Welsh/Verbs

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Verbs

Verbs can be auxiliary these areː Beː Be Am, Are, is, was, were,been; Have, Has, Had; Do, Does, Did; May, Might, Must, Ought/Should, Could, Would, Will, Can, shall, show either an action being perform e.g. running, skipped and hop e.t.c, a state of being e.g. know, thinking. There are two major "Bod", the English of "Be" is irregular,

Pronouns[edit]

In Welsh, just as in English, the pronoun are normally interlinked with verbs; Pronouns can be omitted in very formal pronouns of the verb, "Bod" apart from the 3rd singular of "Bod" to show the different between "He" and "She", with "Ef" as "He" and "Hi" as "She"

You[edit]

There are two you in Welsh, Chi and Ti, "Chi" is polite, can be both singular and plural, this is the equivalent of the English language of "You"; "Ti", and "Chdi" used in North Wales, is familiar and can only be used as singular, this is similar to the Early Modern English of "Thou", "the Second Person Singular and familiar" of "Be".

He[edit]

"E" and "Fe" or "O" and "Fo" in North Wales, "E" or "O" is used with verbs ending in a contestant, apart from, "Mae" and "Ydy" "Fe" and "Fo" are normally put after verbs ending in vowels, the only expectation to this is "Mae" and "Ydy" which are followed by "E" and "O" e.g. you say, "Mae" "E"/"O" and not "Mae" "Fe"/"Fo", "Fe" and "Fo" are also, independent pronouns.

Basic forms of the of the verbsː Verbs-Nouns/Infinitive verb[edit]

The basic form of the verb is the, verb-noun in Welsh, infinitive verb in English, they don't tell us who is doing the action or state. The infinitive verb uses the preposition To+verb while The verb-noun in welsh omits the preposition of i=to. Verb-noun are grammatically nouns in welsh

To conjugate a verb[edit]

To conjugate a verb in Welsh a word is added before the verb-noun and in English either by putting the suffixs "ing" or an "ed"

Tenses[edit]

Tenses in welsh and english can be simple, continues, perfect, imperfect and conditional.

Present Tense of "Bod"[edit]

"Rydw", "Rwyt", "Rydych" and "Rydyn" are the present tense of "Bod" can be translated as, "am", "is" or "are" or "do"

Past Tense of "Bod"[edit]

Compound tenses[edit]

The table below are the followingː "I be", "Thou 'be/beest'", "He be", "She be", "We be", "You be" and "They be"; If a Personal pronoun such as my, your e.t.c is in front of "Bod" than this is translate to that, the mutation stay the same, e.g. Rydw i'n gwybod dy fod yn dda = I know that you are good.

Person Personal Variants
i Mod
ti Fod
o/hi Fod/Bod
ni Bod
chi Bod
nhw Bod

Present[edit]

The present tense is formed from the present tense of bod (to be) as shown in the table below, yn and the infinitive. Welsh has no distinct continuous tenses, this tense translates both as I do and I am doing. To negate sentences, use the negative form of bod, and use the inquisitive form of bod to ask questions. Very formal written language use independent Pronouns which can be use as subject or object, these are: fi; ti(di); fe(S.Wales),fo(N.Wales)/ef; hi; ni; chi/chwi; nhw/hwy. Sy/Sydd can be use for: is and are, and use in focus sentences this is shows that no one else is doing the action.

