Wikijunior:How Things Work/Hydraulic System
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Who invented it ? 
Joseph Bramah invented it. He also invented the toilet and a printer that numbered bank bills.
How does it get power? 
Hydraulics can receive power from many sources. The most common is a mechanical pump driven by some type of motor. The motor provides pressure to the fluid in the hydraulic system.
How does it work? 
A hydraulic system is when a liquid is in a tube, and it is pushed, and the liquid is moved and presses something. For instance, when you are in a car and press the brake pedal, the pedal pushes a liquid called "brake fluid" through a tube where it presses against the brake discs, stopping the car.
The most common method of hydraulic usage is to have a cylinder that contains an internal rod. The rod is connected to a pusher plate. As fluid flows behind the pusher plate, the rod is pushed outwards. The brakes in a car push the brake pads down when fluid is applied. The hydraulic cylinders in a backhoe push the bucket outwards.
In order to reverse the process, some cylinders have active returns. Pressure is released on the front of the plate and pressure is applied to the opposite side to make the rod move inwards.
How dangerous is it? 
Hydraulics can be extremely dangerous because of the high powers involved.
What does it do? 
It allows heavy loads to be controlled with accuracy.
How does it affect you? 
How does it vary? 
How has it changed the world? 
Hydraulics, since its invention is being used in many machines, systems. Like cars, cranes, automobile industries etc.