Chinese (Mandarin)/Radicals

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'偏旁,又称部首,是合体字的结构单位。早先把合体字的左边称「偏」,右边称「旁」;后来把合体字的结构部分统称为「偏旁」。比如位于合体字的左面,称「左偏旁」;右面,则称「右偏旁」。

The word for radical in Chinese is 部首. This term is often conflated with 偏旁 (piānpáng), or simply 旁 (páng). A radical, or component of a character, usually indicates its meaning. 水 (shuǐ; water) with a 冫 becomes 冰 (bīng, ice). The 冫 hints that the character pertains to ice, like the "glaci-" in glacier. Radicals may also be used to differentiate characters that sound alike. 东 (dōng; east, owner) with a 冫 becomes 冻 (dòng; to freeze, jelly). Radicals, like characters, sometimes suggest their meaning by their appearance, for example, the 亻 in 他 (tā; him) is a compressed 人, and the 氵 in 江 (jiāng; river) looks like three water droplets. Radicals reduce the amount of memorization needed, be it for the language's ancient inventors or for you. In Chinese, the large number of homophones and rhyming words make this scheme possible. A character can have multiple radicals, for example, 捌 (bā; eight, see Numbers). Traditionally, the left part of composite characters was referred to as “piān” and the right side referred to as “páng.” Now, all parts of compound characters are generally referred to as “piānpáng.” For example, the left part of a compound character is referred to as 左偏旁 (zuǒ piānpáng), and the right side as 右偏旁 (yòu piānpáng).

Names of Radicals 中文偏旁的名称[edit]

The radicals, strokes, and Chinese character components found in Chinese characters often have different names in the different dialects of Chinese. For Standard Mandarin Chinese in Mainland China, one of the most authoritative listings of the names of Chinese character components is found in Specification of Common Modern Chinese Character Components and Component Names (现代汉语常用字部件及部件名称规范). In addition, the appendices of Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (现代汉语词典) and Xiandai Hanyu Guifan Cidian (现代汉语规范词典) include lists of some of the frequently occurring radicals and other components.

一笔画 One Stroke[edit]

偏旁 Part 名称 Name 拼音 Pinyin 例子 Ex.
Héng 丁、丝、上
Shù 中、丰、串
竖钩 Shù gōu 事、予
丿 Piě 九、乍、乃
Zhé 买、予、乜
竖弯钩 Shù​ wān​ gōu 乜、也、乱
. Diǎn 以、义、主

二笔画 Two Strokes[edit]

偏旁 Part 名称 Name 拼音 Pinyin 例子 Ex.
包字头 bāozìtóu 勺、勾、匀
两点水 liǎngdiǎnshuǐ 冰、习、净
卜字旁 Bǔ zì páng 卡、卤、卧
偏厦 Piān shà 厕、原、厚
立刀旁 lìdāopáng 刬、刘、判
三框栏 Sān kuàng lán 匠、匹、区
双耳旁
双耳刀
左耳刀
右耳刀
Shuāng ěr páng
Shuāng ěr dāo
Zuǒ ěr dāo
Yòu ěr dāo
阞、队、阡
邓、邗、邘
单耳旁 dān'ěrpáng 卫、卬、卮
同字框 tóngzìkuàng 冃、内、冈
秃宝盖 tūbǎogài 冗、冘、写
凶字框 xiōngzìkuàng 凶、凹、凸
单人旁 dānrénpáng 亿、什、仁
私字 Sī zì 厾、去、厹
京字頭/京字头、
文字头
jīngzìtóu
Wénzì tóu
亡、交、亢
言/讠 言字旁 yánzìpáng 计、订、讣
建之旁 jiànzhīpáng 延、廷、廸

三笔画 Three Strokes[edit]

偏旁 Part 名称 Name 拼音 Pinyin 例子 Ex.
草字頭/草字头 cǎozìtóu 艺、艻、艾
出字头 Chū zì tóu 屯、屰
雙人旁/双人旁 shuāngrénpáng 彴、彷、彸
三拐 sānguǎi 巠、巢、巤
走之儿
走之底
zǒuzhī er
Zǒu zhī dǐ
边,辽、巡
弄字底 nòngzìdǐ 开、弁、异
广 廣字旁/广字旁
广字头
guǎngzìpáng
Guǎng zì tóu
庀、庄、庆
寶蓋/宝盖
宝盖头
bǎogài
Bǎo gài tóu
宁、它、宄
反犬旁、
犬犹
fǎnquǎnpáng
quǎnyóu
犯、犰、犴
三撇 sānpiě 形、彤、彦
飠/饣 食字旁 shízìpáng 饥、饧、饨
提手旁、
剔手旁
tíshǒupáng
Tī shǒu páng
扎、扐、扑
三点水 Sān diǎn shuǐ 氿、汀、汁
糹/纟 絞絲旁/绞丝旁、
亂絞絲/乱绞丝
jiǎosīpáng
luànjiǎosī
纠、纡、红
提土旁、
剔土旁
títǔpáng
Tī tǔ páng
圢、圣、圥
豎心旁/竖心旁、
豎心/竖心
shùxīnpáng
shùxīn
忆、忉、忋
尤字旁 yóuzìpáng 尤、尥、尨
折文 zhéwén 处、夆、备
子字旁 zǐzìpáng 孔、孕、孖
爿/丬 將字旁/将字旁 jiāngzìpáng 壮、状、将
國字框/国字框、
方框、
方匡
guózìkuàng
fāngkuàng
Fāng kuāng
囚、四、囝
门字旁 Mén zì páng 闩、闪、闫
横山 héngshān 雪、灵、彗

四笔画 Four Strokes[edit]

偏旁 Part 名称 Name 拼音 Pinyin 例子 Ex.
四点底、
四点
sìdiǎndǐ
Sì diǎn
炁、炰、点
火字旁 huǒzìpáng 灭、灯、灰
示字旁、
示補/示补
shìzìpáng
shìbǔ
礼、礽、社
王字旁、
斜玉旁
wángzìpáng
xiéyùpáng
玉、玊、玍
木字旁 mùzìpáng 未、末、本
牛字旁、
剔牛
niúzìpáng
Tī niú
牝、牠、牡
月字旁 Yuè zì páng 明,期

五笔画 Five Strokes[edit]

偏旁 Part 名称 Name 拼音 Pinyin 例子 Ex.
病字旁、
病旁、
病字頭/病字头
bìngzìpáng
bìngpáng
bìngzìtóu
疓、疔、疕
衣字旁、
衣補/衣补
yīzìpáng
yībǔ
初、补、衦
𡗗 春字頭/春字头 chūnzìtóu 奉、奏、秦
四字頭/四字头、
扁四頭/扁四头
sìzìtóu
biǎnsìtóu
罗、罘、罚
皿字底、
皿墩
mǐnzìdǐ,
mǐndūn
盂、盃、盅
釒/钅 金字旁 jīnzìpáng 钆、钇、针
禾木旁 hémùpáng 禿、秀、私
登字頭/登字头 dēngzìtóu 癸、発、登

六笔画 Six Strokes[edit]

偏旁 Part 名称 Name 拼音 Pinyin 例子 Ex.
米字旁 mǐzìpáng 籴、娄、籸
虎字頭/虎字头 hǔzìtóu 虎、虏、虐
竹字頭/竹字头 zhúzìtóu 竺、笃、竼

七笔画 Seven Strokes[edit]

偏旁 Part 名称 Name 拼音 Pinyin 例子 Ex.
足字旁 zúzìpáng 趴、趵、趷