Cultural Anthropology/Globalization and Migration
- 1 Globalization and Migration
- 1.1 Globalization
- 1.2 How Globalization Affects the Five Modes of Production
- 1.3 Cultural Imperialism vs. Cultural Hybridization
- 1.4 Cosmopolitanism
- 1.5 Migration
- 1.5.1 Theories of Migration
- 1.5.2 Diaspora
- 1.5.3 Long-Distance Nationalism
- 1.5.4 Different Types of Migration
- 1.5.5 Different Types of Migrants
- 1.5.6 Substantive Citizenship
- 1.5.7 Immigrant's Rights: Education
- 1.5.8 Flexible Citizenship
- 1.5.9 Postnational Ethos
- 2 References
Globalization and Migration
The term globalization was first defined in the Merriam-Webster Third International Dictionary, 1961 edition. The belief is that the phenomena of globalization started with the first humans. A general definition of globalization is “the process of integrating nations and peoples--politically, economically, and culturally--into a larger community.” Contemporary globalization is fueled by the increases in technology (especially concerning communication and transportation). Scholars in political science, economics, linguistics, anthropology, geography, law, art, and film studies have all helped to define the term. Many have identified techno-economic globalization as the beginning of other forms of globalization, such as transnational cultural exchange. 
The focus is not only toward individual nations, but also the entire globe. Therefore, a better definition perhaps would emphasize that contemporary globalization is a complex, controversial, and synergistic process in which improvements in technology combined with the deregulation of markets and open borders bring an increased stream of people, money, goods, services, and information. In other words, globalization combines people, businesses, nongovernmental organizations, and nations into larger networks. Globalization promotes convergence, harmonization, efficiency, growth, and in some cases, democratization and homogenization.  It should be noted, however, that Globalization has historically and currently caused extremely negative and destructive outcomes on certain peoples. This is especially true when contact is between industrialized mass consumption societies, and foraging or horticultural groups.
Winners and Losers in Globalization
Economic historian Immanuel Wallerstein developed the world systems theory which proposes an economic system in which some countries benefit from the exploitation of others for labor and raw materials. The theory also established three hierarchy levels which are: "core", "periphery", and "semi periphery". Wallerstein identified core countries as having a dominant capital, extensive military, and high skill levels. Whereas periphery countries are weak states and rely heavily on the core countries to supplement their economy. Semi-periphery countries are characterized by having their own functioning economy, but still utilizes both core and periphery countries for labor and the production of raw materials.Therefore these three levels emphasize the global inequality of the world market.
An example of the first core region was located in Northwestern Europe, including England, Holland, and France. In contrast the United States is a more contemporary example of a core country, due to its intensive capital, high labor, and innovative technology. India, even as their technology industry continues to grow, is a modern example of a semi-peripheral because remains dependent on foreign investors for capital.
Most African and some South American countries are significantly less industrialized, lack urbanization and are considered to be peripheral.
An example of the world systems theory relating to globalization: Large corporations, from "core" countries, will frequently look to place factories and manufacturing plants in countries with the least stringent environmental and labor standards (semi-peripheral/peripheral countries), which they can succeed in because of a lack of transnational labor regulations. Countries in the developing world will then compete for the business of the companies, often by lowering labor standards (such as minimum wages). As a result, working conditions for the employees are abusive and unreasonable, yet little to nothing can be done by the governments to resolve these issues.
Transnational corporations search out labor in impoverished countries like India, Bangladesh, and Vietnam, using mostly young women laborers as a means of production. These workers will work on average 14 hours a day for "sub-poverty wages under horrific conditions." Because of a lack of oversight of the corporations, the workers are allowed to work in dehumanizing, unsafe environments.
An example of globalization aiding an indigenous group: The Kayapó: people are the Gê-speaking native peoples of the plain lands of the Mato Grosso and Para in Brazil, South of the Amazon Basin and along Rio Xingu and its tributaries. The Kayapó are nomadic people who still live in the rain forests using a sustainable slash-and-burn horticulture mode of production. Using global media and international attention, they have established political power over their own land. At one time, mining and logging threatened to destroy the rain forest, and their way of life. However, the Kayapó people used forceful tactics to banish loggers and miners in some areas, as well as establishing themselves as an economic force. Later, they were again threatened by secretive government plans to build a series of hydro-electric dams on their land. However, a large demonstration was created by the Kayapó that caught the attention of the media world-wide. Including the hit rock band, Sting, who made an appearance. This demonstration, at the site for the first dam in Altamira, Pará, lasted several days and brought much pressure upon both the World Bank and the Brazilian government. As a result, the World Bank denied the request for a loan which was to be used to build the dam and the Brazilian government backed out of its original plans. As well, the Kayapó have relations with The Body Shoppe: they supply the chain with the Brazil nut oil used in their best-selling line of hair conditioners.
An example of Globalization not aiding an indigenous group: A very good historical example of the negatives of globalization is the European colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries. European diseases to which the native populations had no natural immunity paired with technological superiority in especially military weapons and tactics caused the extermination of roughly 90% of the natives.  Globalization has also harmed many cultures that are exploited by big businesses from other countries. For example, the bad working conditions of sweat shop laborers in China is more common place due to the globalization of Chinese-made western products. Workers are overly worked in dangerous conditions, starting at the age of sixteen. Due to the dangerous machinery, there is a loss of around 40,000 workers fingers every year. While also being exposed to dangerous chemicals, when the United States and other western civilizations won't buy the product because of the exposure to these chemicals. Aside from the dangerous working conditions, sweatshops in China are also known to pay their workers less than minimum wage while overworking them on average of sixteen hours per day. 
How Globalization Affects the Five Modes of Production
The Five Modes of Production:
1. Foraging- hunting and gathering food and provisions.
3. Pastoralism- a system of agriculture based on raising stock such as cattle, sheep, or goats.
4. Agriculture- the practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock in the preparation of marketing the resulting product.
5. Industrialism- capitalism, specialized manufacture, technological processing
Globalization's Affects on Modes of Production:
1. Foraging: Foraging societies have been impacted by globalization through increased contact with individuals from various cultures around the globe. This vastly increased contact most often involves a severe reduction in the available territory to support the foraging lifestyle. Foraging can only support smaller, less dense populations of people when compared to other modes of production.