Person Identification Affirmative Negative Interrogative Very formal Affirmative(pronoun omitted) Very formal Negative(pronoun omitted) Very formal Interrogative (pronoun omitted) Spoken
fi (I) Ydw (Ry)dw i (Dy)dw i ddim (Y)dw i? Yr wyf/Rwyf Nid Wyf A Wyf Dw i
ti (you, informal) Wyt ti Rwyt ti Dwyt ti ddim Wyt ti? Yr wyt/Rwyt Nid Wyt A Wyt Rwyt ti
o (he) / hi (she) Ydy/Yw o/hi Mae o/hi Dydy o/hi ddim Ydy o/hi? Y mae (ef)/(hi)/mae (ef)/hi Nid Yw (ef)/(hi) A Yw (ef)/(hi) Mae o/hi
ni (we) Ydyn ni Rydyn ni Dydyn ni ddim Ydyn ni? Yr ydym/Rydym Nid Ydym A Ydym Dyn ni
chi (you, plural/formal) Ydych chi Rydych chi Dydych chi ddim Ydych chi? Yr ydych (chwi)/Ydych (chi) Nid Ydych (chwi) A Ydych (chwi) Dych chi
nhw (they) Ydyn nhw Maen nhw Dydyn nhw ddim Ydyn nhw? Y Maent(hwy)/Maent(hwy) Nid Ydynt (hwy) A Ydynt (hwy) Maen nhw
An/Di Rhagenw(Non-Pronouns)(Name(s)(Singular/plural noun(s))(Man/Men, Child/Children, Woman/Women e.t.c) N/A Mae'r + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural; noun(s)) Dydy'r + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural; noun(s)) Ydy'r + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural; noun(s)) Y Mae'r + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural noun(s)) Nid Yw'r + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural noun(s)) A Yw'r + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural noun(s)) Mae'r + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural; noun(s))

Brawddegau enghreifftiol – Exemplar sentences

  • Sarah ydw i-I am Sarah
  • Sam ydy/yw athro/athrawon-Sam is a teacher*Rydw i'n darllen – I read / I am reading
  • Dwyt ti ddim yn bwyta – You don't eat / You are not eating
  • Ydy o'n cerdded? – Does he walk? / Is he walking?
  • Mae'r dyn yn byw yna- The Man lives There
  • Mae'r plant yn byw yna-The Children live There
  • Jane sy'n/sydd yn darllen-Jane is reading

Imperfect[edit]

The imperfect is formed exactly like the present, but this time using the imperfect forms of bod as listed below.

Person Affirmative Negative Interrogative Very formal Affirmative(pronoun omitted) Very formal Negative(pronoun omitted) Very formal Interrogative (pronoun omitted) Spoken Spoken Question
fi Roeddwn i Doeddwn i ddim Oeddwn i? Yr oeddwn i Nac oeddwn i A oeddwn i Ro'n i O'n i?
ti Roeddet ti Doeddet ti ddim Oeddet ti? Yr oeddet ti Nac oeddet ti A oeddet ti Ro't ti O't ti?
o/hi Roedd o/hi Doedd o/hi ddim Oedd o/hi? Yr oedd ef/hi Nac oeddet ef/hi ddim? A oedd ef/hi Ro'dd o/hi O'dd o/hi
ni Roedden ni Doedden ni ddim Oedden ni? Yr oeddem ni Nac oeddem ni A oeddem ? Ro'n ni O'n ni
chi Roeddech chi Doeddech chi ddim Oeddech chi? Yr oeddech Nac oeddech A oeddech? Ro'ch O'ch
nhw Roedden nhw Doedden nhw ddim Oedden nhw? Yr oeddynt Nac oeddynt A oeddynt ? Ro'n O'n
An/Di Rhagenw(Non-Pronouns)(Name(s)(Singular/plural noun(s))(Man/Men, Child/Children, Woman/Women e.t.c) Roedd + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural; noun(s)) Doedd ddim + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural; noun(s)) Oedd + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural; noun(s)) Yr oedd + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural; noun(s)) Nac oeddet ddim?+ (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural; noun(s)) A oedd + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural; noun(s)) Ro'dd + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural; noun(s)) O'dd + (singular/plural noun(s))+yn+verb-noun+(singular/plural; noun(s))

Brawddegau enghreifftiol – Exemplar sentences

  • Roedden ni'n yfed – We were drinking / We used to drink
  • Doeddech chi ddim yn dod – You weren't coming / You didn't used to come
  • Oedden nhw'n mynd? – Were they going? / Did they used to go?

