Cultural Anthropology/Globalization and Migration

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Globalization and Migration[edit]


The belief is that the phenomena of globalization started with the first humans. A general definition of globalization is “the process of integrating nations and peoples--politically, economically, and culturally--into a larger community.”[1] Contemporary globalization is fueled by the increases in technology, especially concerning communication and transportation. Scholars in political science, economics, linguistics, anthropology, geography, law, art, and film studies have all helped to define the term. Many have identified techno-economic globalization as the beginning of other forms of globalization, such as transnational cultural exchange. [2]

The focus is not only toward individual nations, but also the entire globe. Therefore, a better definition would emphasize that contemporary globalization is a complex and synergistic which process includes improvements in technology combined with the deregulation of markets and open borders in order to bring an increased stream of people, money, goods, services, and information. Globalization promotes convergence, harmonization, efficiency, growth, and in some cases, democratization and homogenization. [3] It should be noted, however, that Globalization has historically and currently caused extremely negative and destructive outcomes on certain peoples. This is especially true when contact is between industrialized mass consumption societies, and foraging or horticultural groups.

Dance competition at the Third Anniversary of Zulu Nation Seattle Celebration of Hip Hop Culture, part of Festival Sundiata, a Festál event at Seattle Center, Seattle, Washington 2007.

Various Levels of Globalization[edit]

Economic historian Immanuel Wallerstein developed the world systems theory which proposes an economic system in which some countries benefit from the exploitation of others for labor and raw materials. The theory also established three hierarchy levels which are: "core", "periphery", and "semi periphery". Wallerstein identified core countries as having a dominant capital, extensive military, and high skill levels, whereas periphery countries are weak states and rely heavily on the core countries to supplement their economy. Semi-periphery countries are characterized by having their own functioning economy, but still utilizes both core and periphery countries for labor and the production of raw materials.Therefore these three levels emphasize the global inequality of the world market.

An example of the first core region was located in Northwestern Europe, including England, Holland, and France. In contrast the United States is a more contemporary example of a core country, due to its intensive capital, high labor, and innovative technology. India, even as their technology industry continues to grow, is a modern example of a semi-peripheral because remains dependent on foreign investors for capital.

World systems theory relating to globalization: Large corporations, from "core" countries, will frequently look to place factories and manufacturing plants in countries with the least stringent environmental and labor standards (semi-peripheral/peripheral countries), which they can succeed in because of a lack of transnational labor regulations. Countries in the developing world will then compete for the business of the companies, often by lowering labor standards (such as minimum wages). As a result, working conditions for the employees are abusive and unreasonable, yet little to nothing can be done by the governments to resolve these issues.[1]

Transnational corporations search out labor in impoverished countries like India, Bangladesh, and Vietnam, using mostly young women laborers as a means of production. These workers will work on average 14 hours a day for "sub-poverty wages under horrific conditions."[2] Because of a lack of oversight of the corporations, the workers are allowed to work in dehumanizing, unsafe environments.

Globalization aiding an indigenous group: The Kayapó: people are the Gê-speaking native peoples of the plain lands of the Mato Grosso and Para in Brazil, South of the Amazon Basin and along Rio Xingu and its tributaries. The Kayapó are nomadic people who still live in the rain forests using a sustainable slash-and-burn horticulture mode of production. Using global media and international attention, they have established political power over their own land. At one time, mining and logging threatened to destroy the rain forest, and their way of life. However, the Kayapó people used forceful tactics to banish loggers and miners in some areas, as well as establishing themselves as an economic force. Later, they were again threatened by secretive government plans to build a series of hydro-electric dams on their land. However, a large demonstration was created by the Kayapó that caught the attention of the media world-wide. Including the hit rock band, Sting, who made an appearance. This demonstration, at the site for the first dam in Altamira, Pará, lasted several days and brought much pressure upon both the World Bank and the Brazilian government. As a result, the World Bank denied the request for a loan which was to be used to build the dam and the Brazilian government backed out of its original plans. As well, the Kayapó have relations with The Body Shoppe: they supply the chain with the Brazil nut oil used in their best-selling line of hair conditioners.[4]

