User:RekonDog/Definitive History of the United States Marine Corps/Organizations
First Marine Battalion: Samuel Nicolas
Table of Organization
|Commodore Esek Hopkins
|John B. Hopkins
USS Andrew Doria
|USS Wasp||USS Hornet||USS Fly|
Isaac Craig's Company
- Isaac Craig was born in Ireland about 1741, and moved to America in 1765 or 1767. He was a master carpenter and resided in the south part of the dock ward-city of Philadelphia. One source says he had a militia command prior to commission in continental Marines, but this is not proven.
The continental Navy brigantine, the USS Andrew Doria, Lt. Isaac Craig and his men, served on board the USS Andrew Doria from December 1775 through September 21st, 1776. They sailed for New Providence in February and took part in the raid in March.
He was commissioned a Captain on October 22nd, 1776 for service on the galley USS Champion. They made only one cruise, returning in November of 1776.
Craig and his men were sent as part of a small battalion of Marines under command of Samuel Nicholas with Captain Craig as his adjutant. In December, these Marines joined Colonel Cadwalder at Burlington, New Jersey. They participated in the Battle of Assunpink Creek (second battle of Trenton) and the Battle of Princeton, January 2nd and 3rd, 1777. In February of 1777 Craig’s company of Marines were assigned to the Artillery at Morristown.
Table of Equipment
The uniform regulations specified that standard uniform was a short green coat with white trim facings (lapels, cuffs, and coat lining) , and a high leather collar to protect against cutlass slashes and to keep a man's head erect, leading to the nickname "leatherneck"; complemented by a white waistcoat, white or buff short breeches, woolen stockings, and a short black gaiter. Marine officers wore small cocked hats, and a single epaulette; and the enlisted men sported round black hats with the brim pinned on one side. The adoption of green coats and round hats probably reflects the constraints of availability, for both of the uniform attire were used by the Philadelphia Associators.  It wasn't until the year 1777 that the Marines entirely appeared in uniform in numbers. Though legend attributes the green color to the traditional color of riflemen, Continental Marines mostly carried muskets. More likely, green cloth was simply plentiful in Philadelphia, and it served to distinguish Marines from the blue of the Army and Navy or the red of the British. Also, Sam Nicholas's hunting club wore green uniforms, hence his recommendation was for green. Notably, Marines aboard USS Bonhomme Richard wore red, though they were mostly Irish soldiers of the French Army.
- Smith, Charles Richard; Charles H. Waterhouse (1975) (PDF). A Pictoral History: the Marines in the Revolution. United States Marine Corps Historical Division. http://www.marines.mil/news/publications/Documents/A%20Pictorial%20History-The%20Marines%20in%20the%20Revolution%20PCN%2019000317900.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- Simmons, Edwin Howard (2003). The United States Marines: A History, 4th Edition. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-790-5.
- Hoffman, Jon T. (2002). USMC: A Complete History. New York City, New York: Universe Publishing.
- Millet, Allan R. (1991). Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps. New York City, New York: The Free Press. ISBN 1-59114-790-5.
- McClellan, Edwin North (1974 [reprint]). Uniforms of the American Marines, 1775 to 1829. Washington, D.C.; Maryland: Marine Corps History and Museums Division. ISBN 1-59114-790-5.
- United States Marine Corps (17 December 1932). Report on Marine Corps Duplication of Effort between Army and Navy. Marine Corps University.
- Col Chenoweth, H. Avery, USMCR (ret); Col Brooke Nihart, USMC (ret) (2005). Semper fi: The Definitive Illustrated History of the U.S. Marines. New York: Main Street. ISBN 1-4027-3099-3.