Cultural Anthropology/Production, Inequality and Development
People all over the world rely on modes of production, distribution, and consumption in order to provide food and other commodities necessary in life. These modes differ based on culture in the ways that humans relate to and make use of the natural environment, how humans relate to each other, how the institutions of society and federal states cause change, and how ideas impact the ways in which these relationships are conveyed. This section discusses specific aspects of the different modes of production that have been used over time and that continue to be used in different cultures worldwide.
Production is the transformation of nature's raw materials into a form suitable for human use. For example, taking wheat grown in a field and grinding it into flour to make bread is an example of production. What makes it so is the conversion of the wheat into a form that humans can use for sustenance (i.e., flour for bread). All of the factors involved in the conversion of the plant into a form useful to humans, including the entire agricultural process, are considered to be factors of production.
Distribution is the transport of produced goods whether that be by land, air or sea to the consumer. Examples include the shipping of a package around the globe or even simply taking food to the market to sell. Forms of distribution vary depending on level of development and technological means but it is a universal and is required to get a product to the potential consumer.
One way in which goods are distributed is through Physical Distribution Management and Efficient Consumer Response systems. These methods of transporting products have been increasingly important since the Industrial Revolution and are increasingly so due to the rapid rate of globalization and technological advance. This is because as industry makes the production of certain specific goods more efficient, the transportation of those goods becomes more vital because the distance to the places that need them is greater. Without the important aspect of distribution, industrialization would not be effective or even possible to sustain.
Consumption is the buying or use of a good or service that has been previously distributed and produced. Whenever an individual buys from a store or buys a service from someone else, they have taken part in consumption. Consumption is an important part of the trade process and it is the final step in the process.
For each of these systems there are many different forms and many different processes by which they function. Production can span all areas of the globe, but in many different fashions. Although it is agreed that "production shapes the context in which exchange can occur, determining which parties have how much of what goods to distribute", the extent to which this applies varies drastically from geographic location to geographic location and can often uncover inequalities between the different levels. A good example of this is the Global Coffee Trade.
A complete example of the whole process is documented in the 2006 film entitled "Black Gold," which follows the coffee trade in a region of Ethiopia known as Oromia. This area is known as the birthplace of coffee. The film follows Tadesse Meskela, the Manager of the Oromia Coffee Farmers Cooperative Union, as he travels to the United Kingdom and the United States trying to promote the coffee grown by the local farmers of Oromia. His goal is to sell the coffee on the international market without few or no middle men so that the Ethiopian coffee farmers will earn higher profits from their product. There is an astounding disparity between what distributors pay the farmers for their coffee and the amount that the consumer ultimately pays. There are efforts to help combat exploitation of the farmers, one of the most notable being Fair Trade.
Modes of Production
- Production in Non-industrial Societies
The methods of production in non-industrialized societies are foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, and agriculture, all of which will be reviewed in more depth below. Ninety percent of human production in the past was based on foraging, while now less than 1% of the global population forages. This change is essentially due to the ramifications of global population increase. Horticulture and agriculture are both types of farming, and are widely used in the world today. However, there are vast differences in the scales of production when comparing horticulture or agriculture to industrialized agriculture, one of the main ones being that non-industrial societies mainly produce just enough for consumption. The basic purpose is for survival, while the purpose of industrialized agriculture is profit.
Foraging used to be the primary mode of survival for humans. It was the most common mode of production for over 90% of the time that humans have existed. However, it has become very rare today, equaling approximately 1% of modes of production practiced globally. Factors involved in this change stem from population increase. Large societies cannot be sustained by foraging, which calls for extensive use of land in order to support a relatively small band of people. Foraging has long been called "hunting and gathering." However, this term conveys an inaccurate assessment of the foods on which foraging bands rely, which are primarily plant based, foraged foods rather than hunted foods. Exceptions are those societies, such as the Inuit, that live in environments with little plant life.
An example of a modern foraging culture is the Ache people of Paraguay. The men spend their time hunting for game. The women follow behind, gathering resources such as fruits, palm starch, and larvae. Most of the time they split into pairs, but there are always others within ear shot, ready to help if the need arises. The men also help women in physically challenging tasks, such as climbing and cutting down trees. With this cooperation comes the expectation that resources will be shared with each other. A game animal is usually distributed throughout the community. The hunter never eats his own catch, and his family receives just as much meat as every other member of their tribe. Gathering is slightly different; women who gather usually keep slightly more than half of their findings.
Some of the goods that were normally foraged were from the coast, such as fish and mollusk, and from the forest, game, honey, insect larva, fruit, palm fiber, and greens . Foragers usually inhabit a space of around 5/6 k/m per person.  Although they occupy a large amount of land, foragers maintain a nomadic lifestyle and travel in small groups of 10-100 . Their way of live is sustainable because they take up a large portion of land for the small amount of people that actually inhabit it, allowing the land to replenish itself.
Another example of a foraging society is the Huaorani, (Also called Waorani or Auca), an indigenous tribe located in the Amazonian region of Ecuador. They have an incredible knowledge of the trees and other plant life in their area, which comprise an extremely important part of their culture due to their uses in hunting, medicine, and traditional ceremonies. Although they hunt animals, they do not hunt birds of prey or land- based predators, and they hold special ceremonies for each animal they kill before they eat it, in respect for the animal's spirit. Due to the small size of the group and the relatively large amount of land on which they forage, they are able to maintain a sustainable balance between their livelihood and their surrounding environment.
For more information on the Huaorani, .