Globalization not aiding an indigenous group: A very good historical example of the negatives of globalization is the European colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries. When Europeans immigrated to the Americas, they brought European diseases to which the native populations had no natural immunity. This, paired with technological superiority in military weapons and tactics, caused the extermination of roughly 90% of the natives. [5] Globalization has also harmed many cultures that are exploited by big businesses from other countries. For example, the bad working conditions of sweat shop laborers in China is more common place due to the globalization of Chinese-made western products. Workers are overly worked in dangerous conditions, starting at the age of sixteen. Due to the dangerous machinery, there is a loss of around 40,000 workers fingers every year. Furthermore, they are also being exposed to dangerous chemicals, and the United States and other western civilizations won't buy the product because of the exposure to these chemicals. Aside from the dangerous working conditions, sweatshops in China are also known to pay their workers less than minimum wage while overworking them on average of sixteen hours per day. [6]

Globalization's Effects on Modes of Production:[edit]

1. Foraging: Foraging societies have been impacted by globalization through increased contact with individuals from various cultures around the globe. This vastly increased contact most often involves a severe reduction in the available territory to support the foraging lifestyle. Foraging can only support smaller, less dense populations of people when compared to other modes of production.

2. Horticulture: Horticulture is affected by globalization much in the same manner as foraging. The horticultural society depends on the practices of migratory slash and burn farming as well as hunting and gathering. As globalization continues, the amount of available land to produce food in this manner becomes more and more strained.

3. Pastoralism: Pastoralism is affected by globalization because the animals herded, raised and butchered in this mode of production can be exported out of their original region. Having important things in common, such as food can further ‘the process of integrating nations and peoples’. Furthermore, the wool sheared from sheep can be used in the international textiles industry. Material from one place can be made into clothing that can be sold in an abundance of locations around the world.

4. Agricultural: Globalization affects agriculture as through agriculture, food may be grown or raised in a surplus and exported around the world. Drugs(legal and illegal) are also sent around the world. One factor of agriculture that affects globalization is trade liberalization (the removal of restrictions on the free exchange of goods between nations). For example, small farmers in the Philippines are unable to compete with the prices of the global market controlled by countries with more advanced agricultural technologies. "Whether you look at corn, vegetables, or poultry-major sectors of the agriculture economy have been devastated by imports." [3]

5. Industrialism: Industrialism is affected by globalization because many cultural aspects are spread by industrialism, especially through technological means, which is one of the most efficient modes of communication and exchange. It had changed the structure of most developed societies and had greatly impacted the success of capitalism.

Tourism/Impacts of Tourism[edit]

Tourists are defined as people who stay in locations that are outside of their normal environment without intent to settle there. They travel to new places for recreational or leisure purposes.

Many nations, such as Greece, Thailand, and The Bahamas heavily depend on the revenue created through global tourism. Employment in these areas is heavily reliant on associated areas of work (i.e. hotels, and transportation services like cruise ships and taxis.)

Pacific Princess off the U.S. West Coast.

There are three classifications for locations of tourism:

Domestic tourism - residents of a certain country travel within their country. (i.e. an American living in California visits New York)
Inbound tourism - non-residents travel within the borders of a given country. (i.e. an Australian tourist visits a Chinese resident)
Outbound tourism - residents of one country travel within another country (i.e. a Canadian resident visits Greece)

Additionally, there are five types of tourism: [7]

Ethnic tourism - visits to see native people from a very foreign/ different environment (i.e. traveling to Nahua Indians and their local and national governments) [8]
Cultural tourism - visits to experience other cultures on a general level (i.e. traveling to New Orleans, Louisiana for Mardi Gras)
Historical tourism - visits to historical sites or monuments (i.e. traveling to Paris to see the Eiffel Tower or traveling to Rome to see the Colosseum)
Environmental tourism - visits to experience a completely different environment than the traveler is accustomed to in their home country (i.e. traveling to Antarctica) This also includes going to a national park that is preserved for environmental sight seeing by the National Park Service (i.e. traveling to Yellowstone or Yosemite)[9]
Recreational tourism - visits to partake in activities unique to the destination (i.e. traveling to Pamplona, Spain to see the Running of the Bulls)

Oftentimes tourists are drawn to a country by an attraction within that nation. Some of the most popular international tourist attractions include the Eiffel Tower (France), Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italy), and the Great Wall (China). The Great Wall of China draws around 10 million visitors a year. Other cultural aspects, such as tasting the cuisine, experiencing traditional events, or learning the language, may also attract tourists. Throughout history, people with an elevated level of affluence have had greater ease traveling. Wealthier people have both the money and the time needed to visit other areas, whereas people in lower classes do not have this luxury. This influx of wealth to one area from another can be very beneficial to the region that attracts tourists.