2. Horticulture: Horticulture is affected by globalization much in the same manner as foraging. The horticultural society depends on the practices of migratory slash and burn farming as well as hunting and gathering. As globalization continues, the amount of available land to produce food in this manner becomes more and more strained.
3. Pastoralism: Pastoralism is affected by globalization because the animals herded, raised and butchered in this mode of production can be exported out of their original region. Having important things in common, such as food can further ‘the process of integrating nations and peoples’. Furthermore, the wool sheared from sheep can be used in the international textiles industry. Material from one place can be made into clothing that can be sold in an abundance of locations around the world.
4. Agricultural: Globalization affects agriculture as through agriculture, food may be grown or raised in a surplus and exported around the world. Drugs(legal and illegal) are also sent around the world. One factor of agriculture that affects globalization is trade liberalization (the removal of restrictions on the free exchange of goods between nations). For example, small farmers in the Philippines are unable to compete with the prices of the global market controlled by countries with more advanced agricultural technologies. "Whether you look at corn, vegetables, or poultry-major sectors of the agriculture economy have been devastated by imports." 
5. Industrialism: Industrialism is affected by globalization because many cultural aspects are spread by industrialism, especially through technological means, which is one of the most efficient modes of communication and exchange.
Tourists are defined as people who stay in locations that are outside of their normal environment without intent to settle there. They travel to new places for recreational or leisure purposes.
Many nations, such as Greece, Thailand, and The Bahamas heavily depend on the revenue created through global tourism. Employment in these areas is heavily reliant on associated areas of work (i.e. hotels, and transportation services like cruise ships and taxis.)
There are three classifications for locations of tourism:
- Domestic tourism - residents of a certain country travel within their country. (i.e. an American living in California visits New York)
- Inbound tourism - non-residents travel within the borders of a given country. (i.e. an Australian tourist visits a Chinese resident)
- Outbound tourism - residents of one country travel within another country (i.e. a Canadian resident visits Greece)
Additionally, there are five types of tourism: 
- Ethnic tourism - visits to see native people from a very foreign/ different environment (i.e. traveling to Nahua Indians and their local and national governments) 
- Cultural tourism - visits to experience other cultures on a general level (i.e. traveling to New Orleans, Louisiana for Mardi Gras)
- Historical tourism - visits to historical sites or monuments (i.e. traveling to Paris to see the Eiffel Tower or traveling to Rome to see the Colosseum)
- Environmental tourism - visits to experience a completely different environment than the traveler is accustomed to in their home country (i.e. traveling to Antarctica) This also includes going to a national park that is preserved for environmental sight seeing by the National Park Service (i.e. traveling to Yellowstone or Yosemite)
- Recreational tourism - visits to partake in activities unique to the destination (i.e. traveling to Pamplona, Spain to see the Running of the Bulls)
The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is one of the leading tourism organizations that regulates and informs tourists around the world.
Oftentimes tourists are drawn to a country by an attraction within that nation. Some of the most popular international tourist attractions include the Eiffel Tower (France), Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italy), and the Great Wall (China). The Great Wall of China draws around 10 million visitors a year. Other cultural aspects, such as tasting the cuisine, experiencing traditional events, or learning the language, may also attract tourists.
Throughout history, people with an elevated level of affluence have had greater ease traveling. Wealthier people have both the money and the time needed to visit other areas, whereas people in lower classes do not have this luxury.
Tourism is largely beneficial to the worldwide economy, but there are also risks associated with it for both the tourists and country being toured. For tourists, issues such as security and health are present whenever they are in a country different than their own. In some cases, cruise ships have dealt with w:cruise ship outbreaks of contagious diseases. For the country being toured, there are many issues as a result of annually inviting millions of strangers across their borders. Inviting strangers into their country is not their only danger, though. There are a variety of things that can happen to countries who rely on tourism as their main source of economic income. Natural disasters and terrorism are both great dangers when it comes to tourism. For example, hurricane Katrina kept many people from visiting the hot tourist spot, New Orleans, which had been destroyed due to a natural occurrence. In addition, after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, many people were reluctant to visit the super city of the world, New York. It is risky for countries to rely solely on tourism because there are unexpected and uncontrollable things that can happen that will keep people from traveling to certain parts of the world. 
Tourism is a central industry to the island nation of Jamaica. It is among the leading foreign exchange earners for the nation, and draws many tourists from the English speaking nations as well as from other nations. The island is home to many luxury resorts located on the white sand beaches, and guests to these resorts are treated to many aspects of the Jamaican culture. However, these relaxing settings are far different from the environments of the majority of the inhabitants of Jamaica. The island is urbanized and many citizens earn extremely low wages; this is coupled with the problems the nation faces in the financial sector, such as extremely high inflation and a low GDP.
The country of Thailand is also a tourist hotspot. It has been called the “backpacking capital of the world”, and most of its tourism expenses are directed towards those that could accommodate a backpacker. Because of this, many of Thailand’s attractions are remotely cheap, especially around the city of Bangkok. Tourism is central to Thailand, and many civilians sell their own goods in the markets located throughout the country. All across Thailand you can find amazing scenery, delicious food, and low prices, if you know where to look, and Thailand thrives on the income it receives solely from its tourists.
Despite its ability to create lasting economic opportunities in nations such as Thailand, tourism can have many negative impacts. These go beyond the economic risks which accompany tourist-dependent economies and include both human rights cases of abuse in industries such as sex tourism as well as lasting environmental degradation. Such problems have become increasingly frequent with the rise of tourism as a global phenomenon.
In southeast Asia, specifically Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, sex tourism has become a major industry. In these countries the sex industry represents anywhere from 2 to 14 percent of the annual GDP. Sex tourism is one of the few sectors which has not slowed with economic downturns in the region as tourists are increasingly willing to travel to find prostitutes. The individuals subjected to this industry are often young women or children who have been forced to sell their bodies due to a lack of economic opportunity. This lack of opportunity comes as a result of globalization pushing down wages in poor countries as they in compete in a race to the bottom to provide the greatest access to cheap labor. Once they are forced to turn to the sex trade, workers face physical and sexual abuse from both clients and employers as well as a high rate of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. It is estimated that 0.25 to 1.5 percent of the population of Southeast Asia are currently sex workers.
