Computer Information Systems in Education/Chapter 3/Section 5 -- Business/Teacher/Student Information Systems
1. List and define the phases of the System Development Cycle.
2. Describe the difference between a Parallel run and a Pilot run.
- 1. Pentamation
- 2. Planning
- 3. Analysis
- 4. Design
- 5. Implementation
- 6. SIF Compliant
- 7. Parallel Run
- 8. Pilot Run
Concept Map for M.E.I.S (click here for larger Image)
Planning is the first step of the System Development Cycle, which establishes an overview of the intended project and determines goals for the project. In planning to integrate an Information System that would affect everyone in the school district it would be important to create a committee to include administrators, teachers, parents, students, and paraprofessionals.
To integrate M.E.I.S, the committee would include representatives from each of the school districts major administrative areas, schools and programs. The planning should also involve attendance clerks, scheduling clerks, registrars, counselors, and assistant principals. They are the ones who will be affected by the integration of M.E.I.S, and their input will be most valuable.
The first part of the planning process would be spent researching and identifying national, state and future trends and summarizing a set of philosophies and beliefs for the district. Then, the committee would develop a vision, mission, and at least four major goals. Once this is completed, the committee would then divide into subgroups for each of the goals that were created. Each subgroup will develop objectives for its goal and identify strategies needed to accomplish these objectives. Each strategy included a responsible party, a timeline, resources needed, assessment and date.
Some goals in integrating an Information System would be:
- For students, teachers, and staff to use this technology system to meet their teaching, learning, and productivity goals
- It should ensure efficiency and improve the overall function of the school district
- It should increase communication resources, allowing for distant access through networks
|What it has now||Areas for improvement|
|Strategy||General description of what the district would like to accomplish||Strategies should be more specific and measurable|
|Responsible Party||Positions responsible for accomplishing strategy||The responsible party should be made as specific as possible. For instance, rather than referring to Technology department, it should identify which area of the department, such as the network administrators, computer technicians, etc.|
|Timeline||General timeframes||Timelines should be as specific as possible. The plan should identify what should be accomplished for each step of implementation of M.E.I.S|
|Evaluation/Outcome||Either a source of data that could be used for evaluation or the means by which the evaluation could be conducted||The plan should be more specific about what the evaluator should look for in the data source|
|Cost Estimates||None||Cost estimates should be developed for each strategy|
|Resources||General funding sources, materials, equipment, and things that have to happen||Resources should be tied to cost estimates and should be more specific|
The second step in the System Development Cycle is Analysis, which puts the project goals created in the planning phase into defined functions. This stage analyzes both the operation of the intended IS and the needs of the end-user’s.
The first step in analyzing M.E.I.S would be to identify the current situation being utilized, which is Pentamation, and how M.E.I.S can improve the current situation. The two areas to be analyzed are the Business modules and the Teacher/Student Modules.
Student Inquiry Snapshot
Once the analysis of the current system and the new M.E.I.S system is accomplished, it is important that a thorough proposal be made in order easily design the new system. The proposal should include the wants and needs of both the technology department and the end-users as a whole.
The third step in the Systems Development Cycles is the Systems Design. This step describes the desired features and operations. This would include what the actual screens would look like, rules, the coding and anything else that is needed to create the desired outcome.