Future[edit]

The future is once again formed using the future forms of bod, in the same way as the present and imperfect tenses.

Person Affirmative Negative Interrogative Very formal Affirmative(pronoun omitted)
fi Bydda(f) i Fydda(f) i ddim Fydda(f) i? Byddaf i
ti Byddi di Fyddi di ddim Fyddi di? Byddi di
o/hi Bydd o/hi Fydd o/hi ddim Fydd o/hi? Bydd o/hi
ni Byddwn ni Fyddwn ni ddim Fyddwn ni? Byddwn ni
chi Byddwch chi Fyddwch chi ddim Fyddwch chi? Byddwch chi
nhw Byddan nhw Fyddan nhw ddim Fyddan nhw? Byddant hwy

Brawddegau enghreifftiol – Exemplar sentences

  • Bydda i'n siopa – I will shop / I will be shopping
  • Fyddi di ddim yn gwneud – You won't do / You aren't going to do
  • Fydd hi'n aros? – Will she stop/stay? / Will she be stopping/staying?

N.B. – Just as in English it is also possible to form a more colloquial future tense by using the present tense of mynd (to go) i and the infinitive. The infinitive must take a soft mutation.
Brawddegau enghreifftiol – Exemplar sentences

  • Rydyn ni'n mynd i hoffi – We're going to like
  • Dydych chi ddim yn mynd i ddod – You're not going to come

Conditional[edit]

Whilst the conditional is strictly not a tense – it is a mood – it is formed in the same way as the three tenses mentioned so far. The conditional forms of bod are below. (You should know the drill by now!)

Person Affirmative Negative Interrogative
fi B(u)aswn i F(u)aswn i ddim F(u)aswn i?
ti B(u)aset ti F(u)aset ti ddim F(u)aset ti?
o/hi B(u)asai o/hi F(u)asai o/hi ddim F(u)asai o/hi?
ni B(u)asen ni F(u)asen ni ddim F(u)asen ni?
chi B(u)asech chi F(u)asech chi ddim F(u)asech chi?
nhw B(u)asen nhw F(u)asen nhw ddim F(u)asen nhw?

Subjunctive[edit]

There are two forms of the subjunctive: present and imperfect. The present subjunctive is barely ever used in spoken Welsh except in certain fixed phrases, and is restricted in most cases to the third person singular. However, it is more likely to be found in literary Welsh, most widely in more old-fashioned registers. The third-person singular is properly used after certain conjunctions and prepositions but in spoken Welsh the present subjunctive is frequently replaced by either the infinitives, the present tense, the conditional, or the future tense (this latter is called the present-future by some grammarians).

Present indicative- 'to be' Present indicative- 'bod' Present subjunctive- 'to be' Present subjunctive- 'bod'
I am (Ry)dw i/... ydw i (that) I be bwyf, byddwyf
Thou art Rwyt ti/... wyt ti (that) thou be[est] bych, byddych
He is Mae e/... ydy e (that) he be bo, byddo
One is Ydys (that) one be bydder
We are (Ry)dyn ni/...dyn ni (that) we be bôm, byddom
You are (Ry)dych chi/...dych chi (that) you be boch, byddoch
They are Maen nhw/...dyn nhw (that) they be bônt, byddont
Literary English Literary Welsh Spoken English Spoken Welsh
When need be Pan fo angen When there will be need Pan fydd angen
Before it be Cyn (y) bo Before it is Cyn iddi fod
In order that there be Fel y bo In order for there to be Er mwyn bod
She left so that she be safe Gadawodd hi fel y bo hi'n ddiogel She left so that she might be safe Gadawodd hi fel y byddai hi'n ddiogel
It is time that I go Mae'n amser yr elwyf It is time for me to go Mae'n amser imi fynd

The imperfect subjunctive, like English, only makes an effect on the verb bod- 'to be' and it is used after pe = 'if' and it must be accompanied with the conditional subjunctive e.g. Pe bawn i'n gyfoethog, teithiwn i trwy'r byd = If I were rich, I would travel throughout the world.

