Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Outdoor Leadership - Advanced
|Outdoor Leadership - Advanced|
|Skill Level 3|
|Year of Introduction: 1986|
1. Have the Outdoor Leadership Honor.
2. Earn three honors, not previously earned, from the Wilderness Master Award.
Any seven of these honors can be used to earn the Wilderness Master Award.
3. Have a First Aid and CPR Honors and a current certificate for them. In addition to these honors, know the prevention and symptoms of, and first aid treatment for the following
Hypothermia is caused by continued exposure to low or rapidly falling temperatures, cold moisture, snow, or ice. Those exposed to low temperatures for extended periods may suffer ill effects, even if they are well protected by clothing, because cold affects the body systems slowly, almost without notice. As the body cools, there are several stages of progressive discomfort and disability. The first symptom is shivering, which is an attempt to generate heat by repeated contractions of surface muscles. This is followed by a feeling of listlessness, indifference, and drowsiness. Unconsciousness can follow quickly. Shock becomes evident as the victim’s eyes assume a glassy stare, respiration becomes slow and shallow, and the pulse is weak or absent. As the body temperature drops even lower, peripheral circulation decreases and the extremities become susceptible to freezing. Finally, death results as the core temperature of the body approaches 80 °F (27 °C). The steps for treatment of hypothermia are as follows:
- Carefully observe respiratory effort and heart beat; CPR may be required while the warming process is underway.
- Rewarm the victim as soon as possible. It may be necessary to treat other injuries before the victim can be moved to a warmer place. Severe bleeding must be controlled and fractures splinted over clothing before the victim is moved.
- Replace wet or frozen clothing and remove anything that constricts the victim’s arms, legs, or fingers, interfering with circulation.
- If the victim is inside a warm place and is conscious, the most effective method of warming is immersion in a tub of warm (100° to 105 °F or 38° to 41 °C) water. The water should be warm to the elbow - never hot. Observe closely for signs of respiratory failure and cardiac arrest (rewarming shock). Rewarming shock can be minimized by warming the body trunk before the limbs to prevent vasodilation in the extremities with subsequent shock due to blood volume shifts.
- If a tub is not available, apply external heat to both sides of the victim. Natural body heat (skin to skin) from two rescuers is the best method. This is called “buddy warming.” If this is not practical, use hot water bottles or an electric rewarming blanket. Do not place the blanket or bottles next to bare skin, however, and be careful to monitor the temperature of the artificial heat source, since the victim is very susceptible to burn injury. Because the victim is unable to generate adequate body heat, placement under a blanket or in a sleeping bag is not sufficient treatment.
- If the victim is conscious, give warm liquids to drink. Never give alcoholic beverages or allow the victim to smoke.
- Dry the victim thoroughly if water is used for rewarming.
- As soon as possible, transfer the victim to a definitive care facility. Be alert for the signs of respiratory and cardiac arrest during transfer, and keep the victim warm.
b. Venomous snake bite
Take a rag or a band ,and wrap it tight 2-3 inches by the wound to prevent from spreading.Then call emergency as fast as you can .But keep patient calm. Snakebite first aid recommendations vary, in part because different snakes have different types of venom. Some have little local effect, but life-threatening systemic effects, in which case containing the venom in the region of the bite by pressure immobilization is highly desirable. Other venoms instigate localized tissue damage around the bitten area, and immobilization may increase the severity of the damage in this area, but also reduce the total area affected; whether this trade-off is desirable remains a point of controversy.
Because snakes vary from one country to another, first aid methods also vary. As always, this article is not a legitimate substitute for professional medical advice. Readers are strongly advised to obtain guidelines from a reputable first aid organization in their own region, and to be wary of homegrown or anecdotal remedies.
