia broadcast live feeds of NHK, Tokyo Broadcasting System, Fuji TV, TV Asahi, TV Kanagawa, and CNN on the Internet starting on 12 March 2011.[20] YokosoNews, an Internet webcast in Japan, dedicated its broadcast to the latest news gathered from Japanese news stations, translating them in real time to English.[21]

NHK has been noted for its calmness, in comparison to foreign television news such as CNN and Fox News Channel, whose coverage has contained factual errors and raised alarm among foreign residents of Japan. The same critics note that the Japanese news media has been at times overly cautious to avoid panic and reliant on confusing statements by experts and officials.[22]

In this national crisis, the Japanese government provided Japanese sign language (JSL) interpreting at the press conferences related to the earthquake and tsunami.[23] Television broadcasts of the press conferences of Prime Minister of Japan|Prime Minister Naoto Kan and Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano included simultaneous JSL interpreters standing next to the Japanese flag on the same platform.[24]

Scientific and research response[edit | edit source]

Fukushima radiation comparison to other incidents and standards, with graph of recorded radiation levels and specific accident events.

A large amount of data was collected that provides "the possibility to model in great detail what happened during the rupture of an earthquake." The effect of this data is expected to be felt across other disciplines as well, and this disaster "would provide unprecedented information about how buildings hold up under long periods of shaking – and thus how to build them better. We had very little information about that before now".[25]

