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Chinese (Classical Mandarin)

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This is a tutorial of the form of Mandarin known as 中州音 or 韻白 among some other names in Chinese. It was spoken as lingua franca of Ming and T’sing and is used in traditonal Chinese theatry in modern days. Its pronunciation is prescribed by the rhyme books 洪武正韻 and 音韻闡微. Its more colloquial, topolect-influenced forms have been documented by Korean and European Sinologists throughout Ming and T’sing Dynasty. In modern days, some of its localized variants are spoken in regions in Southwestern China and Northern Myanmar.

Transliteration and pronunciation[edit | edit source]

Glossary[edit | edit source]

Colloquial form[edit | edit source]

Adjectives ending in tĭ(底/的)[edit | edit source]

    • 白 ⟨bĕᵏ⟩ "to be white".
      白底/白的 ⟨bĕᵏ tĭ⟩ "white(adj.)".
      白底花/白的花 ⟨bĕᵏ tĭ⟩ hwā "white flower(s)".

Particle 得[edit | edit source]

  1. Used to before a verb, may be translated to get to.
    • 來 ⟨lȃi⟩ "to come".
      不來 ⟨pŭ lȃi⟩ "does not come/will not come".
      不得來 ⟨pŭ tĕᵏ lȃi⟩ "cannot come".
  1. Used immediately after a verb to indicate capability.

    • 做得飯 ⟨tzú tĕᵏ fván⟩ "able to cook (lit. to make meal)".

    • 來不得 ⟨lȃi pŭ tĕᵏ⟩ "not able to come".

  1. Used immediately after verb to lead certain adverbs.
    • 行得快 ⟨hhȋng tĕᵏ khwái⟩ "walks fast".

Particle 把[edit | edit source]

Particle 可[edit | edit source]

  1. Meaning to be allowed to.
    • 只可動口不可動手 ⟨chï̀ khò dúng' khòw, pŭᵗ khò dúng' shiòw⟩ "the subject may be discussed, but it is not proper to fight about it (lit. only allowed to move the mouth, not allowed move the hands)".

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

  1. 我自己來了 ⟨ngò dzé kì lȃi liàu⟩ "I am coming by myself / I have come by myself"
  2. 我親自來了 ⟨ngò thsīn dzé lȃi liàu⟩ "I am coming in person / I have come in person"
  3. 我自己害了自己 ⟨ngò dzé kì hhái liàu dzé kì⟩ "I (, by myself,) have harmed myself"
  4. 我害了我自己 ⟨ngò hhái liàu ngò dzé kì⟩ "I have harmed myself"
  5. 我不願意自己誇獎自己 ⟨ngò pŭ (ng)yuén 'í dzé kì khwā tziàng dzé kì⟩ "I am not willing to compliment myself all by myself"
  6. 我不願意誇獎我自己 ⟨ngò pŭ (ng)yuén khwā tziàng ngò dzé kì⟩ "I am not willing to compliment myself"
  7. 你自己傷自己 ⟨nì dzé kì shiāng dzé kì⟩ "you (, by yourself,) are hurting yourself"
  8. 你自己傷你自己 ⟨nì dzé kì shiāng nȋ dzé kì⟩ "you (, by yourself,) are hurting yourself"
  9. 他常常誇自己 ⟨thā čhhiȃng čhhiȃng khwā dzé kì⟩ "he often compliments himself"
  10. 我幫你你幫我 ⟨ngò pāng nì nì pāng ngò⟩ "I help you and you help me"
  11. 我們兩個彼此相幫 ⟨ngò mȗn liàng kó pì thsè siāng pāng⟩ "The two of us (mutually) help each other"
  12. 這一個惱恨那一個那一個惱恨這一個 ⟨čié 'ĭᵗ kó nào hhén ná 'ĭᵗ kó ná 'ĭᵗ kó nào hhén čié 'ĭᵗ kó⟩ "This one hates that one and that one hates this one."
  13. 他們彼此惱恨 ⟨thā mȗn pì thsè nào hhén⟩ "The two of them hate each other"
  14. 他們彼此相惱恨 ⟨thā mȗn pì thsè siāng nào hhén⟩ "The two of them (mutually) hate each other"

Relative clauses[edit | edit source]