However, most first aid guidelines agree on the following:
- Protect the patient (and others, including yourself) from further bites. While identifying the species is desirable in certain regions, do not risk further bites or delay proper medical treatment by attempting to capture or kill the snake. If the snake has not already fled, carefully remove the victim from the immediate area. If possible, take a photograph of the snake (many cell phones are equipped with cameras). If you do not know what type of snake it is, someone else might be able to identify it from the photo. A poor photo is better than no photo.
- Keep the victim calm. Acute stress reaction increases blood flow and endangers the patient. Keep people near the patient calm. Panic is infectious and compromises judgment.
- Call for help to arrange for transport to the nearest hospital emergency room, where antivenin for snakes common to the area will often be available.
- Make sure to keep the bitten limb in a functional position and below the victim's heart level so as to minimize blood returning to the heart and other organs of the body.
- Do not give the patient anything to eat or drink. This is especially important with consumable alcohol, a known vasodilator which will speed up the absorption of venom. Do not administer stimulants or pain medications to the victim, unless specifically directed to do so by a physician.
- Remove any items or clothing which may constrict the bitten limb if it swells (rings, bracelets, watches, footwear, etc.)
- Keep the victim as still as possible.
- Do not incise the bitten site.
Many organizations, including the American Medical Association and American Red Cross, recommend washing the bite with soap and water. However, do not attempt to clean the area with any type of chemical. Australian recommendations for snake bite treatment strongly recommend against cleaning the wound. Traces of venom left on the skin/bandages from the strike can be used in combination with a snake bite identification kit to identify the species of snake. This speeds determination of which antivenin to administer in the emergency room.
c. Heat and sun stroke
Heat stroke is a less common but far more serious condition than heat exhaustion, since it carries a 20 percent fatality rate. The main feature of heatstroke is the extremely high body temperature, 105 °F (41 °C) or higher, that accompanies it. In heatstroke, the victim has a breakdown of the sweating mechanism and is unable to eliminate excessive body heat built up while exercising. If the body temperature rises too high, the brain, kidneys, and liver may be permanently damaged.
Sometimes the victim may have preliminary symptoms, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, or weakness. Breathing will be deep and rapid at first, later shallow and almost absent. Usually the victim will be flushed, very dry, and very hot. The pupils will be constricted (pinpoint) and the pulse fast and strong.
When you provide first aid for heatstroke, remember that this is a true life-and-death emergency. The longer the victim remains overheated, the higher the chances of irreversible body damage or even death occurring. First aid treatment for heatstroke is designed to reduce body heat. Reduce body heat immediately by dousing the body with cold water, or applying wet, cold towels to the whole body. Move the victim to the coolest possible place and remove as much clothing as possible. Maintain an open airway. Place the victim on his/her back, with the head and shoulders slightly raised. If cold packs are available, place them under the arms, around the neck, at the ankles, and in the groin. Expose the victim to a fan or air-conditioner since drafts will promote cooling. Immersing the victim in a cold water bath is also effective. Give the victim (if conscious) cool water to drink. Do not give any hot drinks or stimulants. Get the victim to a medical facility as soon as possible. Cooling measures must be continued while the victim is being transported.
d. Heat exhaustion
Heat exhaustion is the most common condition caused by working or exercising in hot spaces. Heat exhaustion produces a serious disruption of blood flow to the brain, heart, and lungs. This causes the victim to experience weakness, dizziness, headache, loss of appetite, and nausea.
Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion are similar to those of shock: the victim will appear ashen gray; the skin will be cold, moist, and clammy; and the pupils of the eyes may be dilated (enlarged). The vital (blood pressure, temperature, pulse, and respiration) signs usually are normal; however, the victim may have a weak pulse together with rapid and shallow breathing.
