Wampanoag/Of the Verb

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A verb is when the thing signified is an Action.

There be two sorts of Verbs, Substantive and Active.

Verb Substantive[edit]

The Verb Substantive, is when any thing hath the signification of the Verb Substantive added to it: as (am, art, is, are, was, were, etc...) Actual being is above the nature of a Noun, and beneath the nature of a Verb Active.

Unlike English, Wampanoag has no complete distinct word for the Verb Substantive, but it is under a regular composition whereby many words are made Verb Substantive.

All may be referred to three sorts, so far as yet I see.

1. The first sort of Verb Substantives is made by adding any of these Terminations to the word, |yeu∞|, |a∞|, |o∞|; with due Euphonie.

And this is so, be the word a

Noun; as Wosketompo∞ (He is a man).


Adnoun; as Wompiyeu∞ (It is white).

Or be the word an Adverb, or the like; as James 5. 12. Mattayeu∞utch (Let it be nay), Nuxyeu∞utch (Let it be yea).

The words in the Text are spelled with respect to pronunciation, more than to Grammatical composition: here I spell them with respect to Grammatical composition. See more Examples of this, Exod. 4.3, 4, 6, 7.

2. The second sort of Verb Substantives is when the animate Adnoun is made the third person of the Verb, and so formed as a Verb: as |Wompesu|, {White}: |Menuhkesu|, {Strong}; may be formed as a Verb: |N∞wompes|, |K∞wompes|, |Wompesu|. And so the like words.

And of this sort are all Adnouns of Vertue or Vice: as |Waantam|, {Wise}: |Ass∞tu|, {Foolish}, &c.

Whatever is affirmed to be, or denied to be, or if it be asked if it be, or expressed to be made to be; All such words may be Verb Substantives. I say, may be, because there be other ways in the Language to express such a sense by. But it may be thus.

3. The third sort are Verb Substantive passive, when the Verb Substantive ({am}, {is}, {was}, &c.) is so annexed to a Verb Active, that the person affixed is the object of the act: as |N∞wadchanit|, {I am kept}.

Verb Active[edit]

A Verb Active is when the word signifies a complete action, or a casual power exerted.

Verbs inceptive or inchoatives, I find not; such a notion is expressed by another word added to the Verb, which signifieth {to begin}, or {to be about to do it}.

Also when the Action is doubled, or frequented, &c. this notion hath not a distinct form, but is expressed by doubling the first Syllable of the word: as |Mohmoeog|, {they oft met}; |Sasabbath-dayeu|, {every Sabbath}.

There be two sorts or forms of Verbs Active:

  • 1. The Simple form.
  • 2. The Suffix form.

The Simple form of the Verb Active, is when the act is conversant about a Noun inanimate onely: as

|N∞wadchanumunneek|, {I keep my house}.

And this Verb may take the form of an Adnoun: as |N∞wadchanumunash n∞wéatchimineash|, {I keep my corn}.

Or every person of this Verb, at least in the Indicative Mode, will admit the plural Number of the Noun inanimate.

The Suffix form of the Verb Active, is when the act is conversant about animate Nouns onely; or about both animate and inanimate also: as

|K∞wadchansh|, {I keep thee}. |K∞wadchanumoush|, {I keep it for thee}.

There be five Concordances of the Suffix form Active, wherein the Verb doth receive a various formation. I think there be some more, but I have beat out no more.

The reason why I call them Concordances, is, Because the chief weight and strength of the Syntaxis of this Language, lyeth in this eminent manner of formation of Nouns and Verbs, with the Pronoun persons.

1. The first Concordance is, when the object of the act is an animate Noun. I call it, The Suffix animate object: as

|K∞wadchansh|, {I keep thee}.

2. The Suffix animate mutual: when animates are each others object: as

|N∞wadchanittimun|, {We keep each other}.

This form ever wanteth the singular Number.

3. The Suffix animate end, and inanimate object: as

|K∞wadchanumoush|, {I keep it for thee}; or, {for thy use}.

4. The Suffix animate form social: as |K∞weechewadchanumwomsh|, {I keep it with thee}.

5. The Suffix form advocate or in stead form, when one acteth in the room or stead of another: as

|K∞wadchanumwanshun|, {I keep it for thee}; {I act in thy stead}.

