A-level Chemistry/AQA/Module 1/Amount of Substance

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Relative Atomic Mass and Relative Molecular Mass[edit | edit source]

The isotope is the standard for relative mass. A relative atomic mass of 1 is 1 twelfth of the mass of 1 atom of . Carbon is used due to its relative abundance in nature.

The Mole and the Avogadro Constant (L)[edit | edit source]

Avogadro Constant and The Mole[edit | edit source]

The Avogadro Constant is a quantity and is given the symbol L:

A mole of particles is L particles. I.e.

The mass of 1 mole of particles of a substance with a relative atomic mass of 1, is precisely 1g.
1 mole of (relative atomic mass 12) is 12g.

Molarity[edit | edit source]

is a quantitative expression of the concentration of a solution.

Or more simply, it is the concentration when measured in moles per dm3.

Sometimes you will see 'm' used as a short version of this. E.g. 5m acid means 5 moles per cubic decimeter. A capital M should not be used as that means meters so a small m should be used or mol to be clearer.

Isotopes[edit | edit source]

Isotopes have different mass numbers but the same atomic numbers. They are particles with the same number of protons (same element) but with different number of neutrons. is an isotope of as they both have 6 protons but different number of neutrons.

The Ideal Gas Equation[edit | edit source]

p is the pressure of the gas in Pa (Nm−2)

V is the volume of the gas in m3

n is the number of moles

R is the gas constant (8.31 J K−1 mol−1)

T is the temperature in Kelvin (equivalent to degrees Celsius + 273)

Empirical and Molecular Formulae[edit | edit source]


  • Empirical formula: The simplest whole number ratio of atom types present in a molecule of a compound.
  • Molecular formula: The actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule of a compound.

To determine a molecular formula you need the given mass of the substance and the empirical formula mass. Divide the given mass by the empirical formula mass.

Multiply the given answer by the ratios in the empirical formula and you will have the molecular formula.

Balanced Equations and Associated Calculations[edit | edit source]