From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Climatology is a branch of atmospheric science as well as geographical and environmental science.[1]Climate is a dynamical system that is based upon the long term averages and behaviour of Earth's atmosphere both on the global scale and the regional scale. This topic aims to help your understanding of the basics of climate science as well as the many impactors climate has on the Earth as well as the impactors the Earth has on the climate.This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth science. Climatology now includes aspects of oceanography]] and biogeochemistry. Basic knowledge of climate can be used within shorter term weather forecasting using analog techniques such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO), the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) which is also known as the Arctic oscillation (AO), the Northern Pacific (NP) Index, the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Climate models are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate.Climatology, the science that studies climate, is a young science, with modern climate science only emerging from meteorology, oceanography, and geology in the late 20th Century, it is highly dependent of mathematical models and estimates that rely in a constant gathering of data, improved sensors and historical records (natural or human generated). Of course, people have been interested in the natural world, including movements of air and water, for a very long time. An in general the sciences are still very imprecise at short or very long time frames, even if precision tends to increase over large geographical areas. Meteorologists and atmospheric scientists often say that climate is what you expect; weather is what you get.

Early climate researchers include Edmund Halley, who published a map of the trade winds in 1686 after a voyage to the southern hemisphere. Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) first mapped the course of the Gulf Stream for use in sending mail from the United States to Europe. Francis Galton (1822–1911) invented the term anticyclone.[4] Helmut Landsberg (1906–1985) fostered the use of statistical analysis in climatology, which led to its evolution into a physical science.

Climatology is compounded of two Greek words, klima+logos;"klima' means slope of the earth'and 'logos' means a discourse or study.The first distinct climate treaties were the works of Hippocrates, who wrote Airs, Water and Places in 400 B.C.E.

Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of an equinox
[edit | edit source]

Climatology was primarily an observational speculation prior to the scientific age. Gradually, devices for measuring and studying weather were invented and the keeping of systematic weather records began. Climatology, thus, began as the observation and description of weather on sub-continental and continental levels.The early nineteenth century marks the beginning of the scientific discovery of climate when ice ages in paleo-climate were first suspected. The natural greenhouse effect was also identified as an element of climate change. During first and second world war, effects of ground and upper air circulations were recognized. This led to the need for the statistical treatment of weather elements and its predictions. Earth observation through satellites and availability of huge quantum of data led to model the weather conditions and monitor the climate elements both at regional and global levels.


[edit | edit source]
  1. climatology by d.s lal