Another negative consequence of tourism is environmental degradation. All around the world popular tourist destinations face problems due to pollution caused by mass tourist migrations. Tourism is responsible for roughly five percent of the world’s pollution, as cruise ships and airlines circle the globe. The Caribbean, a popular destination for cruises, alone experiences half of the waste dumped in the world’s oceans. This is due in large part to massive cruise ships and extensive beach side resorts which dominate many of the island's coastlines.
Becker, Elizabeth, "Don't Go There: The Whole World Has the Travel Bug. And It's Ravaging the Planet," The Washington Post National Weekly Edition (September 8-14, 2008), p.27.
Marxian and neo-Marxian theory lead to the view that "one of the major driving forces behind globalization is the corporate need in capitalism to show increasing profitability through more, and more far-reaching, economic imperialism… enhancing profitability by increasing cultural hegemony nationally and ultimately throughout the world.” 1 Once organizations have economically dominated their own nation, a culturally driven need to expand outward to other nations occurs. Mostly driven by American corporations, industries continue to expand by the exportation and exploitation of other countries. Mere exportation is no longer enough to feed the companies, and a new aim to globalize consumerism and evoke a demand for the same products all over the world has arisen. Thus a global market and consumer culture has emerged and flourished. Companies like Wal-Mart, Disney, McDonald's and Visa MasterCard all spend enormous amounts of time and resources to entice customers with a desire for freedom, lower prices or a quality experience, in affect, causing all people to consume in similar ways. This market culture is bought by consumers as a way of life, and poses underlying assumptions that money and products buy us a better life, and corporations are designed to make consumers always feel dissatisfied with what they have and ready to buy more, and is therefore able to reproduce and sustain itself.
This widespread sense of a consumer culture has not always existed; it is largely an outcome of America's wealth and status coming out of WWII. Corporations were at the height of their manufacturing capacity after the war and made a fortune funding the military/industrial complex. They stood to make an even more considerable amount of money if this monumental demand for products could be sustained. This demand was created by impressing on the American people, and soon after people around the world, the association between acquiring material goods with increased social standing. Since corporations also control the means through which we view the world, i.e. the media, they could easily make this consumerist mindset a habit in society. This lifestyle has now been through a few generations of people, and for the most part we now short-sightedly assume that we have always, and will always live this way.
This mass migration of goods, people, and especially information has resulted in continual negative repercussions on cultural diversity and the environment. Companies that have created and sustained this market have received a great deal of money and power which they use to pursue expansion and increase profit to satisfy few people. As a result, the world of consumption affects an increasing number of people who relocate to work for their business, concentrate in cities and consume which creates waste and uses energy and resources. Consequences of “Americanization” as concluded by critics are the irreversible impacts on the strength of cultural diversity, as well as the environmental sustainability of our planet.
An example of this culturally invasive global trend can be seen in the plastic surgery rooms in Iran. During the Islamic Revolution, make-up was confiscated from Persian women and their faces were extensively covered in the name of Islamic culture. Today, Iran is the nose job capital of the world. Iranian women spend an average of $1,500 to achieve the 'perfect nose'. With the introduction of satellite television from the west and the increasing forces of globalization, Persian women have adopted the idea that “a western nose is more beautiful.” The naturally large Persian nose is considered “out of style… and the hot look is inspired by Hollywood… the smaller noses of western women.” 2 The nose job craze strips women of undermines the charm of recognizably Persian features and creates a more uniformed beauty, desirable to obtain better social standings and presumed success.
1Ritzer, George. "The Globalization of Nothing 2" (2007) 2http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/05/02/eveningnews/main692495.shtml
Globalization of Hip-Hop
Hip-hop is a potent example of the capacity for popular culture to cross national boundaries. Fed by the fashion and entertainment industries and reworked by successive generations, hip-hop is more than a musical form; it is a way of life. Originating in 1970s New York City, hip-hop emerged from inner-city art expressed through graffiti, block parties, break dancing and rapping - all carried out in public areas - to an international cultural entity. Now in the twenty-first century, hip-hop is seen not only in the urban areas of the United States, but all over the world like in South Africa, Brazil, England, India, and Italy. Ian Condry, a cultural anthropologist spent a year and a half, starting in mid 1995 studying the hip-hop culture in Japanese culture. In his article "Japanese Hip-Hop and the Globalization of Culture," Condry investigated how the culture of hip-hop has been translated and adopted by Japan.
Although on the surface the Japanese hip-hop culture looks quite similar to American hip-hop culture, there are major differences between the two. The two cultures share the same characteristics such as the loose baggy clothing, large amounts of jewelry or 'bling,' and the classic Nike sneakers. But unlike American hip-hop participants, Japanese hip-hop culture comes secondary to traditional Japanese customs and values. At night between the hours of 1 and 5 am in the morning, a Japanese hip-hop participant is fully indulged in the hip-hop culture. But when the next day begins, they return to their daily traditional Japanese lifestyle - living at home with their parents and being the products of the Japanese educational system. This traditional Japanese lifestyle is strangely being incorporated into hip-hop culture, as Condry's article documents: "Japanese cultural practices do not just disappear" just because people seem to conform to the style of global hip-hop. Much like American culture, Japanese cultures, both traditional and hip hop, are blending together to form a new collecting culture, thus demonstrating the globalization of hip-hop in Japan. Condry provides an excellent example of this by telling how these hip-hop participants went to one another in one of the "genbas" and in the middle of a hip-hop scene exchanging traditional New Year's blessings.
Globalization of hip-hop has reached the country of Italy. Hip-hop in Italy is taken after a type of poetry called ottava rima where stanzas have 8 lines of 11 syllables in a rhyme scheme of abababcc. Ottava rima is a very polished form of hip-hop that sounds almost sing-songy. At first rap in Italy was almost directly the same as it was in the United States, but since the 1980s, the Italians have molded it to be their own. Different dialects of Italy bring out a great variety of the music. Italians use hip-hop as a way to convey what happens in their everyday lives, very similarly to that of American hip-hop, which can be distinguished from rap. Rap generally focuses on living a rich life, partying, and putting down women. The people rap about the Mafia, government corruption, homelessness, and drug addiction. Italian hip-hop artists look at their art as a social protest. 
