User:Retropunk/Japanese Curriculum/JLPT4 Grammar

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to: navigation, search

Sentence Patterns/Expressions[edit]

Verb Patterns[edit]

  1. V1+ないで+V - similar to "I didn't do V1, but I did V" or "V is being done without V1ing"
  2. V6+てください - please do V. (polite request)
  3. V1+ないでください - please do not do V. (polite request-neg)
  4. V2+ましょう - "Let's do V." volitional, polite
  5. V2+ませんか - Why don't we do V?
  6. V2+たい - "I want to V"
  7. V2+ながら - adverbial clause, While V, ...
  8. V6+てから - adverbial clause, After/Since V, ...
  9. V6+たあとで - ta instead of te, adverbial clause, After V, ...
  10. V3+まえに - adverbial clause, Before V
  11. V6+たり...V+たり - conjunction for multiple actions

Expressions[edit]

  1. どうもありがとうございました - thank you very much (very polite)
  2. いただきます - thanks for this meal! (before eating)
  3. ごちそうさまでした - a thanks said after meals
  4. ごめんください - may i come in?
  5. ごめんなさい - excuse me
  6. はじめまして - nice to meet you. how do you do?
  7. どうぞよろしく - pleased to meet you. please favor me with your friendship/kindness
  8. いらっしゃいませ - Welcome to the store! (merchant greeting)
  9. こんにちは - Hello. (daytime greeting)
  10. こんばんは - Good evening, Hello
  11. さよなら - Goodbye
  12. おはようございます - good morning
  13. おやすみなさい - good night
  14. ではおげんきで - well then, take care.
  15. おねがいします - please
  16. いいえどういたしまして - no problem at all.
  17. こちらこそ - No, thank you! (used when responding to someone saying "Thank you!")
  18. しつれいしました - Excuse me. (used usually while leaving a room.)
  19. しつれいします - Excuse me. (used usually while entering a room.)
  20. すみません - Excuse me. I'm sorry.
  21. ではまた - See ya later.

Conjunctions, Adverbials, Other sentence patterns[edit]

  1. ...+は+Q - topic particle using questions
  2. Q+が+... - subject particle using WH-questions
  3. Place+に+N+がある/いる - existence of an item in a place using subject marker
  4. Place+に+N+が+Q+ある/いる - existence of Q items in a place using subject marker
  5. N+は+Place+にある/いる - existence of an item in a place using a topic marker
  6. N+をください - please give me N
  7. N+を/V6+てくださいませんか - won't you please do
  8. N+がほしい - I want N
  9. ...が - ... but ...
  10. ...とき - adverbial clause, when ... , ...
  11. でしょう - I think.. I guess.. I wonder .. etc.,
  12. Adj+く/Adj+N+に/N+になる - becomes
  13. Adj+く/Adj+N+に/N+にする - equating or making, (e.g., I made A from B)
  14. もう+Positive - already
  15. もう+Negative - no longer
  16. まだ+Positive - still
  17. まだ+Negative - not yet
  18. ...という - called this ...
  19. ...て - because ... / since ...
  20. ...から - because ... / since ...
  21. ...は...が - using both subject and topic particle in the same sentence

Adjectives[edit]

  1. Adj+です - i-adj, non-past, polite
  2. Adj+くないです - i adjective, polite negative
  3. Adj+かったです - i adjective, past
  4. Adj+くなかったです - i adjective, past negative
  5. Adj+ - adjective without desu
  6. Adj+くない - i-adj without desu, polite neg
  7. Adj+かった - i-adj w/o desu, past
  8. Adj+くなかった - i adj w/o desu, past neg
  9. Adj+くて - i-adj te-form
  10. Adj+く+V - adverb
  11. Adj+N - na adj no copula.
  12. Adj+の - adj+pronoun/one/thing (e.g., white thing)
  13. Adj+N+です - na adj
  14. Adj+N+ではありません, na adj, negative
  15. Adj+N+でした - na adj, past
  16. Adj+N+ではありませんでした - na adj, neg past
  17. Adj+N+だ - na adj with plain copula
  18. Adj+N+ではない - na adj, neg, plain
  19. Adj+N+だった - na adj-past, plain
  20. Adj+N+ではなかった, na-adj, past-neg, plain
  21. Adj+N+で - na-adj te-form
  22. Adj+N+に+V -n-adj adverb
  23. Adj+N+な+N - n-adj + noun
  24. Adj+N+の - na-adj + pronoun