Seismologists had anticipated that the "big one" would strike the same place as the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake—in the Sagami Trough, southwest of Tokyo.[26][27] Since 1976, when Katsuhiko Ishibashi said a large earthquake in the Suruga Trough was forthcoming, the government tracked plate movements, in preparation for the so-called Tokai earthquakes|Tokai earthquake.[28] Occurring 373 km (232 mi) northeast of Tokyo, the Tōhoku earthquake came as a surprise to seismologists, since the Japan Trench was known for creating large quakes, but was not expected to generate quakes above an 8.0 magnitude.[27][28]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Tokyo phone lines jammed, trains stop". Times of India. 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b6KaCx. "The temblor shook buildings in the capital, left millions of homes across Japan without electricity, shut down the mobile phone network and severely disrupted landline phone service." 
  2. "A Look At The Japanese City Closest To The Quake". Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b6tu5Q. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  3. "In Japan, Many Undersea Cables Are Damaged: Broadband News and Analysis". Gigaom.com. Archived from the original on 15 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xCrffo18. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  4. Cowie, James (11 March 2011). "Japan Quake – Renesys Blog". Renesys.com. Archived from the original on 13 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5x9kSwgxs. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  5. a b "Japan's phone networks remain severely disrupted". Computerworld. 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2emLvjn. 
  6. "AT&T, Sprint & Verizon Offer Free Calls & Texts to Japan from U.S. [UPDATED"]. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b7Ms5J. Retrieved 30 March 2011. 
  7. "netTALK Extends Free Calling to Japan Through April". Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2enGc01. Retrieved 30 March 2011. 
  8. "Vonage offers free calls to Japan". Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2eoB5LC. Retrieved 30 March 2011. 
  9. Malik, Tariq (12 March 2011). "Quake forces closure of Japanese space center". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2eoLjd1. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  10. "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):茨城の宇宙機構施設が損傷 「きぼう」一部管制できず – サイエンス". Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2woTRPp. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  11. "spaceflightnow.com". Stephen Clark. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2wpCsdy. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  12. "Damages to Cultural Properties in the "the Great East Japan Earthquake"". Agency for Cultural Affairs. http://www.bunka.go.jp/english/pdf/2011_Tohoku_ver8.pdf. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  13. "国宝の松島・瑞巌寺、壁4、5カ所にひび割れ 文化庁". Asahi Shimbun. 14 March 2011. http://www.asahi.com/national/update/0314/TKY201103140194.html. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  14. "岡倉天心ゆかりの文化財「六角堂」、津波で消失". Daily Yomiuri. 12 March 2011. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/culture/news/20110312-OYT1T00635.htm. Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  15. "Map of National Treasures, Important Cultural Properties (Buildings) Damaged". Ritsumeikan. http://www.rits-dmuch.jp/jp/project/dl_files/c_h/E/tohoku0408E.pdf. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  16. "Damage to Cultural Properties". Agency for Cultural Affairs. 27 April 2011. http://www.bunka.go.jp/bunkashingikai/seisaku/09_01/pdf/shiryo_6.pdf. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  17. "An Interim Report on the Situation of Cultural Heritage in Japan after the Tohoku district -off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake (or Tohoku Earthquake)". ICCROM. http://www.iccrom.org/eng/news_en/2011_en/various_en/13_24earthquakeJapan_en.pdf. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  18. "UNESCO move brings joy". Daily Yomiuri. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T110507002957.htm. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  19. NHK News, 14:40 JST.
  20. "Ustream Asia、民放TV各局の東北地方太平洋沖地震報道番組を同時配jmjffr -INTERNET Watch". Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2wpuUWE. 
  21. Pinola, Melanie. Listen to Live Coverage from Japan In English from YokosoNews, "lifehacker", 13 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Archived April 18, 2011 at WebCite
  22. Brasor, Philip. "Local broadcasters remain calm during the quake crisis," Japan Times. 20 March 2011; Johnston, Eric. "Foreign media take flak for fanning fears," Japan Times. 21 March 2011; Harlan, Chico and Akiko Yamamoto. "In Japan, disaster coverage is measured, not breathless," Washington Post (US). March 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-15. Archived April 18, 2011 at WebCite
  23. Link redacted due to spam protection blacklist please see May 23 3:24 PM Discussion page for ref
  24. "Japan Relief Headquarters for Persons with Disabilities Petition for Support and Accommodation Following Earthquake," United States International Council on Disabilities (USICD), March 17, 2011, retrieved 2011-04-14; "New Komeito post-quake initiatives being adopted," New Komeito Party. March 20, 2011, retrieved 2011-04-14; "Japan's PM set to visit crippled nuclear plant," CTV (Canada). 1 April 2011; see photo. Retrieved 2011-04-14. Archived April 18, 2011 at WebCite
  25. Brown, Eryn (12 March 2011). "Japan earthquake shifted Earth on its axis". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 13 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5x96cBq8d. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  26. Lovett, Richard A. (14 March 2011). "Japan Earthquake Not the "Big One"?". National Geographic News. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xG1LYwp9. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  27. a b Achenbach, Joel (11 March 2011). "Japan: The 'Big One' hit, but not where they thought it would". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xG1EVm2z. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  28. a b Powell, Devin (17 March 2011). "Japan Quake Epicenter Was in Unexpected Location". Wired News. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xG14OpFb. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  29. Michael Winter (14 March 2011). "Quake shifted Japan coast about 13 feet, knocked Earth 6.5 inches off axis". USA Today. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2wu5DFh. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  30. "The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake ~first report~". Japan Meteorological Agency. March 2011. Archived from the original on 13 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5x9gMMWr1. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
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  35. 【中日新聞からのお知らせ】. "中日新聞:災害義援金受け付け 東日本大震災:中日新聞からのお知らせ(CHUNICHI Web)". Chunichi.co.jp. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2x7VS0y. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  36. "東日本巨大地震 震災掲示板 : 特集 : YOMIURI ONLINE(読売新聞)". Yomiuri Shimbun. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2x8tebC. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
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  38. "【地震】東日本巨大地震を激甚災害指定 政府". News.tv-asahi.co.jp. http://news.tv-asahi.co.jp/ann/news/web/html/210313015.html. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  39. "東日本大地震 緊急募金受け付け中". Cr.ntv.co.jp. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2xBREvo. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  40. "番組表 – TOKYO FM 80.0 MHz – 80.Love FM RADIO STATION". Tfm.co.jp. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5y2xC2muf. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
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External links[edit | edit source]

Tsunami videos[edit | edit source]

Minamisanriku, Miyagi|Minami Sanriku
Miyako, Iwate|Miyako
Kamaishi, Iwate|Kamaishi
Kesennuma, Miyagi|Kesennuma
Shiogama, Miyagi|Shiogama
Sendai, Miyagi|Sendai