Body temperature may be below normal. You should treat heat exhaustion victims as if they were in shock. Loosen the clothing, apply cool wet cloths, move the victim to either a cool or an air-conditioned area, and fan the victim. Do not allow the person to become chilled. If the victim is conscious, administer a solution of 1 teaspoon of salt dissolved in a quart of cool water. If the victim vomits, do not give any more fluids. Transport the victim to a medical facility as soon as possible.
e. Poison ivy & poison oak reaction
Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac all cause a rash when oils from the plant come into contact with the skin. The contact does not have to be direct - it can be transferred from the plant to another item, and then to the skin. Tools, pets, and clothing can all transfer the oil from the plant to the skin. The best defense against this rash is to be able to recognize these plants, stay alert, and avoid contact. If you do come into contact with any of them, the first thing you should do is immediately wash the affected area with soap and water. This will, in many cases, prevent the rash from developing. If contact went undetected and a rash does develop, apply Calamine lotion or a cortizone cream to the affected area. If the rash develops on the face or genitals, seek medical attention.
f. Open wound infection
Open wounds are a serious hazard in a survival situation, not only because of the tissue damage and blood loss, but also because of the increased possibility of infection. Little can be done to prevent wound contamination at the time of the injury. Proper wound care can minimize further contamination and promote healing and preservation of function in the injured part.
- Clothing should be cut or torn away from a wound; drawing clothes over the wound may introduce bacteria into the wound.
- Whenever possible, avoid touching the wound with fingers or any unsterile object. All water and instruments used in wound care should be sterilized by boiling. Washing your hands before you treat any wound is very important in keeping down infection.
- Clean all wounds as soon after occurrence as possible. Only antiseptics especially designed to use in open wounds should be used directly in the wound.
- Common antiseptics such as Merthiolate, iodine, and Mercurochrome should never be applied directly to a wound. These solutions destroy only part of the bacteria and actually damage the exposed tissues.
- When cleansing solutions for wounds are not available, and medical attention will not be available for a while, a suitable substitute may be a poultice made of fern root. To prepare a poultice, you boil finely chopped roots in water until syrupy. Allow the poultice to cool and apply directly to the wound.
- The “open treatment” method is the safest way to manage wounds in a survival situation. No attempt should be made to close a wound by stitching. The wound should be left open to permit drainage of pus from infection. As long as a wound can drain, it generally will not become life threatening. If a wound is gaping, the edges can be brought together with adhesive tape cut in the form of a butterfly or dumbbell. When a butterfly bandage is applied properly, only a small portion of the adhesive is in contact with the wound; but a large surface of the tape is in contact with the skin on either side of the wound, providing traction that pulls the edges of the wound together. The narrow center permits some free drainage from the wound, and the strips can be removed easily if the wound has to be opened should infection develop.
g. Altitude sickness
Altitude sickness can begin in susceptible people at elevations as low as 2400 meters. The early symptoms are drowsiness, feeling unwell, and weakness, especially during exercise. More severe symptoms are headache, poor sleep, persistent rapid pulse, nausea and sometimes vomiting, especially in children. More severe symptoms include pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs; persistent coughing), confusion, psychosis, hallucination and death.
Victims can sometimes control mild altitude sickness by consciously taking ten to twelve rapid large breaths every five minutes. If overdone, this can blow off too much carbon dioxide and cause tingling in the extremities of the body. The quickest cure is to reduce the victim's altitude if possible. Some mountain rescue groups carry acetazolamide (a prescription drug) to treat mountain sickness, injectable steroids to reduce pulmonary edema, and inflatable pressure vessels to relieve and evacuate severe mountain-sick persons.
Altitude acclimatization has two stages. Overnight, the body can adjust its carbonic acid balance, and substantially improve its performance. Over four to six weeks, the body can grow more blood cells, strengthen the heart and make other tissue changes. Above 5,500 meters, further altitude exposure weakens, rather than strengthening one's acclimation.