Verbs[edit]

  1. V+ます - verb polite form
  2. V+ません - verb, polite neg form
  3. V+ました - verb, polite past form
  4. V+ませんでした - verb, polite neg-past form
  5. V - verb, plain form
  6. V+ない - verb, plain neg form
  7. V+た - verb, plain past form
  8. V+なかった - verb, plain past-neg form
  9. N+が+Vit/N+を+Vt - intransitive and transitive verb use
  10. V+て - verb, te-form
  11. V+てある - verb, te-form "completed" state
  12. V+ている - verb, te-form progressive

Copula use[edit]

  1. N+です - noun + copula.
  2. N+ではありません - noun + copula neg form
  3. N+でした - noun + copula past-form
  4. N+ではありませんでした - noun + copula neg-past form
  5. N+だ - noun + copula plain form
  6. N+ではない - noun + copula plain-neg form
  7. N+だった - noun + copula plain-past form
  8. N+ではなかった noun + copula plain-neg-past form
  9. N+で - te-form of desu
  10. N+の+N - noun modifying another noun or possessive.
  11. N+の -possessive
  12. [V/+Adj/+Adj-Na]+N - relative clause modifying a noun

Question words and interrogatives[edit]

  1. なに/なん - what
  2. だれ/どなた - who
  3. いつ - when or how soon
  4. いくつ - how many?
  5. いくら - how much?
  6. どれ/どの/どこ/どちら - which / which one / where / who
  7. どう/いかが - how, in what what, how about
  8. どんな - what kind of
  9. どのぐらい/どれぐらい - how far, how long, how much
  10. なぜ/どうして - why
  11. なにか/だれか/どこかへ/... - someone, something, somewhere, etc.,
  12. なにも/だれも/どこへも/... - no one, nothing, nowhere, etc.,
  13. これ/それ/あれ/どれ - this / that / that over there / which?
  14. この/その/あの/どの - this one / that one / that one over there / which one?
  15. ここ/そこ/あそこ/どこ - this place / that place / that place over there/ where?
  16. こちら/そちら/あちら/どちら (こっち/そっち/あっち/どっち) - this person / that person / that person over there / who

Particles![edit]

  1. が - subject marker
  2. を - direct object marker, starting point of the action, place of the action
  3. に - location marker, object marker for some verbs (e.g., to meet at), time marker, goal marker, intervals
  4. で - location marker for action verbs, by means marker (e.g., I went to the school by bus.), cause and effect marker, totals marker
  5. へ - direction marker,
  6. と - noun conjunction "and", "together" or "with"
  7. から/まで - AからBまで - from A to B.
  8. や - list particle, but can be used to mean "and so forth" (e.g., AやBなど will mean A and B and so forth. など is optional.)
  9. は - topic marker, contrast marker
  10. も - also/too
  11. 格助詞+は/も - combination of particles and は/も
  12. か - question marker
  13. など - etc/so forth. see や.
  14. ぐらい - about/almost/approx
  15. だけ - only / just
  16. しか - only or nothing but
  17. か - question marker
  18. ね - sentence end marker, applies emphasis, or a quest for confirmation
  19. よ - sentence end marker, applies certainty or request
  20. わ - feminine form of ね

Suffixes[edit]

  1. 中 - all/ entire / throughout (time)
  2. たち/がた - makes the attached noun plural (plain/polite)
  3. あまり...ない - not very, negative sentences
  4. 一つ、二つ~10 - numbers
  5. 枚/冊/本... - counters
  6. ~月/~日/~曜日- calendar
  7. ~時/~時半/~時~/~分/~時~分前/~ごろ - time
  8. ~時間/~分/~ぐらい - minutes, hours
  9. がる - to feel (used with adj)
  10. がわ - side of something, or taking someone's side
  11. ご - language
  12. じん - person
  13. すぎ - too much, over
  14. ずつ - apiece
  15. たち - plural suffix
  16. ちゅう - during
  17. や - ~shop