Correlates of Foraging
There are several correlates, or regular features, of foraging bands. They live in small groups called "bands," comprised of 30 to 50 people that are mobile according to seasonal rounds, moving from place to place depending on the season to utilize different resources and assure their resources are not completely consumed. When hunting and gathering, groups make sure that they don't become too attached to a piece of land because that could prevent them from moving on after the season has passed. When they have gathered their resources they bring all of their goods together as a group to guarantee that the entire group is fed properly; if they held resources individually, not one person would get the nutrition needed to survive. Even though they tend to have all the resources they need, the ability to store goods is limited so they only take what they can eat. Nothing is wasted. Within these groups the political and social organization is very simple. Some bands have no political leader but instead look to elders who hold more prestige than others due to their age and experience. Such individuals do not have power over other members of the band. In other cases, a band may have a headman who, again, leads by example rather than by force. There tends to be very little conflict between people because of the small group size and due to the fact that bands are kin-based units. Overall these groups are split into typical gender based divisions. Women do the gathering while the men do the hunting, but gathering is the primary source of food for foragers living in temperate climates.
The Original Affluent Society
The term "original affluent society" was first coined by anthropologist Marshall Sahlins to refer to foragers who, he argued, lived in societies of "affluence." Sahlins defined affluence as "having more than enough of whatever is required to satisfy consumption needs."  He believed affluence could be obtained in two ways: by producing much or by desiring little; the latter is the path taken by foragers. As a result of this lifestyle, foragers are theoretically free from the characteristically Western element of greed — therefore, the concept of wealth is nonexistent, or at least irrelevant.
An affluent society famously referred to by Sahlins is the !Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari. Their affluence is evident because resources are readily available to them — so much so that they do not have or desire storage containers to hoard surpluses, and they borrow what is needed. Because of this, they have no interest in acquiring wealth. Furthermore, foragers generally are reported to have shorter working hours - possibly just twenty per week. Sahlins contrasts this to working hours in "civilized" societies, suggesting that leisure time decreases with the "evolution of culture."  See more on original affluent society.
Pacific Northwest Native American history has shattered stereotypes that previously insisted on the necessity of farming and agricultural practices in order to develop complex, structured societies rich in culture. With over 39 different languages and 11 distinct language families, Northwestern coastal Natives were “the most socially complex hunting and gathering societies known to earth.” Prior to the arrival of European explorers 250 years ago and the practice of written documentation, they had no form of written language; history was recorded orally, and Native families were not dependent on the monetary system. Natives of the Pacific Northwest had a unique hierarchical system dependent on slavery and with hereditary chiefs. Their potlatch ceremonies served as a redistribution of wealth and unquestionably displayed their affluence and abundance of natural resources, art, and culture.  Economies were based on generating heaps of processed and stored foods. Pacific Northwest Coast peoples' diets generally consisted of berries, bulbs, shoots, waterfowl, land mammals, shellfish, chitons, sea urchins, crabs, seaweeds and, most importantly, salmon. They hunted and gathered only what was available, with great respect to life and the interconnection of nature, believing that all living things possessed a spirit, presented themselves as food willingly, and had to be honored accordingly. It was believed that “Bears, whales, thunderbirds, wolves, or salmon-and supernatural beings- had their own villages, their own chiefs, and their own structured societies.” When food was scarce, it was a result of disrespect or broken taboos. 
Cultivation is the process of growing plants on arable land, and usually refers to large scale farming. Requirements of cultivation are land, water, and seed for growing. Cultivation involves the sowing of the seeds in the appropriate season. In the process of cultivation a farmer is often required to initially till the land, control weeds, and ultimately harvest the crops. In the modern age, this practice has been developed into the professional art of agronomy, and may be analyzed by specialized agronomists to maximize efficiency. Soil cultivation refers specifically to the tilling of the soil, such as by ploughing, to prepare the soil for planting and to control weeds.
- Horticulture: is the process of plant cultivation using only simple hand tools. The process began following basic foraging systems in prehistory. People began growing specific crops instead of only hunting and gathering in the surrounding lands. The main concept of horticulture is the growing of crops and useful trees in forest areas, with long fallow periods in between. A fallow period is a period of time when cultivated land is left untilled after plowing (ploughing). Horticulture also uses slash and burn techniques to clear land for cultivation. This is a simple and small scale form of agriculture, and used in areas with a low population density.
- Agriculture: is defined by the production of goods and food through the processes of farming and forestry. The defining features of agriculture are land ownership and the use of irrigation techniques, draught animals or machinery, and fertilization. This is based on the fact that the more land one possesses, the more space they have to plant crops. Another very important aspect of agriculture has to do with socially enforced use rights, as well as water rights. Water is a huge part of agriculture because that and sunlight, as well as the occasional fertilizer, are the keys to growing crops successfully.
Historically, agriculture was the main source of work for nearly a third of the entire United States population. But today, with the rapid growth of industry, agriculture only employs a small percentage of the country's population. This is primarily because of new technologies becoming available that can take the place of what a large number of people were previously being paid to do.
Agriculture ranks as one the most hazardous industries in the world. Farmers put themselves at very high risks every day and are very susceptible to things such as hearing loss, lung disease, skin cancer, and a variety of other risks. Specifically, in the United States, an average of over 500 people die per year doing work on a farm. Almost one-fifth of these deaths every year are a result of tractor overturns. The percent of the human population working in agriculture has decreased over time.
- The Cultivation Continuum
- Intensification: People and the Environment
- Pastoralism - A Nomadic mode of Production
Pastoralism is defined as the herding of domesticated or partially domesticated animals. The basis for pastoralism is movement. Some pastoralists move throughout the year, while others have a permanent or semi-permanent base camp where women and children remain throughout the year while men move herds to remote pastures. Pastoralists must be nomadic in order to move their herds to viable pastures and water sources. The animal products upon which pastoralists rely include meat, dairy products, hides, wool, and dung. Pastoralist societies tend to live in arid environments.