  1. 愛父親底兒子 ⟨’ái fvú' thsīn tĭ ȓ tzè⟩ "the son who loves (his) father"
  2. 上這裏來 ⟨shhiáng' čié lì lȃi⟩ "to come up here / coming up here"
  3. 如今上這裏來底這個人 ⟨zhyȗ kīm shhiáng' čié lì lȃi tĭ čié kó zhȋn⟩ "this person who is now coming up here"
  4. 不念書 ⟨pŭ niém shyū⟩ "not to study / not studying"
  5. 光玩 ⟨kwāng ngwón⟩ "only to play / only playing"
  6. 不念書光玩兒底孩子們 ⟨pŭ niém shyū kwāng ngwón tĭ hhȃi tzè mȗn⟩ "the children who never study but only play"
  7. 我看了你借與我底那本書囉 ⟨ngò khán liàu nì tzié yù ngò tĭ ná pùn shyū lȏ⟩ "I have read the book that you lent me"
  8. 我如今說底那個人 ⟨ngò zhyȗ kīm shyuĕᵗ tĭ ná kó zhȋn⟩ "the person that I am talking about now"
  9. 我說與你底那個 ⟨ngò shyuĕᵗ yù nì tĭ ná kó⟩ "the thing that I have told you"
  10. 學過 ⟨hhiȏk kwó⟩ "to have studied/learned in the past"
  11. 他們學過底 ⟨thā mȗn hhiȏk kwó tĭ⟩ "what they have learned in the past"
  12. 這些孩子凡是他們學過底全忘了 ⟨čié siē hhȃi tzè fvȃm shhḯ' thā mȗn hhiȏk kwó tĭ thhsyuȇn vȃng liàu⟩ "These kids, whatever they have learned in the past, they have all forgotten"
  13. 同我說話 ⟨thhȗng ngò shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "to speak (words) with me"
  14. 同我說話底那個人 ⟨thhȗng ngò shyuĕᵗ hhwá tĭ ná kó zhȋn⟩ "the person speaking with me / the person who spoke with me"
  15. 我告訴底這個人 ⟨ngò káo sú tĭ čié kó zhȋn⟩ "the person whom I have told"
  16. 做什麼 ⟨tzú shhím mwȏ⟩ "to do what"
  17. 你願意我做什麼我就做什麼 ⟨nì (ng)yuén ’í ngò tzú shhím mwȏ ngò dziów tzú shhím mwȏ⟩ "whatever you wish me to do, I will readily do"

Interrogative pronouns[edit | edit source]

  1. 那個人是誰 ⟨ná kó zhȋn shhḯ' shhȗi⟩ "who is that person?"
  2. 上園子裏去底那個人是誰 ⟨shhiáng' yuȇn tzè lì khyú tĭ ná kó zhȋn shhḯ' shhȗi⟩ "who is the person going to the garden?"
  3. 是誰蓋底 ⟨shḯ' shhȗi kái tĭ?⟩ "who has got it built?"
  4. 這箇體面底宮殿是誰蓋底 ⟨čié kó thì mién tĭ kyūng dién shhḯ' shhȗi kái tĭ⟩ "who has got this magnicient palace built?"
  5. 你尋底是誰 ⟨nì szȋm tì shhḯ' shhȗi⟩ "who is it that you are looking for?"
  6. 你尋誰 ⟨nì szȋm shhȗi⟩ "who do you look for / who are you looking for?"
  7. 這把刀子是誰底 ⟨čié pà tāo tzè shhḯ' shhȗi tì⟩ "of whom is this knife / whose knife is this?"
  8. 你與誰說話 ⟨nì yù shhȗi shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "whom do you speak with / whom are you speaking with?"
  9. 你與誰說話呢 ⟨nì yù shhȗi shyuĕᵗ hhwá nȋ⟩ "whom are you speaking with?"
  10. 你做甚麼 ⟨nì tzú shhím mwȏ⟩ "what are you doing / what do you do?"
  11. 你願意做甚麼 ⟨nì (ng)yuén ’í tzú shhím mwȏ⟩ "what are you willing to do / what do you wish to do?"
  12. 你說甚麼 ⟨nì shyuĕᵗ shhím mwȏ⟩ "what are you saying?"
  13. 你喜歡哪一箇 ⟨nì hì hwōn nà ’ĭᵗ kó⟩ "which one do you like (more)?"
  14. 這兩張畫哪一張好 ⟨čié liàng čiāng hhwá nà ’ĭᵗ čiāng hào⟩ "(between) these two paintings, which piece is good/better?"