Imperfect indicative- 'to be' Imperfect indicative- 'bod' Conditional subjunctive- 'to be' Conditional subjunctive- 'bod' Imperfect subjunctive- 'to be' Imperfect subjunctive- 'bod'
I was yr oeddwn i I would be byddwn i (that) I were bawn i
Thou wast yr oeddet ti Thou wouldst be byddet ti (that) thou wert baet ti
He was yr oedd e He would be byddai fe (that) he were bai fe
One was yr oeddid One would be byddid (that) one were byddid
We were yr oeddem ni We would be byddem ni (that) we were baem ni
You were yr oeddech chi You would be byddech chi (that) you were baech chi
They were yr oedden nhw They would be bydden nhw that) they were baent hwy

For all other verbs in Welsh as in English, the imperfect subjunctive takes the same stems as do the conditional subjunctive and the imperfect indicative.

Past Simple or Preterite[edit]

This form of "Bod" has no exact equivalent in English, so that makes it difficult to translate sentences using these forms. In grammatical terms, what we have here is the Past Preterite Tense of the verb 'to be', which doesn't exist in English. It can be translated to numerous wordsː have/has been, was/were, a preterite tense such as went or did etc. or with an ed or t on the end or a word, such as slept, walked. Most other verbs do have a preterite tense. This form of "Bod" is to note an action that has happened in the past,

Person Affirmative Negative Interrogative
fi Bues i Fues i ddim Fues i?
ti Buest ti Fuest ti ddim Fuest ti?
o/hi Buodd o/hi Fuodd o/hi ddim Fuodd o/hi?
ni Buon ni Fuon ni ddim Fuon ni?
chi Buoch chi Fuoch chi ddim Fuoch chi?
nhw Buon nhw Fuon nhw ddim Fuon nhw?

Brawddegau enghreifftiol – Exemplar sentences

  • Buodd e yn dancio-He danced
  • Bues i yn Abertawe-I went to Swansea/I have been to Swansea
  • Fuest ti ddim - You weren't / didn't go / haven't been
  • Fuest ti ddim yn yr opera - You weren't in / didn't go to the opera.

Perfect tenses[edit]

(Present) perfect[edit]

Translating to I have done, this is formed just like the present tense except yn is replaced by wedi.

Pluperfect[edit]

Translating to I had done, this is formed just like the imperfect tense except yn is replaced by wedi.

Future perfect[edit]

Translating to I will have done, this is formed just like the future tense except yn is replaced by wedi. Note that the going to future cannot form a perfect tense.

Conditional perfect[edit]

Translating to I would have done, this is formed just like the present tense except, you guessed it, yn is replaced by wedi.

Simple tenses[edit]

This is where things get ugly; simple tenses require the verb to change. These make use of the verb stem, something that is relatively unpredictable in Welsh. The stem is sometimes formed by removing the last vowel and every consonant afterwards from the infinitive, but more often than not this is not the case; the stem may be the same as the infinitive or include other letters that were not there before. Also note that in continuous tenses the subject pronoun may be included or omitted.

Present[edit]

This is very rare in spoken Welsh, usually only appearing in writing. The following endings are added to the stem:

Person Ending arbed to save
fi -af Arbedaf I save
ti -i Arbedi You save
o/hi (generally none) Arbed He/she saves
ni -wn Arbedwn We save
chi -wch Arbedwch You save
nhw -ant Arbedant They save

The you forms (arbedi and arbedwch) also serve as the imperative.

Preterite[edit]

This is the most common simple tense in Welsh; it serves a separate purpose to the imperfect, referring to completed actions in the past. This one you will need. to know. Verbnouns such as Marw and Gwybod cannot use these endings.