The herds form the foundation of pastoralists' cultures, for without their animals their culture would not exist. An example of a pastoral nomadic society are the herders of Siberia and northern Mongolia. The herders, known as the Tsaschin, or Dukha, rely on their animals for transportation, and for the staples of their diet: milk, cheese, yoghurt and dried milk curds. These people hold rights to the reindeer as a group. They depend on one another to stick together and build their herd larger in order for survival in rural Mongolia.
Horticulture is characterized by slashing and burning. The defining feature is a crop or forest rotation with long fallow periods . Horticulturist societies have around 160 people per square kilometer . The main crops they produce/ use are vegetables, grains and roots . Every person usually works around 15-20 hours a week, and the work is distributed by sex and age group .Children have an important role in a horticultural society because they weed and plant seeds, and collect water and firewood. The Yanamamo is an example of a horticulturist society .
The Yanamamo are a population living in the Amazon Rainforest in the hills between Brazil and Venezuela. They are the largest population of native people in South America, and because of the remoteness of their location they managed to remain uncontacted by outsiders until the mid-20th century.
Living with their kin and marriage lineages, the Yanamamo live in a communal system consisting of groups of 50 to 400 people. The village stays within the shabono, which are oval shaped houses that are around 100 yards long. Everyone lives in the same Shabono, which they build out of materials found in the jungle. They primarily harvest bananas through slash and burn horticulture. They also practice polygamy and have one of the lowest levels of blood pressure of any human population. 
The Yanomamo hold complex religious ideas centered on their belief of the four levels of reality (duku ka misi, hedu ka mis, hei ka misi,and hei ta bebi). Their religion is heavily based on "the use of hallucinogenic drugs and the telling of mythical tales". []
Slash and Burn Cultivation
Also known as "shifting cultivation", the ancient mode of production known as slash and burn cultivation has been found in many parts of the globe, although it is nowadays mostly associated with cultivation in tropical rainforests. The process of slashing and burning involves two important components, the first being cutting down trees and, right before the rainy season, burning them to produce a nutrient rich ash. Secondly, after the fields productivity has declined, it is abandoned and allowed to return to a natural state. Given enough time, fields that have been burnt can return to a "predisturbance" state, and can be used by humans for food and other resources. These fields typically retain a large amount of plant species usable by humans.
Today slash and burn cultivation is practiced by 200 to 500 million or more people worldwide. Its practice, however, has sparked a debate about whether its continued use should be discouraged or allowed to continue unabated. When done improperly, slashing and burning can degrade large amounts of forests which will not recover. However, if done properly, slashing and burning can provide a small group of people with a secure food source and has been shown to be sustainable over time.
In some areas, slash and burn has actually proven to be more sustainable than and as productive as more modern agricultural methods. Slash and burn methods are most efficient in areas where adequate land still exists and where rapid population growth has not yet occurred. Most slash and burn fields incorporate a wide variety of crop and tree species, making them very similar to the primary ecosystem. Slash and burn is thought to be a type of agro forestry which has been proven to be conducive to biodiversity conservation due to the high levels of diversity and physical structure.[]
The Maya are a Mesoamerican people found in Southern Mexico and Central America. Historically, the Mayans were a highly advanced civilization known for their fully developed written alphabet, the only one found in pre-Columbian America, as well as their advanced mathematical and astronomical systems. Presently, there are about six million Mayan people living in portions of Mexico and Southern America, many of which have assimilated, although some have retained traditional Mayan practices and continue to speak the Mayan language. Historically, the Maya lived in the rain forests around expansive, highly developed cities that were used mainly for religious purposes.The cities contained observation towers for astronomical research, large palaces, and even ball courts, where a ritual Mayan ball game was played. Although the cities were large, it permanently housed very few of the Maya. Population sizes were fairly small due to agricultural limitations; the Maya would need about 70 acres of land to fully support about 5 people. The Maya used slash and burn cultivation to produce maize, their staple crop.
CHIAPAS, the southern-most state of Mexico, borders Guatemala to the southeast. Today, over one million Tzotzil- and Tzeltal-speaking Maya live in the Chiapas highlands. []
The indigenous people of Chiapas are among the most traditional of the three million Maya of Mesoamerica. They live in remote mountain and lowland communities where they grow their own crops, build their own houses, furniture and musical instruments, and the women still weave and embroider clothing for themselves and their families. Neighboring communities often speak different Mayan languages, and they retain their own ritual and ceremonial practices, along with a distinctive style of traditional dress.[]
Pastoralists defining feature is mobility. Their main concern is the care, the tending, and the use of livestock . Pastoralists are nomadic, like foragers. They occupy large spaces of marginal lands which is sustainable because it allows the land to replenish itself. The animals in their herds are able to live off the marginal lands, however humans aren’t able to utilize it because of insufficient nutrients. They are mobile in order to utilize different sources of water and pasture. Pastoralists were the first to have signs of inheritance of land.  Pastoralists usually have 10 people for every square kilometer in order to make room for their herds . Almost 50% of their diet comes from meat from their own herd.
The Maasai tribes of East Africa are a modern example of a pastoralist society. They inhabit parts of Kenya and northern Tanzania. They rely predominately on the herding of goats, sheep, and cattle as their main source of food. Cattle, especially, is held in high regards among the Maasai. In fact, the size of a man’s cattle is often considered a measure of his wealth. The Maasai people also consume food such as maize, rice, cabbage, and potatoes.