It is said that Americans do not recognize hip-hop outside the states but that hasn’t stopped other nation, such as Latin America from trying to get onto the hip-hop map. With time, reggaeton beats are being mixed with American hip-hop and have become quite popular in the clubs. Although these new artists may not be from the “streets” considered appropriate for the scene they are making an impact nonetheless. An American DJ, Wesley Pentz, stumbled across a demo tape while in Brazil finding a brand of music all its own. It consisted of hip-hop, carnival rhythms, and even a bit a samba. The image of hip-hop is no longer just the American “hood” it had begun to take on a global meaning.
Cultural Imperialism vs. Cultural Hybridization
To understand the spread of culture, ideologies, and lifestyles around the world, anthropologists have developed the theories of cultural imperialism and cultural hybridization. Cultural imperialism states that some cultures dominate, and eventually replace, other cultures. This became a popular way to understand the spread of Western culture to the rest of the world. However, its notions are flawed. First, cultural imperialism assumes that non-Western peoples are powerless against the spread of Western culture. Second, it implies that Western culture never changes. Third, it ignores cultural trends that occur around the world completely outside of "the West." Because of these flaws, anthropologists developed a different explanation called cultural hybridity. This new understanding states that cultures don't just blindly adopt dominant cultural traits, but rather borrow parts of different culture that complement or contribute to their own. Another term used to define this method is cultural creolization. This perspective focuses on the creativity and motivation involved in hybridization. Rather than culture-change being explained as the accidental domination of one culture over another, it shows how native people purposefully adopt and domesticate foreign ideas.
One example of cultural hybridization could include the fact that Kanji, one of the three writing systems in the Japanese language, was first developed from Chinese characters. Many characters have the same meaning in Japanese and Chinese but the pronunciations are different.
Additional Information- Taiwanese People and Culture
Human habitation in Taiwan dates back 12,000 to 15,000 years, and evidence suggests that the ancestors of today’s indigenous peoples came from southern China and Austronesia. There are currently 11 major indigenous groups in Taiwan: the Atayal 泰雅族, Saisiyat 賽夏族, Bunun 布農族, Tsou 鄒族, Thao 邵族, Paiwan 排灣族, Rukai 魯凱族, Puyuma 卑南族, Amis 阿美族, Yami 雅美族, and Kavalan 葛瑪蘭族. Collectively, they comprise less than 2 percent of Taiwan’s total population.
Both the culture and lifestyles of Taiwan’s indigenous peoples have continued to change as the descendants of Taiwan’s earliest inhabitants adjust to rapid modernization. Young people are leaving traditional occupations, such as farming, hunting, and fishing, for jobs in the cities. Indigenous languages are still spoken in Taiwan, but the number of native speakers is rapidly declining, with younger generations usually not as fluent in their own ancestral tongue as they are in Mandarin or Minnanese 閩南語.
Cosmopolitanismis a concept that was first used by the Stoic philosophers of ancient Rome. In the Stoic sense, cosmopolitanism means that every human being, “dwells […] in two communities – the local community of our birth, and the community of human argument and aspiration”. 
During the Enlightenment, Eighteenth century philosopher Immanuel Kant revisited the term and defined it as being versed in Western ways, promoting a kind of “First World” culture. Cultural anthropologists use the term today to include alternatives to this elite Western culture. Cosmopolitanism can be thought of as being comfortable in more than one cultural setting and being able to handle multiple perspectives or new ways of thinking
Schultz, Emily, and Robert Lavenda. Cultural Anthropology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Human migration refers to any movement of humans from one area to another. This can occur over any distance and in various group sizes. It is now more common for families to migrate together in response to economic and social needs. Today, the family more often than not takes the form of the "nuclear family" (a family consisting of solely the parents and their children), instead of the previously common "conjugal family" (a family that includes immediate relatives as well as more distant ones such as grandparents or uncles and aunts).
One prominent example of migration was the Holocaust in World War II. The genocide that was inflicted upon people of Jewish descent and religion in Europe at the time reflected the necessity for Jewish people to migrate. The Holocaust that occurred in Europe is an example of forced migration of people of Jewish descent or religion because of the threat of death of not moving away from Hitler's forces. All across Europe Jewish people were forced out of their homes. Some were taken to concentration camps while others fled to other countries reflecting the necessity to move away from death or enslavement. As a result of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, many people migrated to the British Mandate of Palestine, which is now modern day Israel.
World War II resulted in voluntary migration as well. After the war ended, in 1945, Germany was in a state of economic collapse and needed rebuilding. The country had lost over 4.5 million people in the war and many more; especially the Jewish population had left the country for fear of persecution. Germany used aid from abroad to develop new industries in many cities. However, there was a big shortage of labour that threatened the industrial recovery because there were more job vacancies than workers so extra labour was needed. Germany solved this problem by importing ‘guest workers’ especially from Turkey, Italy and Greece. These countries were less developed than Germany so people migrated to gain work, earn money and live in a more developed country. 
Another example would be during the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang (KMT), led by Chiang Kai-shek, escaped from China and fled with the ROC government from Nanjing to Taihoku (Taipei), Taiwan's largest city, along with some 2 million refugees from China, consisting mainly soldiers, KMT party members and some most important intellectual and business elites.
Yet another example of migration in the United States was In the early decades of the twentieth century, movement of blacks to the North increased tremendously. The reasons for this "Great Migration," as it came to be called, are complex. Thousands of African-Americans left the South to escape sharecropping, worsening economic conditions, and lynch mobs. They sought higher wages, better homes, and political rights. Between 1940 and 1970 continued migration transformed the country's African-American population from a predominately southern, rural group to a northern, urban one. 
Theories of Migration
In Adams Smith's concept of the Invisible hand, he described the reality of economy where people act in their own interest. People who seek wealth mostly follow their own interest and well-being. Based on neoclassical economics theory, capital moves from high wage countries to low wage countries. Conversely, flows of labor move from low-wage countries to high wage countries. People in poor countries are willing to work for low wages, so factories are built in these places to cut costs. Migration is affected primarily by either push factors or pull factors. The push factor is where there is a lack of jobs, political fear, or the threat of natural disaster which forces people to move from their country of origin. The pull factor is where there are job opportunities with higher pay and better living conditions.