|Accounting||The ability for administrators and staff to manage daily fiscal administration and information such as budgeting, funding, purchasing, receivables, payables and inventory control|
|Payroll & Personnel||The ability for payroll and staff the ability to utilize a comprehensive payroll, application tracking and personnel system designed for an educational environment|
|Integrated Reporting||All personnel should have the ability to produce extensive, flexible, standard and regulatory reports with an easy “point and click” response|
|Employee Access||Employees should have the ability to access a web-based employee service center to view from work or home. They should have the ability to view their payroll and leave history as well as elect or change their benefits and deductions|
|Administrator Information Center||Principals and Administrators will have the ability to monitor current summary and detail budgetary performance, employee statistics, substantial purchases and much more. This should also be available through web-based application|
|Miscellaneous Billing||Manages billing, receivables, and payments for district provided services.|
|Student Administration||District staff will easily manage day-to-day student administration and information such as demographics, attendance, scheduling, discipline, report cards, and transcripts|
|Teacher Access Center||Teachers can utilize a comprehensive web-based attendance, grading, and gradebook classroom management system. The Teacher Access data integrates with the Home Access Center for instant updating of the student’s data without additional teacher work allowing easy communication with parents and students|
|Access from Home||Parents can access an internet web-portal which presents them with summary and detailed information regarding their child’s progress and school information|
|Monitoring daily activity||Administrative staff can monitor daily school or district-wide statistics for attendance, discipline, enrollment, etc., from their home page|
|Integrated Reporting||District personnel can produce an extensive amount of flexible standard reports, regulatory reports or use an intuitive “point and click” report writer for on-demand reporting|
M.E.I.S should offer seamless interaction between the Business and Teacher/Student modules. M.E.I.S should inform and change each interface when changes are made, which eliminates repetition. This process is SIF compliant and this is one of the best features that will be implemented into M.E.I.S.
Hardware and Software Requirements
This program can run on either a MAC or a PC. However, the district has decided to us on PC's and replace any MAC's. The PC should contain the following MINIMUM specifications:
- Operating System: Windows XP Professional SP2
- Processor: AMD Athlon or Intel Celeron
- Memory: 512 MB
- Hard Drive: 40 GB
- Microsoft Office or equivalent to export reports
- Printer access (Local or Networked)
- Network Access
- Internet Access
The Fourth step in the Systems Development Cycle is Implementation, where the real code is written and everything is put together for testing, production, training, and actually putting the Information system into action. Basically the implementation phase is when the M.E.I.S theory is put in to real life. To implement M.E.I.S, there will be no need for hardware upgrades, it runs on a Mac or PC, it is user friendly, no special connectivity is required, it is fast and reliable, and most of all, it is safe and secure.
The designed M.E.I.S program will be loaded onto the end-users computer and the training of the new system begins. The main topics for M.E.I.S training should include the following:
- Execution of the M.E.I.S System
- Data Entry
- Data Processing
Once the end-users are trained, the old system needs to shift to the new system that has been established. It is important use both systems simultaneously for a certain period of time in order to compare the results of what was used in the past with what is being implemented. This is called a Parallel run
A second approach after a parallel run is installing the new system in sections. One part of the system is installed first and executed by the end users for a certain period of time. When this section is running smoothly without any glitches, then another section is implemented, until all sections are running satisfactory with ease. This is called a Pilot run
Maintenance is the final step of the Systems Development Cycle which is basically the rest of the Information Systems existence. There will be changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades due to changes in the Operating systems and/or Platforms.
Maintenance is necessary to eliminate and correct errors in the system. With technology there are always some errors found in any system that must be noted and corrected. This is why there are always upgrades to all types of system software. Maintenance also includes periodic reviews of the system to look for any changes needed or performance adjustments.
Since technology changes dramatically year to year, there comes a time when a major change will be needed in the current information system. If this is the case, then a new System Development Cycle will be required.
Completion Complete each statement.
1. List the Phases of Systems Development Cycle in order.
a. Planning e. Maintenance b. Analysis f. Pilot Run c. Design g. Parallel Run d. Implementation
____ 2. Describes the desired features and operations.
____ 3. Where changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades due to changes in the Operating systems and/or Platforms.
____ 4. Establishes an overview of the intended project and determines goals for the project.
____ 5. Where the real code is written and everything is put together for testing, production, training, and actually putting the Information system into action.
____ 6. Installing the new system in sections.
____ 7. Puts the project goals created in the planning phase into defined functions
____ 8. Using both systems simultaneously for a certain period of time in order to compare the results of what was used in the past with what is being implemented.
Pentamation by SunGuard www.pentamation.com
Shelly, Cashman, Vermaat, "CoursePort". Discovering Computers 2007. January 25, 2009 http://oc.course.com/sc/dc2007/index.cfm?action=review&chapter=12