Agriculture is the production of food and goods by means of forestry and farming, utilizing machinery, irrigation systems, and fertilization. Its defining feature is land ownership (and if not ownership, then very detailed and socially enforced use rights) in addition to water rights. One significant result of agriculture is that it led to the development of large populations. Domesticated animals were kept and permanent crops were maintained; this in turn, created food surpluses that paved the way to more stratified societies with larger populations. There was need for a higher level rule enforcement through social institutions, private property, and stored wealth.
There are three types of agriculture: family farms, collectivized agriculture, and industrialized agriculture. The "family farm" run by a household has largely been replaced by industrialized farms. However, industrialized farms are not without controversy, due to their use of potentially dangerous chemicals, inhumane treatment of animals, monocropping, and increasing reliance on genetically modified organisms.
The defining features of industrialism are specialized production and manufacturing of goods for profit. The basis of this mode of production is a reliance on machinery to support a large industry. Industrialism emphasizes the power of speedy production lines. Over the past century, industrialism has spread over the globe, replacing the more self-reliant and independent sources of production, like foraging and horticulture. While people were once needed to run machinery, the recent advancements in technology, specifically computers, have actually resulted in fewer jobs for human workers. Industrialism, unlike the other four modes of production, (foraging, horticulture, pastoralism and agriculture) heavily focuses on capital wealth rather than sustainability.
The shift from an industrial economy dominated by manufacturing jobs to an economy dominated by service-oriented, information-intensive occupations. The term Post-Industrial economy refers to a period in which an already industrialized economy or nation begins to experience a decrease in relative importance of manufacturing and an increase in relative importance to service, research, and information-based aspects of the economy. The general shift away from blue-collar manufacturing jobs is coupled with the dominance in the service sectors. The largest of these service sectors include education, healthcare, research, and government services. Examples of Post-Industrial Societies include the United States, Canada, Japan, and most of Western Europe.
Common Characteristics of a Post-Industrial Economy:
• Decline in Manufacturing Sector of economy
• Reliance on overseas outsourcing of manufactured goods
• Increase in Service Sector of economy
• Increase in amount of information technology
The economic transition from Industrial to Post-industrial modes of production have had tremendous effects on people’s employment and lifestyles. As the United States began a transition toward fewer manufacturing jobs, especially in the steel and automotive industries, thousands of workers were left without jobs. There are few examples that illustrate this evolution better than the transition of the United States’ “Manufacturing-Belt”, to the United States’"Rust-Belt". The geographic location of this area encompasses Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and the industrial Midwest, and was once the source of a very large part of the manufactured goods in the United States. The region had a booming manufacturing based economy for much of the 19th and 20th centuries, but by the 1980s, it had become known as the “Rust-Belt”. Several factors, including overseas competition, made manufacturing steel and other goods unprofitable in the region. As a result, many jobs were outsourced, and unemployment grew rapidly. For many years cities such as Pittsburg and Cleveland faced outward migrations because it no longer made economic sense for these people to live in the region. These people often moved to areas still involved in manufacturing goods in other parts of the country, and many retrained for different employment. More recently, much of the region is experiencing growth in the service sectors and in technology intensive manufacturing. This migration and move away from manufacturing as a way of making a living had significant effects on the culture in the region as people had to adapt their way of life and thinking in order to cope with and adapt to the changing economic environment. Today, politicians visiting cities in the “Rust-Belt” often emphasize their belief in the importance of a strong economy because it is a value that many people in the region believe is important. 
Means of Production
It is easiest to define means of production in terms of mode of production. The term mode of production refers to a select set of occurring social relations through history, through which labor is made possible. The means of production are the skills, organization, and tools that make that labor possible. Tools can include machines, equipment, or any form of infrastructure. The means are essentially the things that help man perform labor on the resource and make it usable and beneficial. For a foraging society, the means might include the weapons and game, as well as the plants and tools that allow processing for proper ingestion. In a pastoral production setting the means include water and pasture. Means and modes of production are terms that are derived largely from Marxist theory. In terms of production, and how humans take part in it, Karl Marx theorized that the ownership of the means of production is the root of why classes exist. Owning the means of production makes it possible for labor to be exploited. Cultures practice this "ownership" of the means in a way that keeps the classes intact.
Indian agriculture is a good example of a high production farming culture. India has a cattle population of 193 million. Cattle represent a major means of production that allow Indian farmers to reach the numbers they reach in production. They are the second largest producers of wheat, rice, and sugar. And they're the largest producers of milk, tea, pepper, cashews, and coconuts. Farm insurance companies play another role in their means of production, insuring the farmers in the case that their crops and resources were to be destroyed. Fishing is also a large industry in India, with production jobs including fishermen, boat operators, and saltmakers. The boats, fishing nets and tools, all represent the means that make the production possible.
- Alienation in Industrial Economies
Consumption is defined as the use of material goods necessary for human survival- for example by eating food or wearing clothing. Most anthropologists agree on the fact that consumption is the third subdivided phase of economic activity, the first two being production and distribution. It has been suggested that the priorities of consumption determine the production and exchange patterns, not the other way around. There are two types of consumption: personalized consumption is knowing the person who produces the goods to meet your needs, and depersonalized consumption is when a vaguely understood global system produces goods that meet your needs. There is also the difference in market and non-market based consumption. A market based consumption creates perceived needs and wants for what the market has to offer. A non-market based consumption targets satisfying minimum needs or requirements for survival. Picture
Consumption is a main concept of economics, and gives rise to derived concepts such as consumer debt. It is generally thought that consumption originated before production. But the precise definition can vary because different schools of economists define production quite differently. Consumption is only considered to be the end use of a product. A grocery store for example, is generally not considered to be a consumer of goods because the store sells the products it buys. A consumer is more practically defined as the person or entity that uses the product. Some economists define consumption much more broadly, as the aggregate of all economic activity that does not entail the design, production and marketing of goods and services (e.g. "the selection, adoption, use, disposal and recycling of goods and services").. America is the world's largest consumer in regards to an individual's consumption rates. In fact the world’s richest 20% account for 76.6% of total private consumption, while the poorest 20% account for 1.5% of total private consumption. . Though these numbers show a large difference in consumption, it is easy to see why there is a large difference. The wealthier people have more disposable income which allows them to consume more.