Companies such as Nike build sweatshops in poor countries such as in Vietnam in order to cut costs of labor, while effectively increasing their net revenue. Nike has about four times as many workers in Vietnam as in the U.S. An article by Johan Norberg, mentions that people in Vietnam like their new jobs because not only do they receive better pay, but also they do not have to work in the sun.1 There are many more companies that build sweatshops in poor countries mainly because there is a great demand for work and the people are willing to work cheap because, in their eyes, it is advantageous to work for a little than not at all.
The term diaspora refers to the forced or voluntary movement of any population sharing a common ethnic identity who leave their settled territory and become residents in new areas disconnected from their former home. This is converse to the traditional nomadic culture. Cultural development as a result of diaspora assumes that a group or community takes a different course compared with the population of the original settlement. Evidence of a Diaspora culture is the community's resistance to primary language change and the maintenance of their religious and cultural practices. Some examples of this include, Tibetan monks living in Nepal, India since the Chinese invasion of Tibet, as well as the large populations of Hongkongese people living in Vancouver, London, Sydney, Singapore, New York and Los Angeles.
Jewish Diaspora began when the Assyrian conquered Israel in 722 BC and the Hebrew people were scattered all over the Middle East. These victims seemed to always be ignored in history books. When Nebuchadnezzar deported Judeans in 597 BC, he allowed Jews to remain in Babylon, while others fled to the Nile. This was considered the beginning date of Jewish Diaspora. There were now three groups of Hebrews. Some were in Babylon, Judea, Egypt, and other spread around the Middle East. All of these Jews retained their religion under Persian and Greek law. Some converted to different religions but were faithful to the new-found Torah. The Romans discriminated against the Jews. Governors wanted to get as much money revenue as possible and took any money they could get. The Judeans revolted and in 73 AD the last of revolutionaries were holed up in the mountain fort of Masada. 1,000 men, women, and children starved in the besiegement for two years. Rather than surrender to the Romans, the remaining people in the mountain killed themselves. The Romans destroyed Jerusalem, annexed Judea, and drove Jews from Palestine. The Diaspora would continue as Jewish people spread over Africa, Asia, and Europe. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Diaspora.html
The Armenian diaspora is a term used to describe the groups or communities of Armenians living outside of Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh region of northern Azerbaijan. It mostly refers to the migration of Armenians during and after the Armenian Genocide.
The Armenian diaspora has existed since the loss of Armenian statehood in 1375, it grew considerably in size after the Armenian Genocide. Most Armenians stayed on the Armenian plain remaining in historical Armenia under control of the Ottoman Empire. Armenians survived as peasant farmers in rural Anatolia, but others mostly merchants resettled in the major Ottoman cities such as Constantinople, Smyrna, and Tarsus. Through upward social mobility they were able to gain wealth and status even as a non-Islamic minority. This changed when in the mid to late nineteenth century, the change political climate in the Ottoman Empire prompted political paranoia. Fears of uprising revolts and coup left the Ottoman's looking for a scape goat. They found this in the Ottoman-Armenian population. The Young Turk government in an attempt to solidify their power massacred or forcibly removed the vast majority of Armenians from the eastern Anatolian provinces to the South West during the Armenian Genocide.
Today estimates range from half to two-thirds of the world's Armenians live outside of historical Armenia. Armenian communities have emerged all over the world with the largest communities existing in Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Russia, Poland, Western Europe, India, and North America. Of the total Armenian population living worldwide estimated to be 9,000,000, only about 3,000,000 live in Armenia and about 130,000 in Nagorno-Karabakh.  The rest of the populations appear to be equally dispersed around the world with approximately two million living in former Soviet states. The post-communist Republic of Armenia has officially defined the Armenian nation to include the far-flung diaspora, a policy in accord with the feelings of many diaspora Armenians. Armenia officially considers all of the displaced Armenians to be part of Armenia and in 2008, Armenia created a Diaspora Ministry to strengthen ties with the Armenian Diaspora.
Long-Distance Nationalism came about when members of a diaspora would decide to support their homelands’ struggles. The immigrants being citizens of a state different than their homeland have been known to show little citizenship participation towards their homelands. However, they normally feel more of an attachment to their homelands than to where they currently live, which then leads them to support the struggles in their homeland. They tend to participate in the current conflicts of their homelands by propaganda, money, and weapons, anyway besides voting.
Immigrants who are members of Long-Distance Nationalism are also known as Trans-border states. They are people who are citizens of another state, but claim that even though they have left the country, their descendants remain part of their ancestral state. Therefore, they still have the right to participate in homeland struggles for they are expected to return home bringing with them new skills to help build their nation. In many nations trans-border states are permitted the right to vote in their country of origin. In the Dominican Republic emigrants that have become citizens of other countries are expected to vote in the Dominican elections. People of Trans–border States have the right to participate in decisions that will ultimately affect them, no matter where their decisions are made.
Long Distance Nationalism has outgrown its definition and is now known as Trans-border states with the only difference between the two being that the citizens show more loyalty towards their homeland. Citizens of another state who claim that even though they have left their homeland country, their descendants remain part of their ancestral state are citizens involved in Trans-border states. They want the right to participate in their homeland struggles for they are expected to return home bringing with them skills to help build their nation. In many nations people involved in Trans-border states are permitted the right to vote in their country of origin. In the Dominican Republic emigrants that have become citizens of other countries are expected to vote in the Dominican elections. People of Trans-border states have the right to participate in decisions that will ultimately affect them, no matter where their decisions are made. The reason Trans-border states has become more easily carried out on a global scale is because advances in communication and transportation have increase in size allowing the ability for more of an impact in their homeland. Trans-border states are able to remain in the national struggles of their homeland more than ever before. In Mexico and the Philippines it can be vital for emigrants to attribute to Long-Distance Nationalism by remitting money to sustain their families and communities. It is encouraged in Mexico for emigrants to participate in homeland politics. Although it is encouraged in Mexico it is also discouraged in many other countries, such as the United States soon after September 11th. After September 11th, dual loyalties began to be re-examined and the USA took precautions with countries that had Long-Distance Nationalism inside the US.
