AQA Information and Communication Technology/ICT4/The Management of Change
As a result of the 1996 OASIG study, it was discovered that
- 80-90% of IS's do not meet performance targets
- 80% are late or other budget
- 40% are never completed.
- Less than 40% fully address training and skills requirements
- Less than 25% properly integrate business and technology objectives
- 10-20% meet all their success criteria
Issues which need management when a system is changed
- Skills of a workforce may not be needed under a new IS, meaning they need to be reskilled
- They will need to be retrained to use new skills, which may be of a higher order
- They will need to be retrained in the operational procedures, in additional to IT skills.
- They will need to understand the consequences of not using the new system correctly.
- Workforce attitude
- Most people are resistant to change
- The changes need to be completely explained
- Users should be involved in change from an early stage.
- Organisational structure
- Not only may the system change, but the organisation around it may need to update their working practices for the new system
- If responsibilites and delegations change, people may feel "left out" of the new system (middle managers may be disillusioned if their responsibilities are delegated lower down, etc.).
Why people may react badly to change
- They fear redundancy
- They fear a reduction in status and job satisfaction
- Changes in organisational structure may result in a loss of promotion opportunities
- People feel their aims and ambitions are threatened
- People may fear that their proposals are criticising their past efforts
- General distrust of technology
- no one likes change especially old people
How to successfully manage change
- Changing too much at once is a recipe for disaster.
- Encourage people who are affected by the change to participate in the change
- Ensure all your senior management are publically supportive of the change, and are repeatedly demonstrating this support
- Ensure everyone has had proper training on the change
- Make sure everyone knows why they're changing
- Share all information and plans to everyone as soon as possible
- Make sure that public information is not too technical for people to understand
- Make sure everyone participates and is properly consulted
- Divide the change into small steps to make sure people don't feel rushed into the change
- Minimise surprises
- Encourage motivation
- Minimise people who "lose" from the change.