Ecology and consumption
Ecology is defined as the way a species can correspond to each other and their surroundings. These surroundings are separated into different ecozones that represent the different plants and animals that live in the area. To adapt to an ecozone, species have to create an econiche. These are the plants and animals that the species live on. People called socioecologists are the ones that study and explore the ecozones. They try to clarify why animals act the way they do in each different environment. An example would be how deer from different area act differently than others, especially the group that lives near humans.
A section of ecology is Cultural ecology. This is where anthropologists try to use socioecology to explain humans within their societies. The cultural ecologists can find patterns within humans and their consumption along with the production and distribution. These can be explained through the attributes of the ecozones they live in. All humans need to learn to use the different resources that are accessible in their ecozone in order to survive. Ecology is directly related to consumption in that the ecology of different species affects the consumption of that species. So, different species and even humans in different areas consume differently depending on where they are or where they are from.
An example of differences in ecological consumption would be the consumption of different foods among other cultures. There was a comparison between seventh graders in Los Angeles, California and seventh graders in Wuhan, China. The object was to make direct comparisons of overweight and obese children from these two different societies. It was found that 43.1% of seventh graders in the LA were overweight where only 12.1% in Wuhan were. It was also found that the social economic status positively relates to the risk of overweight and obesity in China, where in the US it does not correlate. 
[Graph of Calories consumed in different countries: http://inbalance.files.wordpress.com/2008/01/meat-livestock-food-consumption.jpg]
Why Do People Consume What They Do?
Consumption is usually referred to as the using up of material goods necessary for human survival. At a minimum these goods are food, drink, clothing, and shelter. Anthropologists have typically dismissed the study of consumption saying that there are no interesting questions to be asked about it. Even though this consumption of goods is the main drive of economy, it may not be in anthropologists' best interest to study it. The reasons for consumption are simple: either people need something—food and drink—or they want something—like material possessions. Both of these, they thought, weren’t likely to reveal any interesting patterns. However, for the few anthropologists who did look at consumption across different cultures, they found distinct patterns in the way humans consume.
One approach they have taken to try and understand these patters is the Internal Explanation. This explanation comes from the work done by Bronislaw Malinowski. He believed that every social practice a society had was done to support the basic human needs. Malinowski said that basic human needs could be biological or psychological. He proposed them to be nourishment, reproduction, bodily comforts, safety, movement, growth, and health. Then the idea was that to satisfy each of these human needs there was a corresponding practice which were food-gathering techniques, kinship, shelter, protection, activities, training, and hygiene.
The last key point in Malinowski’s explanation was that humans are solely dependent on the physical world to survive. Even though westerners see the way more primitive cultures utilize the physical world as bizarre, they are still using the same physical world we are using, just in different ways. Unfortunately, Malinowski’s explanation falls short because it doesn’t explain why all societies don’t share the same consumption patterns. It doesn’t explain why some people eat wild berries and some eat processed wheat. This is where cultural ecology takes over and explains why these differences exist.
Modes of Exchange
The idea of exchange was first explained by Marcel Mauss in terms of two types of exchange: non-capitalist gift exchanges (which have to do with social relations and building, which require a gift for exchange), and impersonal commodity exchanges. Impersonal commodity exchanges are more common in Capitalist societies which don’t link those who are exchanging with one another, aside through the use of cash. These aspects are also characteristic of egalitarian societies. Later, Marshall Sahlins used the work of Karl Polanyi to develop the idea of three modes of exchange, which could be identified throughout more specific cultures than just Capitalist and non-capitalist. These are reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange. Although these modes of exchanges are drastically different, aspects of more than one mode may be present in any one society.
Redistribution is the second mode of exchange within many different cultures. It occurs when one member of a group, tribe, or community collects all of the goods that the community has obtained and then redistributes the items equally between everybody. It is the group member who collects all of the goods job to make sure that everyone in the community receives an equal share. Then, everyone in the tribe or community is provided for and taken care of.
An example of a society that is based around redistribution is the Kula in the Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea.
The Kula ring or Kula exchange is an old tradition of the Kula people in which they exchange valuables between thousands of other people within other island communities. The exchange of Kula valuables is done in a very precise manner. First of all, the shell- disc necklaces that have been passed down from generations to generations are traded to the north, or in the clockwise direction. The shell armbands on the other hand, are traded to the south, or counterclockwise (anticlockwise) direction. This tradition in the Kula society represents redistribution because of the gathering and redistributing of valuable goods within the communities that take part in the tradition. The Kula valuables never remain in one family or a certain place for too long, they are always being traded and redistributed to other people over time.
Reciprocity is the first and most ancient mode of exchange within cultures around the world. This term can be understood by the three different subcategories that help to define it; they are generalized reciprocity, balanced reciprocity, and negative reciprocity. Generalized reciprocity is expressed by the exchanging of goods or items with no explicit date or time set for returning them. Along with this, there is normally no discussion about what the value or return must be for the exchange, so the amount or value that is returned is not necessarily the same as the value of the goods given to the person.
