Canadian LGBT History/Post-WWII Canada/Overview
Post-war Era 1945–1960
Prosperity returned to Canada during the Second World War and continued in the proceeding years, with the development of universal health care, old-age pensions, and veterans' pensions. The financial crisis of the Great Depression had led the Dominion of Newfoundland to relinquish responsible government in 1934 and become a crown colony ruled by a British governor. In 1948, the British government gave voters three Newfoundland Referendum choices: remaining a crown colony, returning to Dominion status (that is, independence), or joining Canada. Joining the United States was not made an option. After bitter debate Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province.
The foreign policy of Canada during the Cold War was closely tied to that of the United States. Canada was a founding member of NATO (which Canada wanted to be a transatlantic economic and political union as well). In 1950 Canada sent combat troops to Korea during the Korean War as part of the United Nations forces. The federal government's desire to assert its territorial claims in the Arctic during the Cold War manifested with the High Arctic relocation, in which Inuit were moved from Nunavik (the northern third of Quebec) to barren Cornwallis Island; this project was later the subject of a long investigation by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.
In 1956, the United Nations responded to the Suez Crisis by convening a United Nations Emergency Force to supervise the withdrawal of invading forces. The peacekeeping force was initially conceptualized by Secretary of External Affairs and future Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson. Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for his work in establishing the peacekeeping operation. Throughout the mid-1950s Louis St. Laurent (12th Prime Minister of Canada) and his successor John Diefenbaker attempted to create a new, highly advanced jet fighter, the Avro Arrow. The controversial aircraft was cancelled by Diefenbaker in 1959. Diefenbaker instead purchased the BOMARC missile defense system and American aircraft. In 1958 Canada established (with the United States) the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD).
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- "Migration | Multicultural Canada". Multicultural Canada. 2008. http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/Encyclopedia/A-Z/i11/2. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- "Dominion of Newfoundland" (PDF). Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board. 1999. http://fcinternet.hwdsb.on.ca/~nathan.tidridge/S010EAA85.48/Dominion%20of%20Newfoundland.pdf. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
- Karl Mcneil, Earle (1998). "Cousins of a Kind: The Newfoundland and Labrador Relationship with the United States". American Review of Canadian Studies 28.
- The Economist, May 9–15, 2009, pg 80, "A 60-year-old dream "
- McGrath, Melanie. The Long Exile: A Tale of Inuit Betrayal and Survival in the High Arctic. Alfred A. Knopf, 2006 (268 pages) Hardcover: ISBN 0007157967 Paperback: ISBN 0007157975
- Dussault, René; Erasmus, George (1994). "The High Arctic Relocation: A Report on the 1953–55 Relocation (Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples)". Canadian Government Publishing. p. 190. http://www.fedpubs.com/subject/aborig/arctic_reloc.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- "The Nobel Peace Prize 1957". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1957/pearson.html. Retrieved 2010-04-12.
- "ADA-Avro Arrow Archives-AVRO CF-105 ARROW". Arrow Digital Archives. 2009. http://www.avroarrow.org/AvroArrow/index.html. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
- "North American Aerospace Defence (NORAD)". Canada's Air Force (National Defence). 2009. http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/v2/hst/page-eng.asp?id=614. Retrieved 2010-04-13.
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