Bengali/Grammar

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Some basic sentence patterns in Bengali are given below. Subject + "be" verb + noun/adjective

There are different ways of expressing the verb "to be." The "to be" verb that deals with personality and character traits is mostly omitted in the present tense (e.g., the forms আছি, হই, হও, হয়, etc.).

   I am. - আমি - Ami.
   You (sg.) are. - তুমি - Tumi
   He/she is. - সে - Shay
   We are. - আমরা - Amra
   You (pl.) are. - তোমরা - Tomra
   They are. - তারা - Tara
   John is. - জন - John


   I am well. - আমি ভাল (আছি)। - Ami bhalo (achi).
   He is tall. - সে লম্বা। - Shay lomba.
   She is beautiful. - সে সুন্দরী। - Shay sundori.
   You are intelligent. - তুমি বুদ্ধিমান। - Tumi buddhiman.
   We are humans. - আমরা মানুষ। - Amra Manush.

In the other tenses, the verb "hooya," which means "to become" can be used.

Another way of expressing the "to be" verb is to use the verb stem "ach-", which literally means "to be present."

   Ami ekhane achi. - I am here.
   Tumi ekhane acho. - You (sg/informal) are here.
   Se ekhane ache. - He/she (far/informal) is here.
   Amra ekhane achi. - We are here. (I/we have the same conjugated verb)
   Tomra ekhane acho. - You (pl/informal) are here.
   Tini ekhane achen. - They are here.

Present Tense

The simple present conveys ideas such as "I sleep", "We eat", "You work".

In Bengali, the simple present tense is conjugated by adding the verb root, plus an ending. The ending depends on the person of speech (i.e., I/you/we/them etc..).

For example, the verb 'to eat' in Bengali is 'khete', which has the root 'kha'.

   Ami (I): Kha-i
   Tumi (You sg/informal): Kha-o
   O(he/she): Kha-e
   Amra (We): Kha-i
   Tumra (You pl/informal): Kha-o
   Ora (Them / informal): Kha-e
   Apna (You formal): Kha-n

In general, the verb endings are as follows:

   Ami (I): root + "i"
   Tumi (You sg/informal): root + "o"
   O(he/she): root + "e"
   Amra (We): root + "i"
   Tumra (You pl/informal): root + "o"
   Ora (Them / Informal): root + "e"
   Apna (You formal): root + "en"

Examples:

   I eat: Ami Khai
   You eat: Tumi Khao
   He eats fish: O Mach khae
   We eat quickly: Amra taratari khai

Present Participle

The present participle represents actions which are currently being done in the present. In English, you would say "I am eating", "He is sleeping", "We are working".

In Bengali, you conjugate the present participle by taking the verb root, and adding an ending which depends on the person of speech of the subject (i.e, I / we/ us / they).

For example, the verb 'to eat' in Bengali is 'khete', which has the root 'kha'.

   Ami (I): Kha-chi
   Tumi (You sg/informal): Kha-cho
   O(he/she): Kha-che
   Amra (We): Kha-chi
   Tumra (You pl/informal): Kha-cho
   Ora (Them / informal): Kha-che
   Apna (You formal): Kha-chen

In general, the verb endings are as follows:

   Ami (I): root + "chi"
   Tumi (You sg/informal): root + "cho"
   O(he/she): root + "che"
   Amra (We): root + "chi"
   Tumra (You pl/informal): root + "cho"
   Ora (Them / Informal): root + "che"
   Apna (You formal): root + "chen"


Examples:

   I am eating: Ami Khachi
   You (inf) are eating: Tumi Khacho
   He is sleeping: O Gumache
   We are sleeping: Amra Gumachi
   You (formal) are sleeping: Apni Gumachen