Balanced reciprocity on the other hand is when the two parties that are engaging in the exchange expect a full replacement of the goods, and there is most likely an amount of time set that the item needs to be returned or paid for by. In other words, the amount a person gives another person is expected to be completely paid or given back within a matter of time that is set between the two people or groups that are taking part in the exchange.
Finally, negative reciprocity is also represented by an exchange of goods, items, or even services, however one of the persons or parties tries to get the item for no charge. By doing this they hope that the other party will not attempt to make them return or pay for the service or item, and that they will be able to obtain whatever it is for free.
- 2. The Market Exchange Principal
The Market Exchange Principal is the third and last mode of exchange. It is the most recent mode of exchange, and was invented in a capitalist society. Capitalism involves three things: an exchange of goods (trade) calculated in terms of a multipurpose medium of exchange and standard of value (money) and carried on by means of a "supply-demand-price mechanism" (i.e. the market). Karl Polanyi the economic historian who developed the three modes of exchange, was aware that these three things (trade, money, and market institutions) had developed independently of one another throughout history. He also knew that they could be found in societies outside the West. Capitalism is unique because of its ability to link all three institutions (trade, money, and the market) to one another in the societies of early modern Europe.
The United States is an example of a country that is integrated by the MARKET MODE of exchange.
- Coexistence of Exchange Principals
The oldest mode of exchange is Reciprocity which is used in egalitarian societies, like that of the Ju/’hoansi. There are three different types of reciprocity: generalized, balanced, and negative reciprocity.
- Generalized reciprocity is an exchange where return isn't expected right away and the value of this return isn’t specified. This is based on the assumptions that all exchange balances out, like that between family members. This is largely based on trust.
- Balanced reciprocity (or also known as Symmetrical reciprocity) is when exchange is made with the expectations that those who give an amount will get the same in return. This, unlike generalized reciprocity, has a specified time limit as to when the return should be made. The Ju/’hoansi, who use reciprocity in their societies in all forms, use balanced reciprocity. They distinguish between what they barter, which requires immediate balanced exchange (this is similar to our shopping experiences, where it's expected that money will be immediately exchanged for goods). With in the Ju/'hoansi, this also includes hxaro, which establishes that this exchange entitles obligations between the two in the future.
- Negative reciprocity is when a party tries to exchange without having to give up any value, which is the opposite of balanced exchange. "This can range from haggling prices to outright seizure." 
Reciprocity, the most ancient mode of exchange, was the exchange of goods and services of equal value. Generalized reciprocity can be defined as when the individuals involved just assume that the exchange will balance out. Nothing is expected immediately and a value of return is not established before the exchange is made. This type of reciprocity occurs often between parents and children. Balanced reciprocity, the opposite of generalized, is when a specific value of return and under an established time limit is expected. This exchange can be found between those in relationships. For example, when boyfriends and girlfriends exchange gifts of equal value and expect the same in return at Christmas. Negative reciprocity is the exchange of goods or services when at least one party attempts receive something for nothing in return without suffering consequences. This type of reciprocity can involve haggling or in some cases seizure.
Redistribution is a mode of exchange that involves some sort of centralized social organization. Members of a group contribute items such as food, money, clothing, etc. to the central organization, and the organization then redistributes the items to the members of the group.
Redistribution can occur on a small scale or a very large scale. A small scale example of redistribution is a class party. Each person is assigned something to bring – chips, salsa, pop, brownies, napkins, utensils, etc. On the day of the party, everyone brings in their items to share with each other. The Salvation Army is a good example of a rather medium-sized scale of redistribution. The Salvation Army collects money, clothing, household goods, cars, and even airline miles to redistribute to those in need. A large scale example of redistribution is the Internal Revenue Service. The IRS collects taxes from citizens and redistributes the money throughout our governmental system, to education, post offices, road construction, and the like.
One widespread local example of redistribution is church potlucks. For special events, several churches hold potlucks. Every family who comes brings a single dish – anything from veggie trays to fried rice to potato salad. All the dishes are placed together in a central area, and when everyone has arrived, the congregation can eat a meal together from the assortment of dishes.
Another example of this is under Big Man/Big Woman political groupings in the South Pacific where the leader, chosen by favor, is in charge of general affairs, and collects a certain sum (i.e. a pig) from their group and redistributes it. This gives the Big Man/Big Woman the label of generous, although they personally don’t give any more than anyone else. This is also an example of the tradition of potlatch, where group members all give goods to one, who evenly distributes these goods among the community. The main point of this is to redistribute wealth.
Redistribution requires some form of centralized social organization. Those who own the central position of the organization receive economic contributions from all members of the group. With the contributions they receive from all members of the group they redistribute those goods to all the members of the groups in fair amounts to meet the needs of every member of the group. A potlatch is a good example of redistribution. When people go an event and are provided with food they then take that food and redistribute it to all members of their family or some kind of group they belong to. An example of this is the indigenous Americans of the northwest coast of North America. This is a very common mode of exchange among tribes and groups in all part of the world. It is a fair and normally well organized mode of exchange and valued by the members of most tribes and groups.
Potlatches are ceremonies held by First Nations peoples on the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States and Canadian province of British Columbia such as the Haida, Tlingit, Salish and Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'kawakw). The potlatch takes the form of a ceremonial feast traditionally featuring seal meat or salmon. In it, hierarchical relations between groups were observed and reinforced through the exchange of gifts and other ceremonies. The potlatch is an example of a gift economy, whereby the host demonstrates their wealth and prominence through giving away their possessions and thus prompt participants to reciprocate when they hold their own potlatch. Although this sort exchange is widely practiced across the planet (consider, for example, the Western practice of buying one's friends rounds of drinks), the Northwest Coast potlatch is of a massive scale, and also served to redistribute goods from coastal to inland ecological zones.