Common verbs[edit | edit source]

  1. 我來 ⟨ngò lȃi⟩ "I will come (here) / I do come (here)"
  2. 他不來 ⟨thā pŭ lȃi⟩ "he will not come (here) / He does not come (here)"
  3. 你不說話 ⟨nì pŭ shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "you are not talking / you do not talk"
  4. 他不說什麼 ⟨thā pŭ shyuĕᵗ shhím mwȏ⟩ "he is not saying anything"
  5. 他什麼也不說 ⟨thā shhím mwȏ iĕᵏ pŭ shyuĕᵗ⟩ "he is not even saying anything"
  6. 我正寫字呢 ⟨ngò číng siè dzé nȋ⟩ "I am/was writing (characters)"
  7. 昨天你來的時候我正寫字呢 ⟨dzŏᵏ thiēn nì lȃi tĭ shhï̑ hhów ngò číng siè dzé nȋ⟩ "when you came yesterday, I was writing (characters)"
  8. 你說了 ⟨nì shyuĕᵗ liàu⟩ "you have said (it)"
  9. 我什麼亦未說 ⟨ngò shhím mwȏ iĕᵏ ví/méi shyuĕᵗ⟩ "I have not even said anything"
  10. 你為什麼不說呢 ⟨nì úi shhím mwȏ pŭ shyuĕᵗ nȋ⟩ "why don't you say (it)?"
  11. 你什麼也不說 ⟨nì shhím mwȏ iĕᵏ pŭ shyuĕᵗ⟩ "you are not even saying anything"
  12. 你為什麼什麼也不說呢 ⟨nì úi shhím mwȏ shhím mwȏ iĕᵏ pŭ shyuĕᵗ nȋ⟩ "why are you not even saying anything?"
  13. 你為什麼未說什麼呢 ⟨nì úi shhím mȏw ví/méi shyuĕᵗ shhím mwȏ nȋ⟩ "why haven't you said something?"
  14. 天氣好不好 ⟨thiēn khí hào pŭ hào⟩ "is/was the weather good or not good?"
  15. 前日天氣好不好 ⟨thhsiȇn zhĭᵗ thiēn khí hào pŭ hào⟩ "was the weather the good the day before yesterday?"
  16. 他與我說了 ⟨thā yù ngò shyuĕᵗ liàu⟩ "he has spoke with me / he has told me"
  17. 他合我說話呢 ⟨thā hhŏ ngò shyuĕᵗ hhwá nȋ⟩ "he is talking with me"
  18. 他未合我說話 ⟨thā ví/méi hhŏ ngò shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "he has not spoke with me"
  19. 有甚麼事 ⟨iòw shhím mwȏ shhé⟩ "what matter is there / what is the matter?"
  20. 上箇月有甚麼事 ⟨shhiáng kó (ng)yuĕᵗ iòw shhím mwȏ shhé⟩ "what happened last month?"
  21. 他從來未傷害過人 ⟨thā thhsyȗng lȃi ví shiāng kwó zhȋn⟩ "he has never harmed a person in the past"
  22. 我從來未見過這麼傷心底事 ⟨ngò thhsyȗng lȃi ví/méi kién kwó čié mwȏ shiāng sīm tì shhé⟩ "I have never seen such a sad matter in the past"
  23. 他從未來過 ⟨thā thhsyȗng ví lȃi kwó⟩ "he has never come (here) in the past"
  24. 不久就要造完了 ⟨pŭ kiòw dziów ’iáu dzáo' hhwȏn liàu⟩ "not after long, it will finish building"
  25. 那隻船不久就要造完了 ⟨ná čĭᵏ čhhyuȇn pŭ kiòw dziów ’iáu dzáo' hhwȏn liàu⟩ "not after long, that ship will finish building"
  26. 現今我所造底那船不久就要造完了 ⟨hhién kīm ngò shù dzáo' tì ná čĭᵏ čhhyuȇn pŭ kiòw dziów ’iáu dzáo' hhwȏn liàu⟩ "the ship that I am building now will finish soon"
  27. 我被齩了 ⟨ngȏ bí (ng)iào liàu⟩ "I am bitten"
  28. 我被瘋狗齩了 ⟨ngȏ bí fūng kòw (ng)iào liàu⟩ "I am bitten by a mad dog (rabid dog)"
  29. 他被老虎喫了 ⟨thā bí lào hù khĭᵏ liàu⟩ "he is eaten by a tiger"
  30. 你說話 ⟨nì shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "speak, you"
  31. 你說話罷 ⟨nì shyuĕᵗ hhwá bà⟩ "speak, won't you?"
  32. 你莫說話 ⟨nì mŏᵏ shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "do not speak"
  33. 你不要說話 ⟨nì pŭ ’iáu shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "do not speak"
  34. 我們說說 ⟨ngò mȗn shyuĕᵗ shyuĕᵗ⟩ "let us talk a bit"
  35. 我們說說罷 ⟨ngò mȗn shyuĕᵗ shyuĕᵗ bà⟩ "why don't we talk a bit"
  36. 我們莫說話 ⟨ngò mȗn mŏᵏ shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "let's not talk"
  37. 我們不要說話 ⟨ngò mȗn pŭ ’iáu shyuĕᵗ hhwá⟩ "let's not talk"
  38. 我們上學去罷 ⟨ngò mȗn shiáng' hhiŏᵏ khyú bà⟩ "why don't we go to school"
  39. 叫他上學罷 ⟨kiáu thā shhiáng' hhiŏᵏ khyú bà⟩ "ask him to go to school"

