Biomedical Engineering Theory And Practice/Biomaterials

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Biomaterials science and engineering is a interdisciplinary field merging medicine, pharmaceuticals, biology, physics, chemistry, materials science, engineering, ethics and so on.

Overview of biomaterials[edit]

The United States National Institute of Health Consensus Development Conference defined a biomaterial as ‘‘Any substance (other than a drug) or combination of substances, synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used for any period of time, as a whole or as a part of a system which treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or function of the body’’ (Boretos and Eden, 1984). Biomaterials area has grown over for 50 years. Biomaterils as a field uses ideas from medicine, biology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. In addition, biomaterials researchers should consider ethics,law and the health care delivery system.

Biomaterials can be divided into metals, ceramics, polymers, glasses, carbons, and composite materials. Such materials are used as molded or machined parts, coatings, fibers, films, foams,fabrics,liquid and powder.

Classes of Biomaterials[edit]

Metals as biomaterials[edit]

Ceramics as biomaterials[edit]

Table Biomedical Applications of Bioceramics

Devices Function Biomaterial
Artificial total hip, knee,shoulder, elbow, wrist Reconstruct arthritic or fractured joints High-density alumina, metal bioglass coatings
Bone plates, screws, wires Repair fractures Bioglass-metal fiber composite,Polysulfone-carbon fiber composite
Intramedullary nails Align fractures Bioglass-metal fiber composite,Polysulfone-carbon fiber composite

from T. V. Thamaraiselvi et al(2004)[1]

Polymers as biomaterials[edit]

Composite as biomaterials[edit]

Biomaterials Property/Analysis[edit]



Mechanical requirements[edit]


Industrial involvement[edit]



Further Reading[edit]



  1. Trends Biomaterials of Artificial Organs, Vol 18 (1), pp 9-17 (2004)

Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine by Buddy D. Ratner, Allan S. Hoffman, Frederick J. Schoen, Jack E. Lemons

A Brief review: Biomaterials and their application, Amogh Tathe et al,Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 2, Suppl 4, 19­23


Biomaterials by Joon B. Park, Roderic S. Lakes