This form is of great use in Theology, to express what Christ hath done for us: as

|Nunnupp∞wonuk|, {He died for me}. |Kenupp∞wonuk|, {He died for thee}. |Kenupp∞wonukqun|, {He died for us}. |Kenupp∞wonuk∞|, {He died for you}. &c.

All these forenamed forms of Verbs, both Verb Substantives and Verbs Active, both Simple and Suffix, may be varied under three distinct forms of variation; viz.

  • Affirmative ; when the act is affirmed.
  • Negative: when the act is denied.
  • Interrogative: when the act is question'd.

Again, many of these forms may also be varied in a form causative, in all cases where the efficient is capable to be compelled, or caused to act.

All these will be more conspicuous in the Paradigms, or Examples.

To make complete work, I should set down many examples.

But I shall (at present) set down only two examples: One of the Simple form Active, which may generally serve for all the Verb Substantives.

The second Example of the Suffix animate form, which may generally serve for all the Concordances of Verbs suffixed. Even as the Meridian of Boston may generally serve for all New-England: And the Meridian of London may generally serve for all England.

And these will be enough to busy the heads of Learners for a while.

Note this, That all Verbs cannot be formed through all these forms, but such Verbs as in reason of Speech are useable all these wayes, which sundry Verbs are not; as, {I sleep, eat, piss}, &c.

Before I come to the Paradigms, there be other general considerations about Verbs.

In Verbs consider

  • 1. Divers Modes of the action.
  • 2. Divers Times of the action.

First, The Modes of actions in this language are five.

1. The Indicative, Demonstrative, or Interrogative Mode, which doth fully assert the action or deny it, or enquire if it be asserted:

As N∞wadchanumun (I do keep it), N∞wadchanum∞un (I do not keep it), N∞wadchanumunas (Do I keep it?)

2. The Imperative, or Hortative, or Praying and Blessing Mode, is when the action is Commanded, or Exhorted to be done, or Prayed for. When a Superiour speaks in this Mode, he commands. When an Inferiour speaks in this Mode, he prayes and intreats. When a minister speaks in this Mode, he exhorts, and blesseth.

|Wadchansh|, {Keep thou}. |Wadchaneh|, {Keep me}.

3. The Optative, Wishing, or Desiring Mode, when one desireth the action to be done: as

|N∞waadchanumun toh|, {I wish or desire to keep it}.

4. The Subjunctive, or rather the Supposing, or Suppositive Mode, when the action is onely supposed to be; as in these three expressions:

{ If it be. { When it is. { It being.

And this third sense and meaning of this Mode of the Verb, doth turn this Mode into a Participle, like an Adnoun, very frequently.

5. The Indefinite Mode, which doth onely assert the action without limitation of person or time; and it is made of the Indicative Mode by adding the termination (|át|) and taking away the suffix: as

|Wadchanumunat|, {To keep}.

There is another Mode of the Verb in reason of speech, and in some other Languages, viz. The Potential, which doth render the action in a possibility to be. But this Language hath not such a Mode, but that notion is expressed by a word signifying ({may}) to the Indicative Mode. The usual word with us is (|woh|) {may} or {can}.

All these Modes of the Verb are timed by Tenses, saving the Indefinite Mode, and that is unlimited.

The times are two; Present, and Past. The time to come is expressed by a word signifying futurity, added to the Indicative Mode, as (|mos|, |pish|, {shall}, or {will}).

In the Roman Language there do belong unto this Indefinite Mode, gerundive, lofty, and vapouring Expressions; also supine, sluggish, dull, and sunk-hearted Expressions. And though the spirit of this People, viz. the vapouring pride of some, and the dull-hearted supinity of others, might dispose them to such words and expressions, yet I cannot find them out.

As Nouns are often turned into Verbs, so Verbs are often turned into Nouns; and a frequent way of it is by adding (|onk|) to the Verb: as

|N∞wompes|, {I am white}. |K∞wompes|, {Thou art white}. |N∞wompesuonk|, {My whiteness}. |K∞wompesuonk|, {Thy whiteness}.

Every person of the Verb that is capable of such a change in the reason of Speech may so be turned into a Noun singular or plural.

Before I set down the Examples of Formation of Verbs, I will finish a few Observations about the remaining Parts of Speech.