Usage of adverbs[edit | edit source]

  1. 我走得慢 ⟨ngò tzòw tĕᵏ mán⟩ "my walking is slow / I walk slowly"
  2. 我慢慢走 ⟨ngò mán mán tzòw⟩ "I walk slowly"
  3. 伱快快底走 ⟨nì khwái khwái tĭ tzòw⟩ "go a little fast, you"
  4. 伱快走 ⟨nì khwái tzòw⟩ "go fast, you"
  5. 我們慢慢底走罷 ⟨ngò mȗn mán mán tĭ tzòw bà⟩ "let us walk slowly"
  6. 伱莫走快囉 ⟨nì mŏᵏ tzòw khwái lȏ⟩ "do not walk too fast"
  7. 伱莫走得這麼慢囉 ⟨nì mŏᵏ tzòw tĕᵏ čié mȏ mán lȏ⟩ "do not walk so slowly"
  8. 伱說得好 ⟨nì shyuĕᵗ tĕᵏ hào⟩ "well said"
  9. 他說話說得太快 ⟨thā shyuĕᵗ hhwá shyuĕᵗ tĕᵏ thái khwái⟩ "(as) he/she speaks, (he/she) speaks too fast"
  10. 我們說話說得慢些 ⟨ngò mȗn shyuĕᵗ hhwá shyuĕᵗ tĕᵏ mán siē⟩ "(as) we talk, let us talk a little slower"
  11. 我們慢慢的說 ⟨ngò mȗn mán mán tĭ shyuĕᵗ⟩ "let us tell it slowly"

Comparison[edit | edit source]