Tourism is largely beneficial to the worldwide economy, but there are also risks associated with it for both the tourists and country being toured. For tourists, issues such as security and health are present whenever they are in a country different than their own. In some cases, cruise ships have dealt with w:cruise ship outbreaks of contagious diseases. There are a variety of things that can happen to countries who rely on tourism as their main source of economic income, there are many issues as a result of annually inviting millions of strangers across their borders. Natural disasters and terrorism are both great dangers when it comes to tourism. For example, hurricane Katrina kept many people from visiting New Orleans, which had been destroyed due to the natural occurrence. In addition, after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, many people were reluctant to visit New York. If economies could help themselves without relying solely on tourism, then a constant state of flux within their countries could be avoided. [10]

Tourism can also bring about the abuse of human rights in industries such as sex tourism, as well as lasting environmental degradation. Such problems have become increasingly frequent with the rise of tourism as a global phenomenon. All around the world, popular tourist destinations face problems due to pollution caused by mass tourist migrations, showing tourism as being responsible for roughly five percent of the world’s pollution. The Caribbean alone, a popular destination for cruises, contains half of the waste dumped in the world’s oceans; this is due in large part to massive cruise ships and extensive beach side resorts dominating many of the island's coastlines.

Consumer Culture[edit]

Marxian and neo-Marxian theory lead to the view that "one of the major driving forces behind globalization is the corporate need in capitalism to show increasing profitability through more, and more far-reaching, economic imperialism… enhancing profitability by increasing cultural hegemony nationally and ultimately throughout the world.” 1 Once organizations have economically dominated their own nation, a culturally driven need to expand outward to other nations occurs. Mostly driven by American corporations, industries continue to expand by the exportation and exploitation of other countries. Mere exportation is no longer enough to feed the companies, and a new aim to globalize consumerism and evoke a demand for the same products all over the world has arisen. Thus a global market and consumer culture has emerged and flourished. Companies like Wal-Mart, Disney, McDonald's and Visa MasterCard all spend enormous amounts of time and resources to entice customers with a desire for freedom, lower prices or a quality experience. In turn, this caused all people to consume in similar ways. This market culture is bought by consumers as a way of life, and poses underlying assumptions that money and products buy us a better life, and corporations are designed to make consumers always feel dissatisfied with what they have and ready to buy more, and is therefore able to reproduce and sustain itself.

This widespread sense of a consumer culture has not always existed; it is largely an outcome of America's wealth and status coming out of World War II. Corporations were at the height of their manufacturing capacity after the war and made a fortune funding the military/industrial complex. They stood to make an even more considerable amount of money if this monumental demand for products could be sustained. This demand was created by impressing on the American people, and soon after, people around the world, the association between acquiring material goods with increased social standing. Since corporations also control the means through which we view the world, i.e. the media, they could easily make this consumerist mindset a habit in society.

As a result, the world of consumption affects an increasing number of people who relocate to work for their business, concentrate in cities and consume which creates waste while using energy and resources. Consequences of “Americanization” as concluded by critics are the irreversible impacts on the strength of cultural diversity, as well as the environmental sustainability of our planet.

1Ritzer, George. "The Globalization of Nothing 2" (2007) 2

Cultural Imperialism vs. Cultural Hybridization[edit]

To understand the spread of culture, ideologies, and lifestyles around the world, anthropologists have developed the theories of cultural imperialism and cultural hybridization. Cultural imperialism states that some cultures dominate, and eventually replace, other cultures through formal policies or general cultural change. This became a popular way to understand the spread of Western culture to the rest of the world. However, the understanding the spread of culture is not easy to fully identify and analyze. These are some of the most important arguments anthropologists keep in mind when considering the impact of Western cultures on other societies.

  1. First, cultural imperialism assumes that non-Western peoples are powerless against the spread of Western culture. In fact, every individual has agency or the power to fight against their situation.
  2. Second, it implies that Western culture never changes. Culture evolves with the times, but it is the reason that cultures change that created the term of cultural imperialism.
  3. Third, it ignores cultural trends that occur around the world completely outside of "the West." Not every change is due to Western culture, due to recent globalization, the spread of culture has increased dramatically.