Different Types of Migration
- Internal Migration
Internal migration is the movement from one part of a country to another. Moving is a long, difficult process. In order for individuals or families to move, there needs to be proper incentive as well as the promise of economic opportunities in the new place they are moving to. The quality of life wherever they are going has to be significantly improved upon in comparison the quality of life they had been previously living. Reasons for internal migration are varied, but may include economic hardship, religious persecution, someone's job forcing them to move, or any combination therein.
An example from American history is the Westward Movement, where there was mass migration by settlers from the eastern part of the country to the west via the Oregon Trail. The reasons for pioneers moving west were also varied, but most were motivated to move in hopes of economic gain. It was thought that the western United States had a near infinite amount of space, and so there would be room for anyone who wanted to settle in Washington, Oregon, and California to have a large farm of his own. Some minority groups, such as the Shakers and the Mormons, moved in hopes of settling communities of their own, free from persecution because of their religious ideals.
"westward movement." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 09 Mar. 2009 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/641224/westward-movement>.
- International Migration--- I'd like to do this term Curtis Wisser (talk) 05:59, 9 March 2009 (UTC)Curtis Wisser
Migration can occur for many reasons such as work, rights, religion, and family. One of the most known types of migration is international migration, where persons cross international state boundaries. In some cases, people stay in the new country for a short period of time. There are also many people who migrate permanently and work in order to bring their families to their new destinations. (Requirement 2a)
It’s common knowledge that many Latin American Hispanic citizens migrate to the United States in order to find work to provide for their family. An anthropologist by the name of Eugenia Georges examined another example of migration, on people from Los Pinos to the United States. In most households, the husband would migrate and work until they could bring their family to America; “This sometimes took several years because it involved completing paperwork for the visa and saving money beyond the amount regularly sent to Los Pinos.” Some families, however, preferred to stay in Los Pinos after getting their feet moving, but returned to the States for a month or more annually in order to keep their visa. (Requirement 2b)
- Schultz, Emily, and Robert Lavenda. Cultural Anthropology. New York: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2009. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_migration
- Transnational Migration
Different Types of Migrants
- Labor Migrants
Labor Migrants are workers who move from region to region in order to find work. Labor migrant workers focus on jobs that are the most plentiful depending on the time of year or season. In other words, migrant workers are primarily seasonal workers (1). The United Nations defines a migrant worker as anyone working outside of their country of origin. The definition of migrant workers is different for all parts of the world but is usually considered someone who moves looking for seasonal work. <(1)ref:http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/migrant_labor.aspx>
In Walla Walla, Washington there are many migrant workers. There has always been a large number of them because of the vast agricultural base in Walla Walla. Over time the number of migrant workers has increased greatly because of the up and coming wine industry. The workers there are now settled and have ceased to migrate seasonally because there is so much work. All of these workers are field workers. They harvest grapes, asparagus, and apples which fall into the unskilled worker's category.  
Another example of labor migrants from Washington is in Pasco. The drop out rates of the school are largely influence by seasonal migrant workers. When the crops need to be harvested workers move to Pasco and bring their families with them. Then when they leave the students drop out instead of transferring. It is believed that some of the workers are illegal immigrants and this puts a lot of strain on the school system to support the students. Although so many Hispanic students may make classes larger immigration also leads to an exchange of cultural values. It results in an exchange of knowledge and expertise between two nations. Immigration serves as an opportunity to interact with people of other countries. It gives a platform for people from diverse backgrounds to come together and share their views. 
Refugees are migrants forced to abandon their country due to the threat of violence or disaster. Internally displaced persons are those who leave their homes but do not leave their countries. Though refugees leave their home nations, the majority remain in the region of origin. For example, Syria received approximately 1.4 million refugees from Iraq. Iran and Pakistan have received a great number of Afghan refugees, as well. Of the Western nations, Germany and the United States host the majority of refugees. In the 1951 Refugee Convention, states that signed the document became legally committed to protect the rights of refugees who arrive in their country. The convention also enforces the principle of nonrefoulement, which prohibits the deportation of refugees to places where their lives or freedoms could be in danger.
Today millions of Iraqi refugees have fled their homes for safer locations within Iraq or to neighboring countries. Five years into the United States military intervention in Iraq, the country is facing the largest humanitarian and displacement crises in the world. There are approximately 1.5 million Iraqi refugees living in Syria, Jordan and other neighboring countries. Some Iraqis who have tried to return to their homes have found them either destroyed or occupied. The likelihood of violence in areas of Iraq is still high and these refugees are living in increasingly desperate circumstances. Pictured below is a family of refugees near the Jordanian border.
It is very common for refugee camps to be unsanitary and uninhabitable places, though they are often a better alternative to staying in the location from which they fled. Still, many die of disease. Refugees are also at a high risk for crime and violence, living in an environment that turns people against each other due to small rations and short supply of everyday items.
- Internally Displaced Persons
As defined by the United Nations, internally displaced persons are persons or groups of people who have been forced or pressured to leave their places of residence, generally to avoid armed conflict, generalized violence, violations of human rights, or natural or human-made disasters. Unlike refugees however, they do not cross any internationally recognized state borders. The aid and assistance of IDP's is extremely difficult. This is because in international law, it is the responsibility of the government of the state that the people are within to provide assistance and protection. However, many are displaced as a result of civil conflict or violence in states where the authority of the central government has been undoubtedly undermined. So it is unlikely that the countries involved are capable or willing to help these IDP's. There is also the issue that, unlike refugees, a binding legal international legal regime on internal displacement is absent. The Guiding Principles of Internal Displacement was drawn up by the United Nations in 1994 but it is not binding, leaving these people unprotected unless individual organizations such as United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees or the International Committee of the Red Cross elect to provide assistance.
Although it is nearly impossible to accurately record how many IDP's there are in a given country, it is estimated that Sudan is at the top of the list with around 6 million IDP's. This country has been experiencing a civil war for over 25 years and in 2005 things worsened when neighboring country Chad attacked. The Sudanese government itself is incapable and unwilling to help its citizens and has been charged with crimes against humanity. The government's militia, as well as the rebel groups it is fighting, are both accused of killing innocent civilians and humanitarians. Although programs have been put in effect to relocate the IDP's, they are being reintegrated in small numbers and it is clear that this country has a long way to go. The lack of housing and employment as well as the destruction of schools, health facilities, and water sources due to the civil war are all huge barriers to progress. "Sudan-Internally Displaced Persons in Khartoum". http://www.landinfo.no/asset/748/1/748_1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-4.