  1. 更大 ⟨kéng dá⟩ "bigger"
  2. 這箇梨甜那箇梨更甜 ⟨čé kó lȋ thhiȇm ná kó lȋ kéng thhiȇm⟩ "this pear is sweet; that pear is sweeter"
  3. 月亮比日頭小 ⟨(ng)yuĕᵗ liáng pì zhĭᵗ thhȏw siàu⟩ "the moon is smaller than the sun"
  4. 我的帽子比伱的帽子好看 ⟨ngò tĭ máo tzè pì nì tĭ máo tzè hào khán⟩ "my hat is prettier than your hat"
  5. 他比伱力量大 ⟨thā pì nì lĭᵏ liáng dá⟩ "he is of bigger strength than you / he is stronger than you"
  6. 伱的園子裏比我的園子裏花多 ⟨nì tĭ yuȇn tzè lì pì ngò tĭ yuȇn tzè lì hwā tō⟩ "in your garden there is more flowers than in my garden"
  7. 我花園裏不如伱花園裏花多 ⟨ngò hwā yuȇn lì pŭ zhyȗ nì hwā yuȇn lì hwā tō⟩ "in my garden there is not as many flowers as in your garden"
  8. 我比伱來得早 ⟨ngò pì nì lȏi tĕᵏ tzào⟩ "I come/came earlier than you"
  9. 伱辦事比我辦得快 ⟨nì bán shhé pì ngò bán tĕᵏ khwái⟩ "you conduct business faster than I"
  10. 伱比我上城裏去得多 ⟨nì pì ngò shhiáng' chhȋng lì khyú tĕᵏ tō⟩ "you go up into the city more than I go (there)"
  11. 他寫字比伱寫得好 ⟨thā siè dzé pì nì siè tĕᵏ hào⟩ "he writes (characters) better than you write"
  12. 道路今年比去年好走 ⟨dáo' lú kīm niȇn pì khyú niȇn hào tzòw⟩ "the road this year is better/easier to walk than (that of) last year"
  13. 我比伱大兩歲 ⟨ngò pì nì dá liàng súi⟩ "I am older than you by two years / I am two years older than you"
  14. 這兩匹馬我喜歡這一匹 ⟨čié liàng phĭᵗ mà ngò hì hwōn čié ’ĭᵗ phĭᵗ⟩ "(between) these two horses, I like this one (more)"
  15. 再沒比這一方民人窮的囉 ⟨tzái mŏ pì čié ’ĭᵗ fāng mȋn zhȋn khhyȗng tĭ lȏ⟩ "(there is) no other that is poorer than people of this place"
  16. 我的房子不如伱的房子高 ⟨ngò tĭ fvȃng tzè pŭ zhyȗ nì tĭ fvȃng tzè kāo⟩ "my house is not as tall as your house"
  17. 我的房子不如伱的房子那麼高 ⟨ngò tĭ fvȃng tzè pŭ zhyȗ nì tĭ fvȃng tzè ná mȏ kāo⟩ "my house is not so tall as your house"
  18. 我家不如他家那麼富貴 ⟨ngò kiā pŭ zhyȗ thā kiā ná mȏ fów kúi⟩ "my family is not so rich as his family"
  19. 伱學問與他學問一般大 ⟨nì hhiŏᵏ vún yù thā hhiŏᵏ vún ’ĭᵗ pān dá⟩ "your academic accomplishment is of the same magnitude as her/his academic accomplishment"
  20. 伱學問與他學問一樣大 ⟨nì hhiŏᵏ vún yù thā hhiŏᵏ vún ’ĭᵗ iáng dá⟩ "your academic accomplishment is of the same magnitude as her/his academic accomplishment"
  21. 伱學問與他學問不分上下 ⟨nì hhiŏᵏ vún yù thā hhiŏᵏ vún pŭ fūn shhiáng hhiá'⟩ "your academic accomplishment and her/his academic accomplishment are no better or worse than each other"
  22. 與星星一般多 ⟨yù sīng sīng ’ĭᵗ pān tō⟩ "numerous as the stars"
  23. 像星星那麼多 ⟨sziáng' sīng sīng ná mȏ tō⟩ "numerous like the stars"
  24. 他們的金子與他們的銀子一般多 ⟨thā mȗn tĭ kīm tzè yù thā mȗn tĭ ȋn tzè ’ĭᵗ pān tō⟩ "their gold is of the same amount as their silver"
  25. 以我意見 ⟨ì ngò ’í kién⟩ "in my opinion"
  26. 我想不到他們這麼勤勞 ⟨ngò siàng pū táo thā mȗn čié mȏ khhȋn lȃo⟩ "I did not imagine them to be so hard working."
  27. 最好 ⟨tzúi hào⟩ "the best"
  28. 頂好 ⟨tìng hào⟩ "the top best"
  29. 很好 ⟨hhèn hào⟩ "very good"
  30. 最高的 ⟨tzúi kāo tĭ⟩ "the tallest"
  31. 這些樓中最高的 ⟨čié siē lȏw čyūng tzúi kāo tĭ⟩ "the tallest among these buildings"
  32. 這些樓裏頭最高的 ⟨čié siē lȏw lì thhȏw tzúi kāo tĭ⟩ "the tallest among these buildings"
  33. 最靈的 ⟨tzúi lȋng tĭ⟩ "the smartest"
  34. 那些孩子中最靈的 ⟨ná siē hhȃi tzè čyūng tzúi lȋng tĭ⟩ "the smartest among these children"
  35. 第一膽小的人 ⟨dí ’ĭᵗ tàm siàu tĭ zhȋn⟩ "the number one cowardly person"
  36. 在天下是第一膽小的人 ⟨dzái' thiēn hhiá' shhḯ' dí ’ĭᵗ tàm siàu tĭ zhȋn⟩ "to be the most cowardly person under the heaven"
  37. 這是天下最膽小的人 ⟨čié shhḯ' thiēn hhiá' tzúi tàm siàu tĭ zhȋn⟩ "This is the most cowardly person under the heaven."
  38. 我認得的人當中就是他明白 ⟨ngò zhín tĕᵏ tĭ zhȋn tāng čyūng dziów shhḯ' thā mȋng bĕᵏ⟩ "Among the people that I know, it is him that is (the most) perceptive."
  39. 這是我認得的人當中最明白的 ⟨čié shhḯ' ngò zhín tĕᵏ tĭ zhȋn tāng čyūng tzúi mȋng bĕᵏ tĭ⟩ "This is the most perceptive one among the people that I know."