Dehydration is the depletion of water from the body. It can be prevented by drinking plenty of water, especially during periods of physical exertion. One to five percent dehydration will make you lose your appetite, become sleepy and nauseated, and begin to vomit. As dehydration goes up to 10 percent, dizziness results. You will have headaches, difficulty in breathing, tingling of the legs and arms caused by poor circulation, indistinct speech, and, finally, an inability to walk. Still, 10 percent dehydration generally causes no permanent ill effects. When dehydration exceeds 10 percent, you will become delirious, spastic, almost deaf, and barely able to see. The skin shrivels and becomes numb. At temperatures above 90 °F, dehydration over 15 percent is generally fatal. At 85° and less, the body can stand up to 25 percent dehydration. Dehydration is quickly cured by water—in fact, only water can cure it. When you are dehydrated, you don’t have to worry about how much water you drink or how quickly you drink it, or if the water is warm or cool. Cold water, though, will upset the stomach.
Choosing a topic for each of the seven worships is easier if the camping trip has a theme. If it doesn't have a theme, you could choose a theme for your worship talks yourself.
You will need to select seven time slots when you will have the attention of the campers. Here are some suggestions:
- Friday evening vespers (around the campfire)
- Sabbath morning before breakfast
- Sabbath School
- Church Service
- Afternoon hike (during a rest period)
- Saturday evening (around the campfire)
- Sunday morning before breakfast.
If the Sabbath School and/or the Worship Service time slots are not available to you, you can use the time before lunch on Sabbath as well as the time before dinner. Other time slots are also not only acceptable, but quite workable. The important thing is to figure out when you will give your talks, and then stick to your plan.
An outline should consist of a title, main point, supporting evidence (which could be a story or two, with one of them being drawn from the natural setting in which you are camped), a Bible text, and a restatement of the main point. It can be written out on a single sheet of paper or on a series of index cards. You can refer to the outline during the talk. Keep the outline brief. Its main purpose is to remind you to convey the points you have already chosen. It is not a script for you to read to the other campers.
5. Outline a personal testimony that could be used to start a friendship between a person and Christ. The testimony could include how Jesus became your personal Savior, a miracle that has happened in your life, etc. Present this testimony to a group of youth in an outdoor setting.
Personal stories related by the person who experienced them can be powerful and moving testimony. Search through your "story bank" for one that you think has the best chance of reaching your audience. Then decide what the lesson of that story will be. A story without a point is nothing more than entertainment. Your aim here is to reach a person, so your story needs to have a moral in order to get a message across.
Outlining the story means you write down the major highlights.
- What happened?
- How did the situation begin?
- What predicament developed?
- How was it resolved?
- How did God intervene?
- How did it affect your life?
- How would your life be different had God not intervened on your behalf?
- What did you learn from the experience?
6. Know how to control the panic of someone who is lost.
The wording of this requirement implies that you are either with the person who is lost, or you are in voice contact with them (via radio or cell phone). In either case, you are able to influence them and calm them down.
First remain calm yourself. This does not mean that you ignore the gravity of the situation, but rather, that you deal with it in a calm, deliberate manner. Start with a prayer. If the person is beginning to panic and act irrationally, tell them to calm down. If you are present, you may need to physically restrain a person to keep them from running off or injuring themselves.
Once you have the person's attention, share the plan with them. Explain how you plan to get "unlost" and how if the plan doesn't work out before nightfall, how you will build or find a shelter to protect against the elements until help can arrive. Once shelter has been established, explain how you will build a fire. Then execute the plan, or walk that person through it (if you have only voice contact).
If you are in contact with the lost person by cell phone, have them monitor the phone's battery. Wilderness areas are notorious for having poor cell phone coverage, and the phone will automatically boost its transmit power to compensate, draining the batteries more quickly than usual. Have the person agree to turn the phone on once per hour for five minutes, and then off again to conserve power. If the signal becomes too weak, communicate via text messages as opposed to by voice, as text messages are more likely to get through and be understood.
During the hourly contact, ask how the person is doing, and if they have seen any landmarks they can identify. Help them solve their problems as they come up, and describe the progress of the search and rescue team. Pray again.