Because of these flaws, anthropologists developed a different explanation called, cultural hybridity. This new understanding states that cultures don't just blindly adopt dominant cultural traits, but rather borrow parts of different culture that compliment or contribute to their own. Another term used to define this method is cultural creolization. This perspective focuses on the creativity and motivation involved in hybridization. Rather than culture-change being explained as the accidental domination of one culture over another, it shows how native people purposefully adopt and domesticate foreign ideas.


Cosmopolitanismis a concept that was first used by the Stoic philosophers of ancient Rome. Cosmopolitanism can be thought of as being comfortable in more than one cultural setting and being able to handle multiple perspectives or new ways of thinking. In the Stoic sense, cosmopolitanism means that every human being, “dwells […] in two communities – the local community of our birth, and the community of human argument and aspiration”. [11]
During the Enlightenment, Eighteenth century philosopher Immanuel Kant revisited the term and defined it as being versed in Western ways, promoting a kind of “First World” culture. Cultural anthropologists use the term today to include alternatives to this elite Western culture.

The word ‘cosmopolitan’ has been used to describe a wide variety of important views in moral and socio-political philosophy. The nebulous core shared by all cosmopolitan views is the idea that all human beings, regardless of their political affiliation, are (or can and should be) citizens in a single community. Different versions of cosmopolitanism envision this community in different ways, some focusing on political institutions, others on moral norms or relationships, and still others focusing on shared markets or forms of cultural expression.

An example of people who did not agree with 'Cosmopolitanism' is the famous Hitler and Stalin. Both Hitler and Stalin, who agreed about little else, save that murder was the first instrument of politics, frequently rallied against "rootless cosmopolitans", and while, for both, anti-Cosmopolitism was often just a euphemism for anti-Semitism, they were right to see Cosmopolitism as their enemy. For they both required a kind of loyalty to one portion of humanity, a nation, a class, that ruled out loyalty to all of humanity. And the one thought that Cosmopolitans share is that no local loyalty can ever justify forgetting that every human being has responsibilities to one another. Fortunately, we need to take sides neither with the nationalist who abandons all foreigners nor with the hard core cosmopolitan who regards her friends and fellow citizens with icy impartiality. The position worth defending might be called a partial cosmopolitism.


Human migration refers to any movement of humans from one area to another. This can occur over any distance and in various group sizes. It is now more common for families to migrate together in response to economic and social needs.

One prominent example of migration was the Holocaust[4] in World War II. The genocide that was inflicted upon people of Jewish descent and religion in Europe at the time reflected the necessity for Jewish people to migrate. The Holocaust that occurred in Europe is an example of forced migration for people of Jewish descent or religion because of the threat of death of not moving away from Hitler's forces. All across Europe Jewish people were forced out of their homes. Some were taken to concentration camps while others fled to other countries because of the fear of death and enslavement. Approximately 6 million Jewish people were accounted for during this genocide, and millions more fled. As a result of the United Nations Partition Plan[5] for Palestine, many people migrated to the British Mandate of Palestine, which is now modern day Israel.

Another example would be during the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang (KMT), led by Chiang Kai-shek, escaped from China and fled with the ROC government from Nanjing to Taihoku (Taipei), Taiwan's largest city, along with some 2 million refugees from China, consisting mainly soldiers, KMT party members and some most important intellectual and business elites.[6]

Different Types of Migration[edit]

  1. Internal Migration
Replica of a covered wagon used to travel west.

Internal migration is the movement from one part of a country to another. Moving is a long, difficult process. In order for individuals or families to move, there needs to be proper incentive as well as the promise of economic opportunities in the new place they are moving to. Their quality of life is typically thought to be improved in order to justify the move. Reasons for internal migration are varied, but may include economic hardship, force, religious persecution, occupational changes, or any combination therein.
An example from American history is the Westward Movement, where there was mass migration by settlers from the eastern part of the country to the west via the Oregon Trail. The reasons for pioneers moving west were also varied, but most were motivated to move in hopes of economic gain. It was thought that the western United States had a near infinite amount of space, and so there would be room for anyone who wanted to settle in Washington, Oregon, and California to have a large farm of his own. Some minority groups, such as the Shakers and the Mormons, moved in hopes of settling communities of their own, free from persecution because of their religious ideals.
"westward movement." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 09 Mar. 2009 <>.