Prepositions[edit | edit source]

  1. 從天上降下來的 ⟨thhsyȗng thiēn shhiáng kiáng hhiá' lȃi tĭ⟩ "descended from heaven"
  2. 他與伱說了甚麽 ⟨thā yù nì shyuĕᵗ liàu shhím mȏ⟩ "What has he said to you?"
  3. 這把傘是我的 ⟨čié pà sàn shhḯ' ngò tĭ⟩ "This umbrella is mine."
  4. 在家 ⟨dzái' kiā⟩ "at home"
  5. 在家裹 ⟨dzái' kiā lì⟩ "at home"
  6. 在我兄弟的家裹 ⟨dzái' ngò hyuēng dí' kiā lì⟩ "at my brother's"
  7. 在桌子上 ⟨dzái' čwŏᵏ tzè shhiáng⟩ "on the table"
  8. 他打了我的臉 ⟨thā tà liàu ngò tĭ lièm⟩ "he struck my face"
  9. 從窗戶裏出去 ⟨thhsyȗng chwāng hhú' lì chyŭᵗ khyú⟩ "to go out through the window"
  10. 夏天裏我上那裏.兩天去一回 ⟨hhiá thiēn lì ngò shhiáng' ná lì liàng thiēn khyú ’ĭᵗ hhȗi⟩ "During summer, I go there once every two days"
  11. 八十以上九十以下 ⟨păᵗ shhĭᵖ ì shhiáng' kiòw shhĭᵖ ì hhiá'⟩ "aove eighty and below ninety"
  12. 打仗以前 ⟨tà djiáng' ì thhsiȇn⟩ "before the war"
  13. 還未打仗以前 ⟨hhȃi ví tà djiáng' ì thhsiȇn⟩ "earlier when the war had not started"
  14. 發洪水以後 ⟨făᵗ hhȗng shùi ì hhów⟩ "after the flood"
  15. 在窗戶底下 ⟨dzái' čhwāng hhú' tì hhiá'⟩ "under the window"
  16. 隔著門縫子看人 ⟨kĕᵏ djiŏᵏ mȗn fvúng tzè khán zhȋn⟩ "to observe people through the narrow opening of the door"

Requests[edit | edit source]

  1. 我求伱一件事兒 ⟨ngò khhiȏw nì ’ĭᵗ gién' shhé⟩ "I have a request for you (lit. I beg you for one matter)"
  2. 我求伱幫我 ⟨ngò khhiȏw nì pāng ngò⟩ "I beg you to aid me."
  3. 窮人們求哀矜 ⟨khhyȗng zhȋn mȗn khhiȏw ’āi kīng⟩ "The poor ask charity."
  4. 窮人們要飯喫 ⟨khhyȗng zhȋn mȗn ’iáu fván khĭᵏ⟩ "The poor ask for food to eat."
  5. 他要多少錢 ⟨thā ’iáu tō shiàu thhsiȇn⟩ "How much money does he ask for?"
  6. 有一個人請見你 ⟨iòw ’ĭᵗ kó zhȋn thsìng kién nì⟩ "There is a man asking to meet with you."
  7. 請他進來不 ⟨thsìng thā tzín lȃi pŭ⟩ "Will you invite him to come in?"
  8. 你叫他進來 ⟨nì kiáu thā tzín lȃi⟩ "Tell him to come in."
  9. 我願意 ⟨ngò yuén ’í⟩ "Willingly."
  10. 聽命 ⟨thīng míng⟩ "At your command."
  11. 隨伱的便 ⟨szȗi nì tĭ bién⟩ "As you please."
  12. 我不攔擋 ⟨ngò pŭ lȃn tàng⟩ "I do not oppose it."
  13. 我承當伱的事 ⟨ngò čhhȋng tāng nì tĭ shhé⟩ "I take charge of your business."
  14. 我承管伱的事 ⟨ngò čhhȋng kwòn nì tĭ shhé⟩ "I take charge of your business."