- Institutional Migrants
Migrant workers in America are unofficially defined in the same way as the United Nations defines a foreign worker, as "a person who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen." Institutional migrants are migrants with cultural practices and social lives, keeping some of their former country and traditions with them. These can be internally displaced persons, as well as labor migrants and people from other countries. These peoples would be classified under anthropologists Richard Wilk and Lisa Cligget's economic "camp" of the social model of human nature. This suggests that the person is motivated, at least in part, to improve the condition of the whole society that they belong to, rather than just their own standing. Institutional migrants follow societal rules and regulations of power and tradition in the economic field. When people see themselves as a part of a group, they put effort into improving that group.
Institutional migrants are seen throughout our own United States today. Many of these migrants are from out of the country, though some people who move around within the United States for work could be classified as such. The huge numbers of these migrants have helped give the U.S. its "melting pot" nature. They travel here for work, or a variety of other reasons, and bring with them their cultural ideas, social systems, and often their families. This is usually accepted by people who were already citizens, as long as the new migrants take in some American culture as well. An example of institutional migrants within our country could be truck drivers or families/workers moving around the country according to agricultural seasons. These people are working around the country, but usually have a home (and family) that they return to at least once a year. Their ties are kept strong even though they migrate.
Substantive Citizenship is linked to the idea of forming an identity and cultural distinction. In this type of citizenship, minority groups are at a disadvantage as it can ascribe “imagined labor market identities to workers with different nationalities” . Which ends up causing a lot of problems and unfair treatment. This concept “implies the notion of equality in that citizens are said to share a common status in respect of the rights and duties that they hold”, but instead it deals with who gets to “enjoy the rights that ensure effective membership of a national community” .
An example of this seen in the world is that countries like the United States, France or England see working on a farm or the growing of crops as a lower job. While in places like Central and South America, farming is seen quite frequently and is accepted as an equal job. This means that when the people from these areas move to the United States or Europe they face discrimination as this is the only job that they know how to do.
Immigrant's Rights: Education
Historically, the United Sates is a nation that has hosted immigrants, for a variety of reasons. The government allowed immigrants to work the fruit fields during the 1930s when there were worker shortages, recruited aliens to be in the army in exchange for citizenship, allowed refugees to stay here during times of trouble. However, there are problems that immigrants face while here.
They face some struggles while they are here in the United States. If they do not obtain the proper legal status this affects them socially as well as in their job and schools. When searching for careers, they cannot find a high paying job despite any level of expertise they may have in the field. This is because if an immigrant does not have a social security number they cannot be employed in many jobs. Getting residency takes many years and a lot of money, and that’s time and income that they may not have at hand. They are left in limbo for several years, unable to really do anything to provide for their families. These struggles continue with the children in school because children can’t attain higher educational for many reasons, lack of financial aid, fear of deportation, and lack of motivation to further their schooling. In terms of how it affects immigrants socially, these children who where brought over to the United States when they were really young, may consider themselves “Not American.” Even if they have lived the majority of their lives here, they are considered by many as “not Americans”. What does it mean to be American? A piece of paper that allows you to pay taxes? Or your values, beliefs, likes and dislikes, your life history? If we bring it back to history this is a nation of immigrants, it is the melting pot. And if look to who was here first they we are all foreigners except Native Americans who’s this is their land first. Furthermore, if these students do not obtain an education within society most that do not have an education are seen as low meaning not smart, ignorant and not worth your time. So what can we do about this to make sure these students to obtain a higher education?
There have been laws in congress that have been made to help immigrant in their education. Here are a few, starting 1954, Brown v Board of Education when blacks and whites weren’t the only ones separated, Asians, Natives, Chicanos, etc. In this case the court ruled that “separate is not equal” and therefore segregation unconstitutional. In 1982, Plyer vs. Doe where Texas denied school enrollment to anyone who didn’t show proper legal documentation. In this case, the Supreme Court guaranteed K-12 education for all children regardless of their residence or immigration status. The reason to why they ruled this was because they believed that children couldn’t control their parent’s behavior or reasons for bring them to the United States, thus their undocumented status. Also, that withholding education from them takes a toll on their social, economic, intellectual, and psychological well-being. Social they were seen low in society. Economic they couldn’t get a good job later and people will look down on someone uneducated. Intellectual there is no source to which prepare for the world. Finally, psychological it affects their self-esteem, making them degrade themselves. This is great but it now leaves the question to collage. In 1996, Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) , the Supreme Court passed a document that said that anybody that is unlawfully present in the US, cannot receive instate tuition in colleges and universities unless they are eligible for it “without regard to whether the citizen or national is such a resident.” However, many states interpreted in different ways. Some states took it as a means to deny instate tuition to anyone not of legal status. In 2001 Texas became first to interpret residency based on domicile (a steady place to live –one need a home address) and high school graduation. Others now include: New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Utah, Washington, California, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska. Only 10/50 states have this interpretation. In 2003, WA – Student Residency Tuition Adjustment Act, grants undocumented students to pay instate tuition. Under the conditions that they must have graduated from high school or gotten their GED within the state, lived in the state for at least 3 years and signed an affidavit saying they will correct their immigration status as soon as possible. All of these are great but there is still the question of money, how will they pay for collage if they can’t get financial help. Even if undocumented students find a way to pay for college, without a social security number, they may not be able to get a job and this is creating and perpetuating a lower class of people that will never be able to move out of poverty.