The native peoples of the Northwest Coast of North America institutionalized this ceremonial redistribution of food and gifts. The southern Kwakiutl people were the most elaborative on this custom until 1904 when the potlatch was outlawed, however the ceremony did continue to be practiced in many societies. In 2004, the Tlingit clan members re-enacted the ritual in Sitka, Alaska, for the 100th Anniversary Commemoration of "The Last Potlatch". The clan members dressed in traditional Tlingit attire and practiced Tlingit traditions for the two day long celebration. Watercolour by James Gilchrist Swan (1818-1900) of the Klallam people of chief Chetzemoka (nicknamed 'the Duke of York'), with one of Chetzemoka's wives (nicknamed 'Jenny Lind') distributing 'potlatch' at Port Townsend, Washington, USA
Market Exchange is used in Capitalist societies and is the most recently developed mode of exchange. Market exchange is the trade of goods that are calculated in value based on a standard of value and typically money, which are carried out by the market. Although trade and money were developed independently, they are used together to create market exchange. This is generally used in the Western societies, in places such as, Europe and the United States.
Modes of exchange are the patterns involving the three distribution techniques: reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange. Exchange can either be balanced or unbalanced.
- Balanced Exchange: Exchange with no short or long term marginal gain (profit).
- Unbalanced exchange: Exchange where profit or marginal gains are the end goal.
Market Exchange was invented by the capitalist society that uses an economic system in which wealth, and the means of producing wealth, are privately owned and controlled rather than commonly, publicly, or state-owned and controlled. It is where currency exchange takes place. It is where banks and other official institutions facilitate the buying and selling of foreign currencies. Trade, money, and market institutions developed independently and were not invented to work together. Capitalism is unique because the three (trade, money, and market) ended up working together. This was first done in the societies of early modern Europe. It is said that different modes of exchange often co-exist within a single society meaning that each society has their own way of operating and exchanging good in their day-to-day lives.
For example, in the United States we use the market mode or exchange, but you can still find redistribution and reciprocity. Reciprocity if you recall is the most ancient mode of exchange, was the exchange of goods and services of equal value and redistribution requires some form of centralized social organization. In families in the U.S., most parents have and income and then redistribute that income to their children and loved ones. Parents using their income to buy their children food and clothing without expecting return is an example of reciprocity. Some people believe that you cannot properly understand the exchange process without first fully understanding the production process. People who meet exchange have different resources to use when bargaining with one another, and it is said that these differences in resources are not shaped by the market but by the productive process.
As consumers, it is also important to take into account what kind of trade or exchange you are supporting with your purchase. Take a highly consumed north-west product, a cup of coffee. Like any product there is a story about where it came from. In this case there is the farmer, the distributor, and the company which you are buying it from. Is the coffee fair trade? Does it support organic farming? It is good to know what kind of exchange in which you are participating, but also important to know if your dollar is being spread out in a way that you think is appropriate.
Economizing and Maximization
Economizing is to practice economy as by avoiding waste or reducing expenditures. To make economical use of something. Use personal profit cautiously and frugally. Economizing is popular and useful during inflationary times. This practice occurs quite frequently in both business and in personal lives. The goal of economizing is to maximize income by fully utilizing resources. Different cultures economize in different ways.
A classic example of economizing is setting a monthly budget, including income and necessary expenses. A budget is helpful during times of economic crisis. They are often hard to stick to because they require cut backs in luxuries. It requires strict grocery shopping in addition to the use of local coupons. What is also helpful in cutting back monthly expenditures is to learn how to repair household or automobile damages. The expansion of technology has allowed for this to be more possible, how tos are much more accessible to the average person.
More Economizing Ideas:Grow your own vegetables in your backyard, Buy Supermarket chain household brands, not well-known brands, Do not deviate from grocery list, Make own clothing, Use public transportation as much as possible, Cut heating bill by adding insulation, Cut Air Conditioning bill by adding blinds to windows, Buy non-perishable items in bulk.
These helpful ideas on how to reduce spending are mainly directed towards Americans, developed countries, or areas of the world that have a relatively high standard of living. As you could imagine, some areas of the globe already practice economizing as a part of their culture.
Maximization is to make as great as possible, the maximum value. In economizing you are maximizing all of your available resources.
Grameen Bank (Microcredit)
The Grameen Bank is a microfinance institution which distributes loans to people who under normal circumstances would never be able to open a line of credit. In any normal bank the lender requires the borrower to enter into a legally binding contract which guarantees the repayment of the given loan. If the borrower fails to repay the loan then their personal property is offered as collateral. The Grameen bank however requires no collateral and gives loans to those in the lowest socio-economic classes. The GB offers loans almost exclusively to women. Their current membership of 7.71 million is comprised of 97% women. In order to raise the status of poor women, loans are almost always granted to them so that those who build new homes with their loans will have ownership of assets where traditionally women have had none. Instead of a contract the Grameen Bank requires users to apply for loans in groups of five or more. Although no one is responsible for the repayment of a loan other than the actual borrower herself, the other members of her group are there to help encourage her to repay her loan. Before a new group member can receive a loan, the other members loan must be paid off first. This creates strong peer pressure to pay back loans as quickly as possible. If someone is struggling to repay her loan, the GB will help them overcome their struggles and get back on their feet rather than take away the only source of income they have (traditional banking method). This unique perspective on lending inspires the attitude that all humans have great potential, that they only need the initial resources to show it. The Grameen Bank believes that the ability to receive credit is a human right, and that "these millions of small people with their millions of small pursuits can add up to create the biggest development wonder."