  1. International Migration--- I'd like to do this term Curtis Wisser (talk) 05:59, 9 March 2009 (UTC)Curtis Wisser

One of the most known types of migration is international migration, where persons cross international state boundaries. In some cases, people stay in the new country for a short period of time. There are also many people who migrate permanently and work in order to bring their families to their new destinations. (Requirement 2a)

It’s common knowledge that many Latin American Hispanic citizens migrate to the United States in order to find work to provide for their family. An anthropologist by the name of Eugenia Georges examined another example of migration, on people from Los Pinos to the United States. In most households, the husband would migrate and work until they could bring their family to America; “This sometimes took several years because it involved completing paperwork for the visa and saving money beyond the amount regularly sent to Los Pinos.” Some families, however, preferred to stay in Los Pinos after getting their feet moving, but returned to the States for a month or more annually in order to keep their visa. (Requirement 2b)

- Schultz, Emily, and Robert Lavenda. Cultural Anthropology. New York: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2009. -

  1. Transnational Migration

Different Types of Migrants[edit]

  • Labor Migrants
Migrant farm worker, New York

Labor Migrants are workers who move from region to region in order to find work. Labor migrant workers focus on jobs that are the most plentiful depending on the time of year or season, in other words, migrant workers are primarily seasonal workers (1). The United Nations defines a migrant worker as anyone working outside of their country of origin. The definition of migrant workers is different for all parts of the world but is usually considered someone who moves looking for seasonal work. <(1)ref:>

An example of labor migrants from Washington is in Pasco. The drop out rates of the school are largely influenced by seasonal migrant workers. When the crops need to be harvested workers move to Pasco and bring their families with them. Then when they leave the students drop out instead of transferring. It is believed that some of the workers are illegal immigrants and this puts a lot of strain on the school system to support the students. Although so many Hispanic students may make classes larger immigration also leads to an exchange of cultural values. It results in an exchange of knowledge and expertise between two nations. Immigration serves as an opportunity to interact with people of other countries. It gives a platform for people from diverse backgrounds to come together and share their views. [12]

  • Refugees

Refugees are migrants forced to abandon their country due to the threat of violence or disaster. Internally displaced persons are those who leave their homes but do not leave their countries. Though refugees leave their home nations, the majority remain in the region of origin. For example, Syria received approximately 1.4 million refugees from Iraq. Iran and Pakistan have received a great number of Afghan refugees, as well. Of the Western nations, Germany and the United States host the majority of refugees. In the 1951 Refugee Convention[7], states that signed the document became legally committed to protect the rights of refugees who arrive in their country. The convention also enforces the principle of nonrefoulement, which prohibits the deportation of refugees to places where their lives or freedoms could be in danger.

Today millions of Iraqi refugees have fled their homes for safer locations within Iraq or to neighboring countries. Five years into the United States military intervention in Iraq, the country is facing the largest humanitarian and displacement crises in the world. There are approximately 1.5 million Iraqi refugees living in Syria, Jordan and other neighboring countries. Some Iraqis who have tried to return to their homes have found them either destroyed or occupied. The likelihood of violence in areas of Iraq is still high and these refugees are living in increasingly desperate circumstances.[8]

  • Internally Displaced Persons

As defined by the United Nations, internally displaced persons are persons or groups of people who have been forced or pressured to leave their places of residence, generally to avoid armed conflict, generalized violence, violations of human rights, or natural or human-made disasters. Unlike refugees however, they do not cross any internationally recognized state borders. The aid and assistance of IDP's is extremely difficult. This is because in international law, it is the responsibility of the government of the state that the people are within to provide assistance and protection. However, many are displaced as a result of civil conflict or violence in states where the authority of the central government has been undoubtedly undermined. So it is unlikely that the countries involved are capable or willing to help these IDP's. There is also the issue that, unlike refugees, a binding legal international legal regime on internal displacement is absent. The Guiding Principles of Internal Displacement was drawn up by the United Nations in 1994 but it is not binding, leaving these people unprotected unless individual organizations such as United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees[9] or the International Committee of the Red Cross[10] elect to provide assistance.