7. Develop a search and rescue plan for a specific location, 50 acres (20 hectares) or more, in your area. This plan should utilize at least ten individuals, and you should coordinate each one's activity and search zone. List specific equipment that might be needed for communication, first aid, and victim transport appropriate for the chosen location.
This exercise will require a topographic map covering the search area. Before the search begins, there are several bits of information that should be collected and carefully analyzed.
- Basic statistics on the lost person:
- wilderness skill
- last known emotional state
- What is the last known location of the lost person?
- What was the person wearing? Gather as much detail as possible, including undergarments (lost people have an amazing propensity to shed garments).
- What kind of footwear was the person using?
- How well equipped was the person?
Begin the Search
The search will begin at the person's last known location. Plot this on a map. Look for boundaries surrounding that location, such as roads, rivers, creeks, fences, etc. Assign one team to search the vicinity surrounding the last known location. Have another team search the identified boundaries looking for signs that the person may have exited the area. If no evidence can be found of the person having crossed those boundaries, confine the search the area encompassed by it. Otherwise, make the boundary crossing the new focal point of the search, and establish another perimeter. Remember that the lost person could have crossed back into the original search area, so it is important to search the entire boundary before refocussing the search.
Equipment needed will depend to a great extent on the conditions in the area. The factor that most often results in death in a lost-person situation is hypothermia, so be prepared to treat that as soon as the victim is found (if applicable). This equipment will include a sleeping bag. The victim may also have become dehydrated, so bring water, both for the searcher, and for the victim.
Victims have an unusual tendency to cast off clothing when lost, and this may further expose them to risk of hypothermia. Bring extra clothing for the victim, including footwear. Also be prepared to carry the victim out on a stretcher, travois, or watercraft (if the search is along a body of water).
Establish a base of operations and have all the searchers stay in radio contact with the base. This will require two-way radios with sufficient range to cover the entire area, including ravines.
Keep track of the areas that have been searched by marking them on the map.
8. Outline your philosophy for wilderness etiquette. Participate in one to three hours of a wilderness conservation project.
By the time you have reached the level required to earn on this honor, you should already have developed a philosophy of wilderness etiquette. All that remains is to capture that in words. You should be familiar with the mantras "Leave no trace" and "take only pictures, leave only footprints," and you will already know that you can take things other than pictures (such as trash). Perhaps you prefer outdoor forms of outdoor recreation that do not pollute or make excessive noise (hiking vs riding an ATV, skiing vs a snowmobile, paddling a canoe or kayak vs a jet ski, sailing vs a motor boat, etc.). You know how to enjoy the outdoors in a way that does not ruin it for others, and you know how to introduce others to the joys of the outdoors. Write it down!
Consider explaining the 7 Leave No Trace Principles in detail or coming up with a fun way to remember them and teach them.
1. Plan ahead and prepare. 2. Travel and camp on durable surfaces. 3. Dispose of waste properly. 4. Leave what you find. 5. Minimize campfire impacts (be careful with fire). 6. Respect wildlife. 7. Be considerate of other visitors.
As for the wilderness conservation project, you can connect with a local hiking or paddling club, or a national wildlife preservation organization (such as the Audubon Society). If you don't know of any organization, check with a local outdoor retailer and ask if they know of one. These organizations frequently orchestrate river cleanups, trail building projects, or even scientific data collection (such as water cleanliness or species counts).
You can always organize a project on your own too. Check with the local government or park authority. Why not bring your Pathfinder club along for the ride?
9. Teach at least one honor found in the Wilderness Master group.
See requirement 2 for the honors included in the Wilderness Master group.
10. Know at least four objectives for outdoor leadership in each of the following categories
- Inspire a desire in those you lead to become physically active.
- Understand the physical fitness levels of those you lead and know their limitations.
- Provide opportunities to increase physical endurance such that those you lead can comfortably participate in outdoor activities.
- Find ways to share the outdoors with those who cannot physically participate.
- Coach others in ways to express their triumphs and disappointments in an socially acceptable manner.
