Chinese (Classical Mandarin)

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a tutorial of the form of Mandarin known as 中州音 or 韻白 among some other names in Chinese. It was spoken as lingua franca of Ming and T’sing and is used in traditonal Chinese theatry in modern days. Its pronunciation is prescribed by the rhyme books 洪武正韻 and 音韻闡微. Its more colloquial, topolect-influenced forms have been documented by Korean and European Sinologists throughout Ming and T’sing Dynasty. In mordern days, some of its localized variants are spoken in regions in Southwestern China and Northern Myanmar.

Transliteration and pronunciation[edit]

Glossary[edit]

Colloquial form[edit]

Adjectives ending in tĭ(底/的)[edit]

    • 白 ⟨bĕᵏ⟩ "to be white".
      白底/白的 ⟨bĕᵏ tĭ⟩ "white(adj.)".
      白底花/白的花 ⟨bĕᵏ tĭ⟩ hwā "white flower(s)".

Particle 得[edit]

  1. Used to before a verb, may be translated to get to.
    • 來 ⟨lȃi⟩ "to come".
      不來 ⟨pŭ lȃi⟩ "does not come/will not come".
      不得來 ⟨pŭ tĕᵏ lȃi⟩ "cannot come".
  1. Used immediately after a verb to indicate capability.

    • 做得飯 ⟨tzú tĕᵏ fván⟩ "able to cook (lit. to make meal)".

    • 來不得 ⟨lȃi pŭ tĕᵏ⟩ "not able to come".

  1. Used immediately after verb to lead certain adverbs.
    • 行得快 ⟨hhȋng tĕᵏ khwái⟩ "walks fast".

Particle 把[edit]

Particle 可[edit]

  1. Meaning to be allowed to.
    • 只可動口不可動手 ⟨chï̀ khò dúng' khòw, pŭᵗ khò dúng' shiòw⟩ "the subject may be discussed, but it is not proper to fight about it (lit. only allowed to move the mouth, not allowed move the hands)".

Pronouns[edit]

  1. 我自己來了 ⟨ngò dzé kì lȃi liàu⟩ "I am coming by myself / I have come by myself"
  2. 我親自來了 ⟨ngò thsīn dzé lȃi liàu⟩ "I am coming in person / I have come in person"
  3. 我自己害了自己 ⟨ngò dzé kì hhái liàu dzé kì⟩ "I (, by myself,) have harmed myself"
  4. 我害了我自己 ⟨ngò hhái liàu ngò dzé kì⟩ "I have harmed myself"
  5. 我不願意自己誇獎自己 ⟨ngò pŭ (ng)yuén 'í dzé kì khwā tziàng dzé kì⟩ "I am not willing to compliment myself all by myself"
  6. 我不願意誇獎我自己 ⟨ngò pŭ (ng)yuén khwā tziàng ngò dzé kì⟩ "I am not willing to compliment myself"
  7. 你自己傷自己 ⟨nì dzé kì shiāng dzé kì⟩ "you (, by yourself,) are hurting yourself"
  8. 你自己傷你自己 ⟨nì dzé kì shiāng nȋ dzé kì⟩ "you (, by yourself,) are hurting yourself"
  9. 他常常誇自己 ⟨thā čhhiȃng čhhiȃng khwā dzé kì⟩ "he often compliments himself"
  10. 我幫你你幫我 ⟨ngò pāng nì nì pāng ngò⟩ "I help you and you help me"
  11. 我們兩個彼此相幫 ⟨ngò mȗn liàng kó pì thsè siāng pāng⟩ "The two of us (mutually) help each other"
  12. 這一個惱恨那一個那一個惱恨這一個 ⟨čié 'ĭᵗ kó nàw hhén ná 'ĭᵗ kó ná 'ĭᵗ kó nàw hhén čié 'ĭᵗ kó⟩ "This one hates that one and that one hates this one."
  13. 他們彼此惱恨 ⟨thā mȗn pì thsè nàw hhén⟩ "The two of them hate each other"
  14. 他們彼此相惱恨 ⟨thā mȗn pì thsè siāng nàw hhén⟩ "The two of them (mutually) hate each other"