Although it is nearly impossible to accurately record how many IDP's there are in a given country, it is estimated that Sudan is at the top of the list with around 6 million IDP's. This country has been experiencing a civil war for over 25 years and in 2005 things worsened when neighboring country Chad attacked. The Sudanese government itself is incapable and unwilling to help its citizens and has been charged with crimes against humanity. The government's militia, as well as the rebel groups it is fighting, are both accused of killing innocent civilians and humanitarians. Although programs have been put in effect to relocate the IDP's, they are being reintegrated in small numbers and it is clear that this country has a long way to go. The lack of housing and employment as well as the destruction of schools, health facilities, and water sources due to the civil war are all huge barriers to progress. "Sudan-Internally Displaced Persons in Khartoum". Retrieved 2009-03-4. 

  • Institutional Migrants

Institutional migrants are migrants with cultural practices and social lives, keeping some of their former country and traditions with them. These can be internally displaced persons, as well as labor migrants and people from other countries. These peoples would be classified under anthropologists Richard Wilk and Lisa Cligget's economic "camp" of the social model of human nature. This suggests that the person is motivated, at least in part, to improve the condition of the whole society that they belong to, rather than just their own standing.[11] Institutional migrants follow societal rules and regulations of power and tradition in the economic field. When people see themselves as a part of a group, they put effort into improving that group.

Institutional migrants are seen throughout our own United States today. Many of these migrants are from out of the country, though some people who move around within the United States for work could be classified as such. The huge numbers of these migrants have helped give the U.S. its "melting pot" nature. They travel here for work, or a variety of other reasons, and bring with them their cultural ideas, social systems, and often their families. This is usually accepted by people who were already citizens, as long as the new migrants take in some American culture as well. An example of institutional migrants within our country could be truck drivers or families/workers moving around the country according to agricultural seasons. These people are working around the country, but usually have a home (and family) that they return to at least once a year. Their ties are kept strong even though they migrate.

Theories of Migration[edit]

In Adams Smith's concept of the Invisible hand, he described the reality of economy where people act in their own interest. People who seek wealth mostly follow their own interest and well-being. Based on neoclassical economics theory, capital moves from high wage countries to low wage countries. Conversely, flows of labor move from low-wage countries to high wage countries. People in poor countries are willing to work for low wages, so factories are built in these places to cut costs. Migration is affected primarily by either push factors or pull factors. The push factor is where there is a lack of jobs, political fear, or the threat of natural disaster which forces people to move from their country of origin. The pull factor is where there are job opportunities with higher pay and better living conditions.

Companies such as Nike build sweatshops in poor countries such as in Vietnam in order to cut costs of labor, while effectively increasing their net revenue. Nike has about four times as many workers in Vietnam as in the U.S. An article by Johan Norberg, mentions that people in Vietnam like their new jobs because not only do they receive better pay, but also they do not have to work in the sun.1



The term diaspora refers to the forced or voluntary movement of any population sharing a common ethnic identity who leave their settled territory and become residents in new areas disconnected from their former home. This is converse to the traditional nomadic culture. Evidence of a Diaspora culture is the community's resistance to primary language change and the maintenance of their religious and cultural practices. Some examples of this include, Tibetan monks living in Nepal, India since the Chinese invasion of Tibet, as well as the large populations of Hongkongese people living in Vancouver, London, Sydney, Singapore, New York and Los Angeles.

Jewish Diaspora[edit]

Jewish Diaspora began when the Assyrian conquered Israel in 722 BC and the Hebrew people were scattered all over the Middle East. These victims seemed to always be ignored in history books. When Nebuchadnezzar[12] deported Judeans in 597 BC, he allowed Jews to remain in Babylon, while others fled to the Nile. This was considered the beginning date of Jewish Diaspora. There were now three groups of Hebrews. Some were in Babylon, Judea, Egypt, and other spread around the Middle East. All of these Jews retained their religion under Persian and Greek law. Some converted to different religions but were faithful to the new-found Torah. The Romans discriminated against the Jews. Governors wanted to get as much money revenue as possible and took any money they could get. The Judeans revolted and in 73 AD the last of revolutionaries were holed up in the mountain fort of Masada. 1,000 men, women, and children starved in the besiegement for two years. Rather than surrender to the Romans, the remaining people in the mountain killed themselves. The Romans destroyed Jerusalem, annexed Judea, and drove Jews from Palestine. The Diaspora would continue as Jewish people spread over Africa, Asia, and Europe. ^

Armenian Diaspora[edit]

The Armenian diaspora is a term used to describe the groups or communities of Armenians living outside of Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh region of northern Azerbaijan. It mostly refers to the migration of Armenians during and after the Armenian Genocide, where 1.5 million armenians were exterminated.