Person Ending arbed to save
fi -ais Arbedais I saved
ti -aist Arbedaist You saved
o/hi -odd Arbedodd He/she saved
ni -on Arbedon We saved
chi -och Arbedoch You saved
nhw -on Arbedon They saved

Notice that arbedon can mean both we saved and you saved, for this reason arbedom is often encountered in the we form.

Future[edit]

This tense is incredibly rare and it is unlikely that you will need to know it.

Person Ending arbed to save
fi -a Arbeda I will save
ti -i Arbedi You will save
o/hi -ith Arbedith He/she will save
ni -wn Arbedwn We will save
chi -wch Arbedwch You will save
nhw -an Arbedan They will save

Yes & no[edit]

Welsh has no specific word for yes or no, instead the main verb in the question must be repeated. To say yes the repeated verb is the interrogative form (minus any pronoun). To say no add na before this verb (nac before a vowel).

Cwestiynau ac atebion enghreifftiol – Exemplar questions and answers

  • Wyt ti'n hoffi cerddoriaeth pop? Ydw. – Do you like pop music? (Yes) I do.
  • Fasai o'n mynd i Ffrainc? Na fasai. – Would he go to France? (No) he wouldn't.

To Have[edit]

"To Have" doesn't have a direct translation in welsh, different words are used depending on the action.

"Wedi", with this word "yn" or "newydd" can't be used with the same verb-noun and change the verb-noun to the particle in the English Language. "Gwneud", can indicate the future or the past tense by using the personal from of Gweneud the verbnoun undergoes a soft mutation

"Heb" = "ddim wedi" "Have not" if we want to say, that something, "have/has not" happened, we can use "heb" "without" after the affirmative verb (the "verb-noun" undergoes soft mutation after "heb").

Mae e heb ddod = He has not come Maen nhw heb chwarae = They have not played


Verb-Nouns[edit]

Cael[edit]

"Cael" has a range of uses, In the sense of "Receive" or "Get"

Auxiliaries[edit]

Past tense of Gwneud

Gwnes/Nes I Gwnest/Nest Ti Gwnaeth/Naeth E/Hi Gwnaethon/Naethon Ni Gwnnaethon/Naethon Chi Gwnaethon/Naethon Nhw

Future tense of Gwneud

Gwna/Na I Gnei/Nei Di Gwneith/Gwnaiff/Neith/Naiff E/Hi Gwnawn/Gwnewn Ni Gwnewch/Newch Chi Gwnan/Nan Nhw

"Ddaru" is a mutated from of "Darfu" = "happened" and is mainly used in North Wales; this expresses the past and the verbnoun undergoes soft mutation, ddaru has no no personal froms.


Present[edit]

Person Phrase
fi Mae gen i
ti Mae gen(nyt) ti
o/hi Mae ganddo fo
Mae ganddi hi
Siôn Mae gan Siôn
ni Mae gennyn ni
chi Mae gennych chi
nhw Mae ganddyn nhw

Imperfect[edit]

Person Phrase
fi Roedd gen i
ti Roedd gen(nyt) ti
o/hi Roedd ganddo fo
Roedd ganddi hi
Siôn Roedd gan Siôn
ni Roedd gennyn ni
chi Roedd gennych chi
nhw Roedd ganddyn nhw

Future[edit]

Person Phrase
fi Bydd gen i
ti Bydd gen(nyt) ti
o/hi Bydd ganddo fo
Bydd ganddi hi
Siôn Bydd gan Siôn
ni Bydd gennyn ni
chi Bydd gennych chi
nhw Bydd ganddyn nhw

Incomplete Verb-Nouns and Verbs[edit]

There are some Verbs in Welsh with no Verb-Nouns and Verb Nouns with no personal forms.

Should[edit]

There are no Verb-Nouns for "should", and only in "imperfect" or "conditional"("conditional" in meaning) in Welsh, so we can not say, "rydw i wedi dylwn i" or "rydw i yn dylwn i" as it is not a verb noun; to say, "should have", we have to use "fod wedi" after "should", to say, "should not" or "should not have", we put ddim, after "should" and before the "verb-noun" and "fod wedi" for should have.