- Encourage shy persons to come out of their shell (but do not embarrass them).
- Provide opportunities for youth to bond with their peers, with younger children, and with their leaders.
- Be a trustworthy friend who is consistent.
- Teach outdoor skills to those you lead so that they may become self-sufficient.
- Allow people to make mistakes, but be there to keep things safe and help pick up the pieces when necessary.
- Instil your love for the outdoors in others.
- Teach those you lead to become leaders in their own right.
- Develop your own spiritual life so that you may share it with others.
- Practice what you preach so that you do not become a stumbling block.
- Preach what you practice so that others may know explicitly what you are all about.
- Seek divine guidance.
11. Know the difference between juniors (10-12 years old) and teens (13-15 years old)in the following areas
For this discussion we will refer to 10 to twelve year-old Pathfinders as "juniors" and 13-16 year-old Pathfinders as "teens." More information on this topic can be found in the Pathfinder Staff Manual (see chapter 2).
Juniors are generally a very healthy group of kids, and they are very active. They need to move, so a good Pathfinder program will have "moving" times built in to it (Marching and Drilling, games, etc.) to harness that energy productively.
Teens are very concerned about their appearance. They will often engage in innocuous physical contact with a certain girl or boy of whom they harbor romantic thoughts. This may include "slugging" them on the shoulder or lightly pushing them.
The teenage years are a time of rapid growth. The mind may still say that their shoe size is 7 when 11 is more like it. This can cause clumsiness and lead to embarrassment.
Juniors remember almost everything you say. If you say "next week we are going to go on a nature hike," you had better go on a nature hike next week. If you do not, they will remind you of what you said. Be very careful of the things you promise to them, and never make a threat you are not willing to execute. If you get in a situation where consequences are called for, it is better to say "there will be consequences for that" and decide what those consequences are later rather than making a spur-of-the-moment threat that you will regret later.
Furthermore, juniors will remember what the consequences for a given infraction were for Johnny, the consequences for the same infraction had better be about the same for Billy. They recognize and remember unfairness.
Teens will continue to love and follow the adults in their lives that they loved and followed as juniors. If you become their "hero" when they are 12, they will still respect you when they are 16.
The teen years are an emotional roller coaster. Their bodies are coursing with hormones that make them very moody. One can easily be on the top of the moon at the beginning of an activity and an emotional mess before it's over. Girls tend to cry and get it all out (especially with trusted girlfriends), while boys tend to internalize negative emotions that can erupt at the slightest provocation.
Teens will sometimes challenge your authority. This will sometimes come in the form of the Pathfinder uniform. If a teen shows up for Induction with pink shoes instead of the regulation black, call them on it. If you do not, they may very well show up in baggy pants at the next Class A uniform event. You do not need to make a big scene - just let them know that you did notice and that their choice is not in line with your expectations.
Junior Pathfinders love to collect things - it could be anything from the traditional stamps and coins to the more bizarre. Many AY honors involve making collections (Insects, Shells, Rocks and Minerals, etc.) so use this to your advantage.
Juniors are eager to learn and can memorize things quickly. They like to read.
Juniors are into "secret codes" and handshakes. They like adventure, and they love stories. Be careful when telling them the exploits of your own youth. If you ever tell them about the wrong things you did as a child, make sure you tell them what the consequences were as well. Also remember that they may try to reproduce your youthful adventures.
It is important that when you teach hands-on activities to this age group that it is their hands that are on, and not yours. If you jump in and do their activities for them, they will quickly lose interest. Instruct them how to do something, but then put your hands behind your back. Let them do it!
Logic plays a large role in a teen's thinking, as it is at this age that they become critical thinkers. They will compare what you say to what you do and note any inconsistencies.
If teens were cars, they would have excellent acceleration and lousy brakes. They may think of an idea and dive in before thinking of the consequences. If they do consider the consequences before it is too late, they may still have difficulty putting on the brakes. If they know that a well-loved adult leader (hopefully this is you) will be disappointed in their actions, that is sometimes enough to kick in the brakes. If they respect you, they do want your approval.