The Armenian diaspora has existed since the loss of Armenian statehood in 1375, it grew considerably in size after the Armenian Genocide. Most Armenians stayed on the Armenian plain remaining in historical Armenia under control of the Ottoman Empire. Armenians survived as peasant farmers in rural Anatolia, but others mostly merchants resettled in the major Ottoman cities such as Constantinople, Smyrna, and Tarsus. Through upward social mobility they were able to gain wealth and status even as a non-Islamic minority. This changed when in the mid to late nineteenth century, the change political climate in the Ottoman Empire prompted political paranoia. Fears of uprising revolts and coup left the Ottoman's looking for a scape goat. They found this in the Ottoman-Armenian population. The Young Turk government in an attempt to solidify their power massacred or forcibly removed the vast majority of Armenians from the eastern Anatolian provinces to the South West during the Armenian Genocide.

Map of Armenian Diaspora

Today estimates range from half to two-thirds of the world's Armenians live outside of historical Armenia.[13] Armenian communities have emerged all over the world with the largest communities existing in Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Russia, Poland, Western Europe, India, and North America. Of the total Armenian population living worldwide estimated to be 9,000,000, only about 3,000,000 live in Armenia and about 130,000 in Nagorno-Karabakh. [14] The rest of the populations appear to be equally dispersed around the world with approximately two million living in former Soviet states.[15] The post-communist Republic of Armenia has officially defined the Armenian nation to include the far-flung diaspora, a policy in accord with the feelings of many diaspora Armenians. Armenia officially considers all of the displaced Armenians to be part of Armenia. In 2008 Armenia created a Diaspora Ministry to strengthen ties with the Armenian Diaspora.

Long-Distance Nationalism[edit]

Long-Distance Nationalism came about when members of a diaspora would decide to support their homelands’ struggles. The immigrants being citizens of a state different than their homeland have been known to show little citizenship participation towards their homelands. However, they normally feel more of an attachment to their homelands than to where they currently live, which then leads them to support the struggles in their homeland. They tend to participate in the current conflicts of their homelands by propaganda, money, and weapons, anyway besides voting. An example of this is "the Haitian Diaspora", which was when thousands of Haitians migrated outside of their territory. Later these citizens began to act more like trans-border citizens. [13]

Trans-border states[edit]

Immigrants who are members of Long-Distance Nationalism are also known as Trans-border states. They are people who are citizens of another state, but claim that even though they have left the country, their descendants remain part of their ancestral state. Therefore, they still have the right to participate in homeland struggles for they are expected to return home bringing with them new skills to help build their nation. In many nations trans-border states are permitted the right to vote in their country of origin. In the Dominican Republic emigrants that have become citizens of other countries are expected to vote in the Dominican elections. People of Trans–border States have the right to participate in decisions that will ultimately affect them, no matter where their decisions are made.

Long Distance Nationalism has outgrown its definition and is now known as Trans-border states with the only difference between the two being that the citizens show more loyalty towards their homeland. Citizens of another state who claim that even though they have left their homeland country, their descendants remain part of their ancestral state are citizens involved in Trans-border states. They want the right to participate in their homeland struggles for they are expected to return home bringing with them skills to help build their nation. In many nations people involved in Trans-border states are permitted the right to vote in their country of origin. In the Dominican Republic emigrants that have become citizens of other countries are expected to vote in the Dominican elections. People of Trans-border states have the right to participate in decisions that will ultimately affect them, no matter where their decisions are made. The reason Trans-border states has become more easily carried out on a global scale is because advances in communication and transportation have increase in size allowing the ability for more of an impact in their homeland. Trans-border states are able to remain in the national struggles of their homeland more than ever before. In Mexico and the Philippines it can be vital for emigrants to attribute to Long-Distance Nationalism by remitting money to sustain their families and communities. People seemed to feel attached to their homes, especially if they haven't adapted to their new ones. It is encouraged in Mexico for emigrants to participate in homeland politics. Although it is encouraged in Mexico it is also discouraged in many other countries, such as the United States soon after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. After September 11th, dual loyalties began to be re-examined and the USA took precautions with countries that had Long-Distance Nationalism inside the US.