Recently there has been a new act that been presented to congress in 2002 called the Development Relief Education for Alien Minors (D.R.E.A.M.) Act. This is the second time that it is in congress. The D.R.E.A.M. Act is a bipartisan bill that would allow undocumented students conditional legal status (and eventual citizenship granted with certain requirements. The purpose is to help young people who have no way of obtaining legal residency (even if they have lived here most of their lives), because of the immigration status of their parents that are either undocumented or in immigration limbo. If this act passes the students must meet the following requirements:
-Brought to the U.S. before age 16
-Lived in the U.S. continuously for 5 yrs before the D.R.E.A.M. Act passes
-Graduated from a U.S. high school or obtained a GED
-Have good moral character with no criminal record
-Complete 2 yrs of college (comm/Tech/vocational/university) or military service
-the student must be under age 35
So how will the D.R.E.A.M. Act help undocumented students? Well first of all it is a path to legal residency. First they will gain conditional (temporary) residency. In order for them to obtain regular legal permanent residency, by the end of conditional period, permanent residency would be given if during the six years they maintained good moral character, and kept a clean record, avoided lengthy trips abroad, and graduated from a 2 years college or certain vocational colleges, or studied for 2 years toward a B.A. or higher degree, or have served in the military for at least 2 years. If they meet all of these requirements, then they will get their permanent residency. This will help the 65,000 undocumented students who graduate form for a high school every year to be able to work, drive, go to school, and participate as a normal American. I it is life changing and it will impact these students by increase their average future earnings and they will have the opportunity to major in anything like education. By keeping them in school, it would reduce gang membership. And finally they will be able to call the U.S. their home.
Right now it is in congress and 52 members of Congress (U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives) have co-sponsor the DREAM Act and for it to pass we need 60 members of Congress to co-sponsor it. President Obama even supports it, he said "Creating an educated workforce will stimulate our economy, increase productivity, and help the U.S. compete in the global economy. Students who would benefit from the Dream Act are our future teachers, doctors, nurses, and lawyers. The Dream Act will allow thousands of immigrant students to access higher education and maximize their contributions to our economy and communities." Ways in which you can help are by going into http://www.change.org/ideas/932/view_action/ten_things_you_can_do_for_the_dream_act and singing petitions and calling in your local representative to support the Dream Act. By supporting the D.R.E.A.M act, these students will be able to further their education and have a chance to succeed and overcome barriers that they weren’t able to before.
Flexible citizenship[] was defined by anthropologist Aihwa Ong as “ the strategies and effects employed by managers, technocrats, and professionals who move regularly across state boundaries who seek both to circumvent and benefit from different nation-state regimes.” This concept allows the nation-states to work together to move toward a better economy and global success. This is closely related to the concept of globalization. It seemed before that in order for the nation-states to become globalized they would need to be independent, this has proven to be very contradictory due to flexible citizenship. This concept allows people such as business owners and managers to better their company and do so on a much larger scale. It calls the concept of nationalism into question for some, due to their dispersal within other countries but has been proven to be very beneficial.
This is exemplified in the Chinese culture. Chinese elite families are large components for the successes in the economy of the Pacific Rim. This all began when Chinese began moving into European empires, while doing so the Chinese were required to strengthen their bonds with their family and business partners in order to be successful. The Chinese did not feel as though their citizenship should hold them back from doing business overseas. They felt that it was their right to “promote familial interests apart from the well being of society.” Many of the Chinese do not feel as though they have a commitment to nationalism on any level. The Chinese feel as though “making money in the context of globalization required the flexibility to take advantage of economic opportunities wherever and whenever they appeared.” For example, a Hong Kong family business owner had their son run a part of the hotel chain in the Pacific regions, while another brother lived in San Francisco and managed the hotels that were located within Northern America and Europe.
Within the Chinese Culture and Flexible Citizenship, there can sometimes be a few negative effects. When families are dispersed all throughout the world it can seem hard to stay happy and close together when things such as support, relationships, and parental responsibilities are neglected. It seems as though the success sometimes gets out of control and all that is seen by them is success. It is forgotten what it is like to think of things other than globalization , a capitalist economy, and money. The concept of nationalism can completely lose its meaning and they seem to follow a postnational ethos. This happens when “an attitude toward the world in which people submit to the govern mentality of the capitalist market while trying to evade the govern mentality of nation-states.”
- >"Globalization." Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy. 3 vols. 2nd ed. Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com.access-proxy.sno-isle.org/servlet/History/.
- "Globalization." Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy. 3 vols. 2nd ed. Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com.access-proxy.sno-isle.org/servlet/History/.
- "Globalization." Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy. 3 vols. 2nd ed. Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com.access-proxy.sno-isle.org/servlet/History/.
- World Business - "In Chinese Factories, Lost Fingers and Low Pay", New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/05/business/worldbusiness/05sweatshop.html
- Smith, Lavene L. Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism. 2nd ed. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania P, 1989. Google Books. Google. 4 Mar. 2009 <http://books.google.com/books?id=YONSh9ItwWAC&printsec=frontcover#PPA4,M1>.
- NANCY OJEDA-MACIAS. ETHNIC TOURISM: THE CASE OF CUETZALAN, MEXICO. https://www.msu.edu/user/schmid/ethnic.htm
- U.S. Department of the Interior.http://www.nps.gov/
- Knox, Paul L. and Marston, Sallie, A, Human Geography: Places and Regions in Global Context, 4th Ediition, Pearson Prentice Hall, NJ 2007
- Ian Condry: Japanese Hip-Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture
- ELISABETTA POVOLEDO. NEW YORK TIMES. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/07/23/arts/music-in-italy-a-long-tradition-of-homegrown-hip-hop.html?scp=1&sq=globalization%20of%20hip%20hop&st=cse&pagewanted=1
- MARTIN EDLUND. SLATE MAGAZINE. http://www.slate.com/id/2119464.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. (1997). Kant and Stoic Cosmopolitanism, in The Journal of Political Philosophy, Volume 5, Nr 1, pp. 1-25
- BBHS CASE STUDY - Voluntary Migration - Turkish Migrants into Germany by Rachael Scarisbrick http://www.sln.org.uk/geography/schools/blythebridge/ASCSTurkey.htm
- Manali Oak. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pros-and-cons-of-immigration.html
- Bauder, Harald. Labor Movement: How Migration Regulates Labor Markets. New York: Oxford UP, 2006.
- Dwyer, Peter. Understanding Social Citizenship. The Policy P, 2004.
- ^ Schultz, Emily A. and Lavenda, Robert H. 2009 Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition. 7th Edition. NY. Oxford University Press. p. 266
- Mance, Henry. One World Refugee Guide. February 2007. http://uk.oneworld.net/guides/refugees?gclid=CL_2opfnkZkCFRIcawod-ArJbA
- ^ Schultz, Emily A. and Lavenda, Robert H. 2009 Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition. 7th Edition. NY. Oxford University Press. p. 410-412