Biomedical Engineering Theory And Practice/Biomaterials
The United States National Institute of Health Consensus Development Conference defined a biomaterial as ‘‘Any substance (other than a drug) or combination of substances, synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used for any period of time, as a whole or as a part of a system which treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or function of the body’’ (Boretos and Eden, 1984). Biomaterials area has grown over for 50 years. Biomaterils as a field uses ideas from medicine, biology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. In addition, biomaterials researchers should consider ethics,law and the health care delivery system.
Biomaterials can be divided into metals, ceramics, polymers, glasses, carbons, and composite materials. Table 1 shows a few applications for synthetic materials in the body. It contains many materials that are often classified as “biomaterials.” Metals,ceramics, polymers, glasses, carbons, and composite materials are listed in this table. Such materials are used as molded or machined parts, coatings, fibers, films, foams,fabrics,liquid and powder. Table 2 presents the size of the commercial market for biomaterials and medical devices.The global biomaterial market would reach $88.4 billion by 2017 from $44.0 billion in 2012.The biomaterial market grows continually and globally because of increased investiments, funding and grant by government, active collaboration, technology advancement, increasing application of biomaterials and growing number of elderly people.
|Polymers: Silastic, Teflon, Dacron, Nylon, PMMA, Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Polytetrefluorethylene||Easy to produce, low density||Low mechanical resistance, easily degradable||Sutures, arteries, veins, cements, artificial tendons, teeth, ears, nose, heart valves, lenses, testicles and breasts. implants|
|Metals: Steels 316, 316L, Vitallium, Silver, Tantalum Cobalt F-75 and alloys of: Ti, Cr+CO, Cr+Co+Mo||Ductility, high echanical resistance to wear and shock||Low biocompatibility, corrosion in a physiological environment, mechanical properties very different from those of biological tissues||Staples, plaques and wires, articulation prosthesis, tooth implants, penis implants, skull plaques and mesh for face reconstruction|
|Ceramics: Aluminum oxides, calcium aluminates, titanium oxides, calcium phosphates, carbon, Bioglass||High biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, high resistance to compression, inert, low thermal and electrical conductivity||Low impact resistance, properties difficult to reproduce, difficulties in processing and fabrication||Dental parts, coatings, bone fillings, endoscopy, otologic implants, medical tools and equipment|
|Composites: Metals with ceramic coatings, materials coated with carbon||High biocompatibility, corrosion resistant, inert||Lack of consistency and difficult to reproduce during fabrication||Heart valves, knee implants, artificial articulations, hip implants|
|Natural Materials: Collagen, human tissues, hialuronic acid, grafts||Availability in the human body, biocompatibility||Possible rejection by host||Increase or substitution of hard and soft tissues, cornea protectors, vascular grafts, tendons and ligaments, heart valves, phthalmologic lubricants, substitution of synovial fluid|
Table 2. Biomaterials and Healthcare market
|Total US health expenditures||$2.9 trillion (2013)|
|Total U.S. medical device market||$110 billion(2014)|
|The global market for biomaterials||$44.0 billion(2012)|
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