Person verb forms very formal language
fi dylwn dylaswn
ti dylet dylasit
fe,fo/hi/enw dylai dylasai
ni dylen dylasem
chi dylech dylasech
nhw dylen dylasent
An/Di Rhagenw(Non-Pronouns)(Name(s)(Singular/plural noun(s))(Man/Men, Child/Children, Woman/Women e.t.c) dylai'r dylasai'r
(impersonal) dylid n/a

Meddaf/To Say[edit]

Meddaf only has, "present" and "imperfect" and only is in the "third person" "singular" and "plural".

Person Present Imperfect
e/hi medd meddai
nhw meddan medden

Mordern Welsh Dictionary uses "meddai". "Medd" is sometimes encounted with "nouns", but generally the forms is invariable for person in the modern spoken language by Gareth King.. The expression "meddai nhw" is used for the doubtful "So they say" in response to a statement.

Byw/To Live[edit]

"Byw" is a verb noun but has no personal forms to be used, so have to be link to the forms of "Bod"

Marw/To Die[edit]

"Marw" is a verb noun but has no personal forms to be used, so have to be link to the forms of "Bod" we cannot say, "Marwodd e" and must say "Buodd e farw"

Piau/To Own[edit]

"Piau" is the only form, and is often mutated, "Biau", this is used in the "Modern Welsh dictionary by Gareth King" which describes it as a "defective verb"ː This "defective verb" is used only in conjunction with the verb "Bod" and does not use the particle "Yn" to link it with "Bod" as would be the case with normal verbnoun. see examples below. It is also unusual in that its "subject" always precedes it, because its function is to identify the possessor of something, it requires identification sentences structure instead of neutral verb-first order, the verb "sy" in the above examples is optional, since "biau" these days has acquired its own verbal force. So, for example, both, Pwy biau...? and Pwy sy biau...? are heard, with no differences in meaning; in the other tenses (last two examples the "oedd" and "fydd"(mutated of "Bydd") must be retained.

Brawddegau enghreifftiol – Exemplar sentences

Pwy (sy) biau'r car coch'na ? = Whose is that red car ?

Nhw (sy) biau fe = It's theirs/They own it

Nhad oedd biau'r siop'ma adeg hynny = My father owned this shop at that time

Pwy fydd biau'r hawliau cyhoeddi ? = Who will own the publishing rights

Gorfod/To have to or Must[edit]

We can use "Gorfod" after the forms of "Bod" " Gorfod" has only one singular past tense form, "Gorfu" = "had to". "Gorfod" is equivalent to "rhaid" which is a "noun" = "To have to" or "Must" in its primary meaning only of obligation. unlike "rhaid", however, it is a verbnoun and is used accordingly , while "rhaid" requires a special construction compare the second example above with its "rhaid" equivalentː "Oes rhaid iddyn nhw aros ?" Note also that the other main meaning of "rhaid", supposition, is not shared by "gorfod", so, e.g. "you must be mad ǃ" can only be rendered by "rhaid". But for obligation senses, the two are broadly interchangeable(through "rhaid" is statistically more common); "gorfod", however, is preferred in examples such as the third above, where the required "wedi" (for "have/has had to etc) is difficult to accommodate in the "rhaid" construction.

Present Past
gorfod gorfu

Brawddegau enghreifftiol – Exemplar sentences

Pryd dych chi'n gorfod mynd ? = When do you have to go ?

Ydyn nhw'n gorfod aros ? = Do they have to stay ?

Mae'r pwyllgor wedi gorfod ailhysbysebu'r swydd. = The committee has had to readvertise the position.

Gorfu i fi fynd. = I had to go.

Geni/ To be born, Birth[edit]

We can only use "geni" after the forms of "cael"; "geni" only has "impersonal forms"

Present Past
genir ganwyd/ ganed