Relative clauses[edit]

  1. 愛父親底兒子 ⟨’ái fvú' thsīn tì ȓ tzè⟩ "the son who loves (his) father"
  2. 上這裏來 ⟨shhiáng' čié lì lȃi⟩ "to come up here / coming up here"
  3. 如今上這裏來底這個人 ⟨zhyȗ kīm shhiáng' čié lì lȃi tì čié kó zhȋn⟩ "this person who is now coming up here"
  4. 不念書 ⟨pŭ niém shyū⟩ "not to study / not studying"
  5. 光玩 ⟨kwāng ngwón⟩ "only to play / only playing"
  6. 不念書光玩兒底孩子們 ⟨pŭ niém shyū kwāng ngwón tì hhȃi tzè mȗn⟩ "the children who never study but only play"
  7. 我看了你借與我底那本書囉 ⟨ngò khán liàu nì tziè yù ngò tì ná pùn shyū lȏ⟩ "I have read the book that you lent me"
  8. 我如今說底那個人 ⟨ngò zhyȗ kīm shyuĕᵗ tì ná kó zhȋn⟩ "the person that I am talking about now"
  9. 我說與你底那個 ⟨ngò shyuĕᵗ yù nì tì ná kó⟩ "the thing that I have told you"
  10. 學過 ⟨hhiȏk kwó⟩ "to have studied/learned in the past"
  11. 他們學過底 ⟨thā mȗn hhiȏk kwó tì⟩ "what they have learned in the past"
  12. 這些孩子凡是他們學過底全忘了 ⟨čié siē hhȃi tzè fvȃm shhḯ' thā mȗn hhiȏk kwó tì thhsyuȇn vȃng liàu⟩ "These kids, whatever they have learned in the past, they have all forgotten"
  13. 同我說話 ⟨thhȗng ngò shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "to speak (words) with me"
  14. 同我說話底那個人 ⟨thhȗng ngò shyuĕᵗ hhwá tì ná kó zhȋn⟩ "the person speaking with me / the person who spoke with me"
  15. 我告訴底這個人 ⟨ngò káw sú tì čié kó zhȋn⟩ "the person whom I have told"
  16. 做什麼 ⟨tzú shhím mwȏ⟩ "to do what"
  17. 你願意我做什麼我就做什麼 ⟨nì (ng)yuén ’í ngò tzú shhím mwȏ ngò dziów tzú shhím mwȏ⟩ "whatever you want me to do, I will do it"

Interrogative pronouns[edit]

  1. 那個人是誰 ⟨ná kó zhȋn shhḯ' shhȗi⟩ "who is that person?"
  2. 上園子裏去底那個人是誰 ⟨shhiáng' yuȇn tzè lì khyú tĭ ná kó zhȋn shhḯ' shhȗi⟩ "who is the person going to the garden?"
  3. 是誰蓋底 ⟨shḯ' shhȗi kái tĭ?⟩ "who has got it built?"
  4. 這箇體面底宮殿是誰蓋底 ⟨čié kó thì mién tĭ kyūng dién shhḯ' shhȗi kái tĭ⟩ "who has got this magnicient palace built?"
  5. 你尋底是誰 ⟨nì szȋm tì shhḯ' shhȗi⟩ "who is it that you are looking for?"
  6. 你尋誰 ⟨nì szȋm shhȗi⟩ "who do you look for / who are you looking for?"
  7. 這把刀子是誰底 ⟨čié pà tāw tzè shhḯ' shhȗi tì⟩ "of whom is this knife / whose knife is this?"
  8. 你與誰說話 ⟨nì yù shhȗi shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "whom do you speak with / whom are you speaking with?"
  9. 你與誰說話呢 ⟨nì yù shhȗi shyuĕᵗ hhwá nȋ⟩ "whom are you speaking with?"
  10. 你做甚麼 ⟨nì tzú shhím mwȏ⟩ "what are you doing / what do you do?"
  11. 你願意做甚麼 ⟨nì (ng)yuén ’í tzú shhím mwȏ⟩ "what are you willing to do / what do you wish to do?"
  12. 你說甚麼 ⟨nì shyuĕᵗ shhím mwȏ⟩ "what are you saying?"
  13. 你喜歡哪一箇 ⟨nì hì hwōn nà ’ĭᵗ kó⟩ "which one do you like (more)?"
  14. 這兩張畫哪一張好 ⟨čié liàng čiāng hhwá nà ’ĭᵗ čiāng hàw⟩ "(between) these two paintings, which piece is good/better?"