Juniors are very interested in what goes on in church. They are eager to help take up the offering in church. Most baptisms in the Adventist church take place among this age group.
Do not discuss negatives in front of this age group. If there are problems in your club that require discussion with other staff, save them for staff meetings. Juniors will pick up on bad vibes, and if you complain about another staff member in front of them, you will undermine that staff's authority with them.
Juniors will take your word as authoritative on spiritual matters. Teens will challenge you, citing objections or inconsistencies.
Teens will wrestle with their consciences, but remember - their braking system is not yet fully developed. They do succumb to peer pressure, but they also repent. Be ready to forgive them, and remember that if they already realize they have made a mistake, a lecture may be unnecessary. Sometimes they just need a friend.
12. Have seven of the following honors. Any of the honors earned more than two years ago should be restudied so that you can answer any of the knowledge questions included in the honor.
13. Plan, organize, and carry out one of the following for one weekend with a group of not less than five
a. Outdoor spiritual retreat
b. Canoe trip
Plan on one canoe for every two people. The supplies should be loaded into the center of the canoe, with the heaviest items being placed lowest in the boat, and the lighter items place on top of them. Remember that the canoe will almost certainly take on a bit of water from wet shoes, dripping paddles, etc., so don't put anything that must stay dry on the bottom of the boat. Some have reported success in placing a tarp down first, loading equipment on top of it, and then drawing the edges over the top of the gear. How ever you load the gear into the canoe, make sure you tie everything down. If the canoe capsizes during the trip, you want the gear to stay with the boat rather than go floating merrily down the stream - or worse - sink to the bottom. Try to remember that this is a possibility when you are selecting your gear. Don't bring anything with you that you cannot afford to leave on a river bottom (such as a borrowed tent, an heirloom axe, or a pair of designer sunglasses). Also try to remember that leaving gear on the bottom of the river is a form of pollution.
Canoe camping has one great advantage over backpacking in that you can pack a lot more gear into a canoe than you can into a backpack. Just don't overdo it. You will still have to carry everything during the portage.
Once the canoe is loaded, check its trim - that is, check that the bow and stern are at the same level. You don't want to have the either end sticking way out of the water, as that will make a canoe "tippy."
Before leading a group down a river, you should scout it first. During your scouting trip, you will be looking for hazards and evaluating river conditions. The trip should answer these questions:
- Are there rapids?
- Is the least skilled person with you able to navigate them?
- Is there an easy way to get off the river upstream from the rapid?
Another important reason to scout the river before bringing the group with you is so that you'll be able to choose the best camping site along the route. When you're going down for the first time, you might be tempted to settle for a sub-optimal site if you don't know there's a better place around the next bend.
c. Bicycle trip
First decide where you will go on the trip. Will you bike there and back, or will someone drop you off or meet you at the end? How long will the trip take? Will it be an overnight trip? If so, what will everyone need to bring? Will you camp along the way or find a place to stay indoors? These are all important considerations.
Be sure to take into account the abilities of the least-skilled person in your party, and tailor the trip to suit that person's needs. If you are banking on 80 miles per day, you had better be sure that everyone in the group can do 80 miles per day.
How much food will you need to take (if any). Will you replenish your water along the way or carry all you need? How much will you need?
Once you have figured out all these details, it is imperative that you share them with the people in your group. They also need to know what to bring and how far you expect them to go in a day. Their idea of what they can do might not agree with your idea.
d. Horseback trip
e. Backpack trip
Read over the answers in the Backpacking and Hiking honor before setting out. Both have a lot of information that is helpful for a trip like this, and a 15-mile trip will meet the "big" requirement in both.
"Carrying all needed supplies" means that you do not hike from point A to point B while someone else drives an SUV there laden with all your gear.