Substantive Citizenship[edit]

Substantive Citizenship is linked to the idea of forming an identity and cultural distinction. In this type of citizenship, minority groups are at a disadvantage as it can ascribe “imagined labor market identities to workers with different nationalities” [7]. Which ends up causing a lot of problems and unfair treatment. This concept “implies the notion of equality in that citizens are said to share a common status in respect of the rights and duties that they hold”, but instead it deals with who gets to “enjoy the rights that ensure effective membership of a national community” [8].

An example of this seen in the world is that countries like the United States, France or England see working on a farm or the growing of crops as a lower job. While in places like Central and South America, farming is seen quite frequently and is accepted as an equal job. This means that when the people from these areas move to the United States or Europe they face discrimination as this is the only job that they know how to do.

Flexible Citizenship[edit]

Flexible citizenship [16] was defined by anthropologist Aihwa Ong as “ the strategies and effects employed by managers, technocrats, and professionals who move regularly across state boundaries who seek both to circumvent and benefit from different nation-state regimes.” This concept allows the nation-states to work together to move toward a better economy and global success. This is closely related to the concept of globalization[17]. It seemed before that in order for the nation-states to become globalized they would need to be independent, this has proven to be very contradictory due to flexible citizenship. This concept allows people such as business owners and managers to better their company and do so on a much larger scale.

This is exemplified in the Chinese culture. Chinese elite families are large components for the successes in the economy of the Pacific Rim. This all began when the Chinese moved into European empires, while doing so the Chinese were required to strengthen their bonds with their family and business partners in order to be successful. For example, a Hong Kong family business owner had their son run a part of the hotel chain in the Pacific regions, while another brother lived in San Francisco and managed the hotels that were located within Northern America and Europe.

Post-National Ethos[edit]

Within the Chinese Culture and Flexible Citizenship, there can sometimes be a few negative effects. When families are dispersed all throughout the world it can seem hard to stay happy and close together when things such as support, relationships, and parental responsibilities are neglected. It seems as though the success sometimes gets out of control and all that is seen by them is success. It is forgotten what it is like to think of things other than globalization [18], a capitalist economy, and money. The concept of Nationalism can completely lose its meaning and they seem to follow a Post-National ethos. This happens when “an attitude toward the world in which people submit to the govern mentality of the capitalist market while trying to avoid the govern mentality of nation-states.”

Pathway to and Problems with Gaining US Citizenship[edit]

For thousands of Americans, gaining citizenship to the United States was the most frustrating and time-consuming process they have ever experienced. However, it is not the civics test or the pointed questions from federal officials that make the process so hard. For most, the real block comes sooner, when prospective citizens seek to live and work in the United States by obtaining their "green card." Some 140,000 professionals, more than half working in the technology sector, are granted permanent residency out of nearly 900,000 immigrants America welcomes each year. It is this group that tends to go through an increasingly costly, risky, and tedious process. For example, most immigration lawyers charge between $5,000 to $7,500 to accompany a client through the green card process. Some cases can cost closer to $15,000 before adding on application feeds and any potential family members. The real cost, however, is harder to quantify. Many applicants can spend years marked by a feeling of lost opportunity and helplessness as they wait for the process to conclude. The process takes a while because they want to ensure that all green card members in the United States are qualified to become a citizen. They are tested for their dedication, loyalty, and trust for the country. [14]


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  7. Smith, Lavene L. Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism. 2nd ed. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania P, 1989. Google Books. Google. 4 Mar. 2009 <,M1>.
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  12. Manali Oak.
  13. Georges E. Fouron and Nina G. Schiller, Georges Woke Up Laughing: Long Distance Nationalism and the Search for Home
  1. Bauder, Harald. Labor Movement: How Migration Regulates Labor Markets. New York: Oxford UP, 2006.
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  1. ^ Schultz, Emily A. and Lavenda, Robert H. 2009 Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition. 7th Edition. NY. Oxford University Press. p. 266
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  1. ^ Schultz, Emily A. and Lavenda, Robert H. 2009 Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition. 7th Edition. NY. Oxford University Press. p. 410-412
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  1. "Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers (Issues of Our Time)" By Kwame Anthony Appiah