Common verbs[edit]

  1. 我來 ⟨ngò lȃi⟩ "I will come (here) / I do come (here)"
  2. 他不來 ⟨thā pŭ lȃi⟩ "he will not come (here) / He does not come (here)"
  3. 你不說話 ⟨nì pŭ shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "you are not talking / you do not talk"
  4. 他不說什麼 ⟨thā pŭ shyuĕᵗ shhím mwȏ⟩ "he is not saying anything"
  5. 他什麼也不說 ⟨thā shhím mwȏ iĕᵏ pŭ shyuĕᵗ⟩ "he is not even saying anything"
  6. 我正寫字呢 ⟨ngò číng siè dzé nȋ⟩ "I am/was writing (characters)"
  7. 昨天你來的時候我正寫字呢 ⟨dzŏᵏ thiēn nì lȃi tĭ shì hhów ngò číng siè dzé nȋ⟩ "when you came yesterday, I was writing (characters)"
  8. 你說了 ⟨nì shyuĕᵗ liàu⟩ "you have said (it)"
  9. 我什麼亦未說 ⟨ngò shhím mwȏ iĕᵏ ví/méi shyuĕᵗ⟩ "I have not even said anything"
  10. 你為什麼不說呢 ⟨nì úi shhím mwȏ pŭ shyuĕᵗ nȋ⟩ "why don't you say (it)?"
  11. 你什麼也不說 ⟨nì shhím mwȏ iĕᵏ pŭ shyuĕᵗ⟩ "you are not even saying anything"
  12. 你為什麼什麼也不說呢 ⟨nì úi shhím mwȏ shhím mwȏ iĕᵏ pŭ shyuĕᵗ nȋ⟩ "why are you not even saying anything?"
  13. 你為什麼未說什麼呢 ⟨nì úi shhím mȏw ví/méi shyuĕᵗ shhím mwȏ nȋ⟩ "hy haven't you said something?"
  14. 天氣好不好 ⟨thiēn khí hàw pŭ hàw⟩ "is/was the weather good or not good?"
  15. 前日天氣好不好 ⟨thhsiȇn zhĭᵗ thiēn khí hàw pŭ hàw⟩ "was the weather the good the day before yesterday?"
  16. 他與我說了 ⟨thā yù ngò shyuĕᵗ liàu⟩ "he has spoke with me / he has told me"
  17. 他合我說話呢 ⟨thā hhŏ ngò shyuĕᵗ hhwá nȋ⟩ "he is talking with me"
  18. 他未合我說話 ⟨thā ví hhŏ ngò shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "he has not spoke with me"
  19. 有甚麼事 ⟨iòw shhím mwȏ shhé⟩ "what matter is there / what is the matter?"
  20. 上箇月有甚麼事 ⟨shhiáng kó (ng)yuĕᵗ iòw shhím mwȏ shhé⟩ "what happened last month?"
  21. 他從來未傷害過人 ⟨thā thhsyȗng lȃi ví shiāng kwó zhȋn⟩ "he has never harmed a person in the past"
  22. 我從來未見過這麼傷心底事 ⟨ngò thhsyȗng lȃi ví/méi kién kwó čié mwȏ shiāng sīm tì shhé⟩ "I have never seen such a sad matter in the past"
  23. 他從未來過 ⟨thā thhsyȗng ví lȃi kwó⟩ "he has never come (here) in the past"
  24. 不久就要造完了 ⟨pŭ kiòw dziów ’iáu dzáw' hhwȏn liàu⟩ "not after long, it will finish building"
  25. 那隻船不久就要造完了 ⟨ná čĭᵏ čhhyuȇn pŭ kiòw dziów ’iáu dzáw' hhwȏn liàu⟩ "not after long, that ship will finish building"
  26. 現今我所造底那船不久就要造完了 ⟨hhién kīm ngò shù dzáw' tì ná čĭᵏ čhhyuȇn pŭ kiòw dziów ’iáu dzáw' hhwȏn liàu⟩ "the ship that I am building now will finish soon"
  27. 我被齩了 ⟨ngȏ bí (ng)iào liàu⟩ "I am bitten"
  28. 我被瘋狗齩了 ⟨ngȏ bí fūng kòw (ng)iào liàu⟩ "I am bitten by a mad dog (rabid dog)"
  29. 他被老虎喫了 ⟨thā bí làw hù khĭᵏ liàu⟩ "he is eaten by a tiger"
  30. 你說話 ⟨nì shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "speak, you"
  31. 你說話罷 ⟨nì shyuĕᵗ hhwá bà⟩ "speak, won't you?"
  32. 你莫說話 ⟨nì mŏᵏ shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "do not speak"
  33. 你不要說話 ⟨nì pŭ ’iáu shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "do not speak"
  34. 我們說說 ⟨ngò mȗn shyuĕᵗ shyuĕᵗ⟩ "let us talk a bit"
  35. 我們說說罷 ⟨ngò mȗn shyuĕᵗ shyuĕᵗ bà⟩ "why don't we talk a bit"
  36. 我們莫說話 ⟨ngò mȗn mŏᵏ shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "let's not talk"
  37. 我們不要說話 ⟨ngò mȗn pŭ ’iáu shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "let's not talk"
  38. 我們上學去罷 ⟨ngò mȗn shiáng' hhiŏᵏ khyú bà⟩ "why don't we go to school"
  39. 叫他上學罷 ⟨kiáu thā shhiáng' hhiŏᵏ khyú bà⟩ "ask him to go to school"

