Woodworking/Glossary

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Contents

A[edit]

Applied carving
background which is worked separately and then applied, rather than being worked in place.

B[edit]

Bead
a semicircular piece of moulding.
Bench dog
a peg standing proud of the bench surface.
Bolster
shoulder.
Burl
a knotty growth from a tree with a convoluted, complex grain.

C[edit]

Cannel, channel
the concavity of a gouge blade.
Card scraper
a flat blade with a burred edge used for smoothing.
Chip carving
incised surface decoration, usually geometric.
Chops
a type of vise.
Close grain
woods with very fine fibers of cells that are not visibly porous.
Conversion
reduction of a whole log into pieces suitable for working.
Crook
longitudinal bending to one side, caused by uneven seasoning or grain.
Crotch
the section of a tree where a branch divides from the trunk, or the trunk divides in two; typically an area of convoluted grain.
Crossgrain
working perpendicular to the grain.
Cup
transverse bending, convex or concave, usually predictable, considering grain orientation.

D[edit]

Dado
a slot made across the grain.
Devil stone
a coarse, hard dressing stone used in sharpening tools, grinders, and other stones.
dovetail
a trapezoidal protrusion usually at the end of a piece of wood.
Dressing stone
a rough sharpening stone usually used on other stones.
Drill 
(verb) the process of making holes in a material or (noun) a tool for drilling holes.
Dutchman
a diamond-shaped patch of wood used to repair surface blemishes and knotholes.

E[edit]

End grain
the grain grain at the end of a piece of wood which is perpendicular to the surface.
Face
when a board has one side that is wider than the other, the wider side is referred to as the face (as opposed to the edge). May also refer to the face that is to be visible in the finished item.
Fence
a flat and straight length of some material, usually wood, steel or aluminium, which provides a reference for tools to work against, or which prevents the work from sliding.
Fiber/fibre
the fine tube-like structure of wood which is hollow and determines the grain direction.
Figure
naturally occurring decorative patterns in wood, usually due to medullary rays.
Firmer
a chisel bevelled on both sides instead of only one.
Fishtail chisel or gouge
a chisel or gouge with a splayed end.
Flat gouge
a gouge with minimal curvature, used for finishing and smoothing.
Flitch
a board in which the round of the trunk is still visible, a rough-cut board.
Flute
a deep channel cut in wood; occasionally denotes the cannel of a gouge.
Foxing
a yellow-brown discoloration of wood due to fungal infection.
Fret saw
a saw with a very fine toothed blade used for delicate cuts in thin material.
Frosting
regular indented patterns created with a special-purpose punch called a froster.
Wood|Grain
the longitudinal fibers in wood.
Gouge
a chisel like tool with a curved cutting edge.
Green wood
unseasoned wood.
Grit
The grade of particles in sandpaper or sharpening stones which determines the aggressiveness of the cut.
Hand plane
see Plane.
Hardwood
wood from an angiosperm tree, i.e. a tree in the division Magnoliophyta; Despite the name, not necessarily very hard or dense wood (e.g. balsa is a hardwood), although generally harder than softwoods.
Heart shake
a shake radiating out from the heartwood.
Heel
the corner of a chisel, knife, or gouge bevel which meets the back of the blade and polishes the cut.
Hold down or hold fast
a hold-down iron, fitting into a hole in a bench, tightened or loosened by hammer taps.
Hollow grinding
a concave bevel on a chisel, gouge, or knife.
Incannel
the concave surface of a gouge; a gouge sharpened on the concave surface.
Interlocked grain
grain which has multiple longitudinal directions in alternating layers, typical of many tropical hardwoods, and very difficult to work and to produce smooth surfaces.
Jig saw
a power tool that cuts by moving a blade up and down as it is guided through the cut.
Kerf
the gap left when material is removed by a saw. The width of the kerf is equal to the set of the saw.
Lead
the tendency for wood that is being cut to direct the saw parallel to its grain.
Mortise or Mortice
a cavity or hole (generally rectangular) in a piece of wood, meant to receive a tenon or a hinge
Outcannel
the convex surface of a gouge; a gouge sharpened on the convex surface.
Plane
(verb) the process of removing material in thin shavings in order to make it flat, or (noun) a tool for planing.
Plane iron
cutting part of a hand plane.
Quarter-sawn
describes a plank with growth rings perpendicular to the wider face (see picture).
Rail
Horizontal member of a frame on a door, window or panel.
Rasp
a long and flat steel tool with raised teeth for shaping wood.
Reed
a series of beads in a row.
Relief cut
short straight cuts made at right angles to a curved layout so sharper than normal curves can be cut with a jig saw or band saw.
Riffler
a paddle-shaped rasp.
Rift sawn similar to quarter-sawn.
Ring shake
a shake occurring between annual rings.
Saw rasp
a rasp with saw teeth.
Scorp
a drawknife with a curved, sometimes completely circular blade; often used for hollowing out objects such as bowls.
Scroll saw
a motorized fretsaw.
Seasoning
reducing the moisture content of wood before working to prevent cracking, splitting, and other damage due to drying.
Shake
a crack or split in wood, caused by damage or drying. Can also mean a split (as opposed to sawn) shingle.
Shoot
planing an edge straight or square. See Shooting board.
Slab-cut
describes a plank with growth rings roughly parallel to the wider face (see picture).
Slip
a shaped stone used for sharpening non-flat blades such as gouges.
Snib
a wooden toggle used to hold the work on a table.
Softwood
wood from a gymnosperm tree, i.e., trees in the divisions Pinophyta and Ginkgophyta; Despite the name, not necessarily very soft or light wood (e.g., douglas-fir is a softwood).
Spalting
a change in the texture, strength and color of wood caused by colonies of fungus growing within the dead wood. Where colonies of fungus meet, fine black lines - often considered a desirable feature, can be seen.
Split
to longitudinally separate wood along grain layers.
Sticking
a moulding that is part of a larger piece of wood such as a frame (as opposed to being applied).
Stile (or sometimes style)
Vertical member of a frame on a door, window or panel.
Sweep
the curvature of a gouge, ranging from flat (little curvature, but not actually flat else it would be a chisel) to deep or quick.
Tear out
broken or torn fibres resulting from damage as the blade of a tool exits the cut.
Tenon
is a projection on the end of a piece of wood for insertion into a mortise.
Twist
longitudinal twisting of wood due to uneven seasoning or grain.
Undercutting
cutting away from an edge to increase the sense of relief or thinness.
Veiner
a small deep gouge.
Veneer
very thin slices of wood used for inlay or to cover surfaces.
Veneer saw
speciality tool for trimming veneer.
Wane
an edge of a sawn board where the bark or surface of the trunk remains.
Warp
distorted lumber, such as a twist, cup or a bow.
Wasting
quickly removing wood during carving, usually with an adze, knife, or rasp.
Waste
wood that will be removed in the finished work, often retained during working as a handle.