The idea of the GB first appeared when Professor Muhammad Yunus began a research project on the possibility of creating a microfinance lender that targets the rural poor. In 1983, Bangladesh passed new legislation which founded the Grameen Bank as an independent lender. In 2006, the organization along with its founder Muhammad Yunus were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to reduce poverty and increase social welfare in Bangladesh. To date the Grameen Bank has distributed 7.68 billion US dollars, of this 6.83 billion has been repaid. There is a loan recovery rate of over 97% and 100% of loans are financed through bank deposits. Unlike most banks, this one is owned by its members. 95% of all of the banks assets are owned by the women who lend from it, the other 5% is owned by the government. On top of this, the bank gives fixed interest rates of 20% for most members, which is lower than government loans and offers special interest free loans for beggars and homeless. Beggar members have access to many benefits besides the money they receive. They can receive life and loan insurance, an identity badge which states that the GB stands behind her, and the support of other members around the country, all at no cost. The Grameen Bank also offers housing for the poor, micro-enterprise loans, scholarships and education loans. All members receive free life insurance so that any deceased member’s outstanding loans are paid off through an insurance program which was created with the interest of bank savings.
This is obviously a new type of banking system that has begun a large scale movement across Bangladesh. Proof can be seen easily by looking at the poverty rate amongst members versus similar non-members. 56% of non-members in comparable situations are below the poverty line whereas that number has been reduced to 20% for members. Hopefully the health and hope that this banking system provides will spread further and affect many more lives in the way it already has in Bangladesh.
Due to the success of the Grameen Bank the first Grameen based pilot program has begun in the US in Queens NY. Since its opening in January 2008 it has lent over 1 million US dollars to over 400 members. It is owned and operated by the international affiliate of the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Also, in 1997 the Grameen Foundation was created as a global non-profit organization which works around the globe to create microfinance institutions based on the Grameen model using a network of partner microfinance institutions.
These examples show us how ideas can inspire and change. America is a country riddled with individualism, prejudice and enormous economic gaps just like most of the countries in this world. However, examples like the Grameen Bank show us how a single dream can inspire millions around the world to seek something better. People in Queens are no better or worse than those in Bangladesh or anywhere else. They are individuals trapped by a system which has given them no outlet from their degrading society. If given the means to succeed, people everywhere will.
One example of a company that distributes microcredit is that of Kiva. Kiva’s mission, as stated on their website, is to connect people through lending for the sake of alleviating poverty. It is the first person-to-person micro-lending website, instead of the typical bank-person relationship that is set up by similar companies. By letting individuals lend directly to unique entrepreneurs in the developing world (such as a man selling clothes in Uganda, or a woman who owns a small grocery store in Peru), the site not only empowers the lenders by allowing them to share their wealth, but also helps to better people in need’s situations. Throughout the course of the loan (which is usually anywhere from 6-12 months), the lender can receive email journal updates and track their loan’s progress until finally receiving it back. Upon receiving it back, they can re-lend to another person or simply collect their initial sum of money that was put forth.
Another example of microfinance which has proven to be very successful is the use of microloans by the humanitarian organization of World Concern. By providing small loans for severely impoverished men and women, this organization not only helps to provide for great needs, but also helps the needy to be able to provide for themselves. So far, World Concern has had repayment rates of between 95-98% on its microloans. Some microloan beneficiaries have even been able to start businesses and employ up to ten or fifteen of their own employees. Rather than simply giving food or clothing to those in need, microloans have allowed lasting positive economic change to take place for many individuals and families across nations such as Thailand, Bolivia, Bangladesh, Haiti, and Kenya.
There is criticism of microfinance as a solution to poverty. While microcredit institutions often report extremely successful stories of alleviating poverty in developing countries, some recent studies are presenting a different story. One research project conducted on women in Bangladesh found that only about 51 percent of the recipients of microcredit aid were regularly able to make their weekly payments. It also found that about one fourth of the loan recipients lied about the purposes for which they took out the loan. One of the major problems is that many people take out loans for consumption purposes, such as marriage or medical expenses, rather than for investment in income generating activities.
Another issue tainted the general success of microfinance in reducing poverty rates in developing countries is that loans may be accompanied by very high interest rate. In Bangladesh this rate often ranges from 25-65 percent. Even though the actual size of the loans are relatively small, the high interest rates can create a problem in making payments for people living below the poverty line.
Glossary of Key Terms
-economic anthropology: defined by Wilk in 1996 as "the part of the discipline [of anthropology] that debates issues of human nature that relate directly to the decisions of daily life and making a living."
-production: the process whereby natural raw materials are converted into forms which can be used by humans.
-distribution: the movement of goods and services from the place of manufacture or production to the place of consumption.
-consumption: the taking in or using up of materials needed for humans to survive.
-modes of exchange: the patterns by which distribution happens, including reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange.
-reciprocity: trading goods and services that are of the same value; the three anthropological types of this are generalized, balanced, and negative.
-redistribution: secondary distribution so that every member of a group contributes economically and then receives the amount of goods that they need.
-market exchange: exchanging goods in terms of monetary value and continuing through a supply and demand price mechanism.
-labor: the work that connects human groups to the environment around them.
-modes of production: the grouping of social relations through which labor is used to harness energy from the environment in the forms of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge.
-means of production: the actual tools, skills, organization, and knowledge used to take energy from nature.
-relations of production: the social relations which connect people who use a certain means of production in the context of a certain mode of production.
-affluence: the state of more than the amount necessary to fulfil consumption needs.
Terms are from Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition by Emily A Schultz and Robert H. Lavenda.
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