Refusal[edit | edit source]

  1. 做不到 ⟨tzú pŭ táo⟩ "(I) am not able to do (it)."
  2. 這是不能的事情 ⟨čié shhḯ' pŭ nȇng tĭ shhé thhsȋng⟩ "This is a matter that cannot be (done)."
  3. 這事情我做不來 ⟨čié shhé thhsȋng ngò tzú pŭ lȃi⟩ "This thing - I am not capble of doing (it)."
  4. 萬萬不能的 ⟨ván ván pŭ nȇng⟩ "(It) cannot be at all."
  5. 我總不願意 ⟨ngò tzùng pŭ yuén ’í⟩ "I will never consent (to it)."
  6. 這個不在我 ⟨čié kó pŭ dzái' ngò⟩ "It does not depend on me."
  7. 這不是我的事 ⟨čié kó pŭ shhḯ' ngò tĭ shhé⟩ "It is not a matter that concerns me."
  8. 這個不屬我管 ⟨čié kó pŭ shhyŭᵏ ngò kwòn⟩ "It is not my department."
  9. 這個不是我該管的 ⟨čié kó pŭ shhḯ' ngò kāi kwòn tĭ⟩ "It is not something that I should concern myself with."
  10. 我不管那些事 ⟨ngò pŭ kwòn ná siē shhé⟩ "I do not meddle with those things."
  11. 伱沒有揀好時候 ⟨nì mŏ iòw kiàn hào shhï̑ hhów⟩ "You have not chosen a proper time (for this matter)."
  12. 不是不願意 ⟨pŭ shhḯ' pŭ yuén ’í⟩ "It is not that I am not willing to."
  13. 千萬莫拏著我說的話當推辭的話 ⟨thsiēn ván mŏᵏ nȃ djiŏᵏ ngò shyuĕᵗ tĭ hhwá tāng thūi szȇ tĭ hhwá⟩ "Please do not take the words that I said as excuses of refusal."
  14. 伱不叫這個人進來麽 ⟨nì pŭ kiáu čié kó zhȋn tzín lȃi mȏ⟩ "Are you not calling this person to come in?"
  15. 伱不許這個人進來麽 ⟨nì pŭ hyù čié kó zhȋn tzín lȃi mȏ⟩ "Do you not allow this person to come in?"

Confirmation and negation[edit | edit source]