Usage of adverbs[edit]

  1. 我走得慢 ⟨ngò tzòw tĕᵏ mán⟩ "my walking is slow / I walk slowly"
  2. 我慢慢走 ⟨ngò mán mán tzòw⟩ "I walk slowly"
  3. 你快快底走 ⟨nì khwái khwái tĭ tzòw⟩ "go a little fast, you"
  4. 你快走 ⟨nì khwái tzòw⟩ "go fast, you"
  5. 我們慢慢底走罷 ⟨ngò mȗn mán mán tĭ tzòw bà⟩ "let us walk slowly"
  6. 伱莫走快囉 ⟨nì mŏᵏ tzòw khwái lȏ⟩ "do not walk too fast"
  7. 你莫走得這麼慢囉 ⟨nì mŏᵏ tzòw tĕᵏ čié mȏ mán lȏ⟩ "do not walk so slowly"
  8. 你說得好 ⟨nì shyuĕᵗ tĕᵏ hào⟩ "well said"
  9. 他說話說得太快 ⟨thā shyuĕᵗ hhwá shyuĕᵗ tĕᵏ thái khwái⟩ "(as) he/she speaks, (he/she) speaks too fast"
  10. 我們說話說得慢些 ⟨ngò mȗn shyuĕᵗ hhwá shyuĕᵗ tĕᵏ mán siē⟩ "(as) we talk, let us talk a little slower"
  11. 我們慢慢的說 ⟨ngò mȗn mán mán tĭ shyuĕᵗ⟩ "let us tell it slowly"

Vocalization of Classical Chinese and Medieval Chinese text[edit]

楓橋夜泊[edit]

月落烏啼霜滿天

江楓漁火對愁眠

姑蘇城外寒山寺

夜半鐘聲到客船

(ng)yuĕᵗ lŏᵏ ’ū thȋ shwāng mwòn thiēn

kiāng fūng (ng)yȗ hwò túi čhhȏw miȇn

kū sū čhhȋng (ng)wái hhȃn shān szé

ié pwón čyūng shīng táw khĕᵏ čhhyuȇn