  1. 一定 ⟨’ĭᵗ díng⟩ "Certainly"
  2. 一準 ⟨’ĭᵗ čyùn⟩ "Certainly"
  3. 可不是麽 ⟨khò pŭ shhḯ' m.⟩ "Isn't (it) so?"
  4. 是眞的 ⟨shhḯ' čīn tĭ⟩ "(It) is true."
  5. 那是有的 ⟨ná shhḯ' iòw tĭ⟩ "There is such a thing."
  6. 有這事 ⟨iòw čié shhé⟩ "There is such a thing."
  7. 是實事 ⟨shhḯ' shhĭᵗ shhé⟩ "It is a fact."
  8. 我說一定是眞的 ⟨ngò shyuĕᵗ ’ĭᵗ díng shhḯ čīn tĭ⟩ "I say it must be true"
  9. 這是顯然易見的 ⟨čié shhḯ' hièn zhiȇn í kién tĭ⟩ "It is very evident."
  10. 是一定的事 ⟨shhḯ' ’ĭᵗ díng tĭ shhḯ⟩ "It is a certain fact."
  11. 事是一定的 ⟨shhḯ shhḯ' ’ĭᵗ díng tĭ⟩ "The matter is certain"
  12. 伱可以信我的話 ⟨nì khò ì sín ngò tĭ hhwá⟩ "You can believe my words"
  13. 我親耳朶聽見了 ⟨ngò thsīn r̀ thīng kién liàu⟩ "I heard it with my own ears"
  14. 我親眼見了 ⟨ngò thsīn iàn kién liàu⟩ "I saw with my own eyes."
  15. 沒有什麽疑惑 ⟨mŏ iòw shhím mwȏ ngȋ hhwĕᵏ⟩ "There is not any doubt."
  16. 一點疑惑也沒有 ⟨’ĭᵗ tièm ngȋ hhwȇŏᵏ iè mŏ iòw⟩ "There is not even a little bit of doubt."
  17. 不是我一個人聽見說的 ⟨pŭ shhḯ' ngò ’ĭᵗ kó zhȋn thīng kién shyuĕᵗ tĭ⟩ "It was not me alone who have heard it being said."
  18. 不光我自己聽說了 ⟨pŭ kwāng ngò dzé kì thīng kién shyuĕᵗ liàu⟩ "(It was) not only me who have heard about (it)."
  19. 獨獨的伱不信 ⟨dŭᵏ dŭᵏ tĭ nì pŭ sín⟩ "You alone do not believe it."
  20. 獨獨的伱一個人不信 ⟨dŭᵏ dŭᵏ tĭ nì ’ĭᵗ kó zhȋn pŭ sín⟩ "You alone do not believe it,"
  21. 再沒有比這個一定的咯 ⟨tzái mŏ iów' pì čié kó ’ĭᵗ díng tĭ lŏᵏ⟩ "Nothing is more certain than this"
  22. 不能 ⟨pŭ nȇng⟩ "Cannot"
  23. 沒有疑惑了 ⟨mŏ iòw ngȋ hhwĕᵏ liàu⟩ "There is no more doubt."
  24. 巴不得不是 ⟨pā pŭ tĕᵏ pŭ shhḯ'⟩ "Wish it wasn't (so)"
  25. 恨不得不是 ⟨hhén pŭ tĕᵏ pŭ shhḯ'⟩ "Wish it wasn't (so)"
  26. 若我知道得不眞切我不說 ⟨zhiŏᵏ ngò čī dào' tĕᵏ pŭ tjȋn thsiĕᵗ ngò pŭ shyuĕᵗ⟩ "If I did not know (it) for sure I would not say (so)."
  27. 我知道一定是眞的 ⟨ngò čī dáo' ’ĭᵗ díng shhḯ' čīn tĭ⟩ "I know it must be true."
  28. 我保管是眞的 ⟨ngò pào kwòn shhḯ' čīn tĭ⟩ "I vouch for the truth of it."
  29. 不是我有的說沒的沒的說有的 ⟨pŭ shhḯ' ngò iòw tĭ shyueï̄ mŏ tĭ mwȏ tĭ shyuĕᵗ iòw tĭ⟩ "Not that I would deny what is true and to affirm what is false."
  30. 沒那回事 ⟨mŏ ná hhȗi shhé⟩ "There is no such matter"
  31. 不是眞的 ⟨pŭ shhḯ' čīn tĭ⟩ "(It) is not true."
  32. 是假的 ⟨shhḯ' kià tĭ⟩ "(It) is false."
  33. 是瞎話 ⟨shhḯ hiăᵗ hhȏá⟩ "It is a falsehood."
  34. 那是不能的 ⟨ná shhḯ' pŭ nȇng tĭ⟩ "That cannot be."
  35. 伱說笑 ⟨nì shyuĕᵗ siáu⟩ "You are joking."
  36. 伱說的這話是笑話 ⟨nì shyuĕᵗ tĭ čié shhḯ' siáu hhwá⟩ "These words that you have spoken (must) be of joking."

Conjecture[edit | edit source]

Admiration and surprise[edit | edit source]

Amity and enmity[edit | edit source]

Joy and sorrow[edit | edit source]

Anger[edit | edit source]

Reproach[edit | edit source]

Consultation[edit | edit source]

Questions and answers[edit | edit source]

Vocalization of Classical Chinese and Medieval Chinese text[edit | edit source]

楓橋夜泊[edit | edit source]

月落烏啼霜滿天

江楓漁火對愁眠

姑蘇城外寒山寺

夜半鐘聲到客船

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