The Information Age/Notes

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 The Information Age 

PrefaceIntroductionDigital and ICT RevolutionsInformation Knowledge and the New EconomyNew WorkThe Information SocietyGlobalizationThe Digital DivideThe Challenge AheadNotesFurther ReadingContributorsAcknowledgements

1 Andy Covell, Digital Convergence: How the Merging of Computers, Communications, and Multimedia is Transforming Our Lives (Rhode Island: Aegis, 2000), 58.
2 Robert W. Lucky, “In a Very Short Time: What is Coming Next in Telecommunications,” in Technology 2001: The Future of Computing and Communications, ed. Derek Leebaert (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995), 339.
3 Ibid., 342.
4 Frances Cairncross, The Death of Distance: How the Communications Revolution Will Change Our Lives (London: Orion, 1997), xiii.
5 Covell, Digital Convergence, 66.
6 Ibid., 67.
7 Ibid., 68.
8 Ibid., 69.
9 John Gage, “Decentering Society;” available from 10/31/2000; accessed 8 August 2002.
10 Lawrence Lessig, The Future of Ideas:The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World (New York: Random House, 2001), 23.
11 Christopher Coward, correspondence with author.
12 Ed Lazowska, Bill & Melinda Gates Chair in Computer Science, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Washington; cited in email of Chris Coward to the author.
13 Richard Lipsey, Technological Shocks: Past, Present and Future; available from; accessed 28 August 2002.
14 Tom Forrester and Perry Morrison, Computer Ethics: Cautionary Tales and Ethical Dilemmas in Computing (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990), 1.
15 Lipsey, Technological Shocks, 11.
16 John V. Pavlik, citing James Beniger, New Media Technology: Cultural and Commercial Perspectives, 2nd ed. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998), 134.
17 Anthony Giddens, “Runaway World: The Reith Lectures Revisited Lecture 1: 10 November 1999;” available from
18 Manuel Castells, The Rise of the Network Society. The Information Age: Economy, Society & Culture, vol. 1 (Oxford:Blackwell, 1996), 31.
19 Debora L. Spar, Ruling the Waves: From the Compass to the Internet, a History of Business and Politics along the Technological Frontier (New York: Harcourt: 2001), 11.
20 Ibid, 374.
21 Castells, The Rise of the Network Society, 66.
22 Ibid., 92.
23 Ibid., 97-98.
24 William D. Nordhaus, “Productivity Growth and the New Economy,” Working Paper 8096 National Bureau of Economic Research; available from; accessed 28 August 2002, 6-7.
25 Castells, The Rise of the Network Society, 79.
26 Robert Reich, The Future of Success (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001), 106.
27 Ibid., 48.
28 Peter Drucker, “Beyond the Information Revolution” in The Atlantic Online [home page online]; available from; accessed 28 August 2002.
29 Manuel Castells, The Internet Galaxy (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 1-2.
30 Cited in Tapscott, Ticoll and Lowy, Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs (London: Nicolas Brealey Publishing, 2000), 8.
31 Ibid., 7-9.
32 Doyle, J.J. and G.J. Persley, eds., Enabling the Safe Use of Biotechnology: Principles and Practices (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 1996).
33 W. Brian Arthur, “Is The Information Revolution Dead?” Business 2.0 (March 2002); available from
34 Jeremy Rifkin, The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era, (New York: JP Putnam, 1995), 223.
35 Drucker, “Beyond the Information Revolution” in The Atlantic Online.
36 Carol Ann Meares et al., The Digital Workforce: Building Infotech Skills at the Speed of Innovation (US Department of Commerce, June 1999), 21.
37 Reich, The Future of Success, 176.
38 Ibid., 176-7.
39 Gregory K. Ericksen, Net Entrepreneurs Only: 10 Entrepreneurs Tell The Stories of Their Success (New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2000), ix.
40 The European Commission, “LifeLong Learning,” European Communities, 1995-2002; available from; accessed 31 August 2002
41 Distance Education Centre at Technical University of Gdansk, “The Internet: Its Psycho-logical Effects”; available from; accessed 31 August 2002).
42 Robert Putnam, “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital” in Journal of Democracy 6:1, Jan 1995, 65-78; available from; accessed 31 August 2002.
43 Castells, The Internet Galaxy, 130-131.
44 Reich, The Future of Success, 158.
45 Ibid., 174.
46 Ibid., 175.
47 Castells, Internet Galaxy, 124.
48 Ibid., 132.
49 Robert Kraut & Vicki Lundmark, “Internet Paradox: A Social Technology That Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well-Being?” in American Psychological Association 53: 9, 1017–1031 (1998); available from
50 Joseph E. Stiglitz, Globalization and Its Discontents (New York: Norton & Company, 2002), 9.
51 Aseem Prakash and Jeffrey A. Hart, “Globalization and Governance: An Introduction”, in Aseem Prakash and Jeffrey A. Hart (eds.), Globalization and Governance (London: Routledge, 1999), 5.
52 Giddens, “Runaway World,” 6.
53 Kenichi Ohmae, The Invisible Continent: Four Strategic Imperatives of the New Economy(New York: HarperBusiness, 2000).
54 Prakash and Hart, Globalization and Governance, 2.
55 Institute on Governance, “Technology and Governance”; available from; accessed 31 August 2002.
56 Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye, Jr., “Power and Interdependence in the Information Age” Foreign Affairs Sept/Oct 1998; available from
57 Ibid.
58 Castells, The Internet Galaxy, 160.
59 John Arquilla and David Ronfeldt, The Emergence of Noopolitik: Toward an American Information Strategy (Santa Monica, CA: RAND National Defense Research Institute, 1999).
60 James F. Dunnigan, The Next War Zone: Confronting the Global Threat of Cyberterrorism (New York: Citadel Press, 2002), 2.
61 Mark M. Pollitt, "Cyberterrorism - Fact or Fancy?”; available from; accessed 8 August 2002.
64 Scott Berinato, “The Truth About Cyberterrorism” in CIO Magazine (15 March 2002); available from; accessed 8 August 2002.
65, “What is the Digital Divide?” (2000-2001); available from; accessed 8 August 2002.
66 Taylor Nelson Sofres, “Adults Who Have Internet Access in Selected Countries in the Asia-Pacific Region, December 2000-February 2001 (as a % of Respondents)” in eMarketer (4 May 2001); available from; accessed 24 June 2002.
67 Lipsey, Technological Shocks, 19.
68 The Digital Divide Network [home page on-line]; available from
69 Digital Opportunity Task Force, Report Card: Digital Opportunities For All (June 2002); available from
70 “Remote IT Village Project in Laos” in Jhai Foundation [home page on-line]; available from; accessed 31 August 2002.
71 “Information and communication technologies are creating a new global information society—from which four billion of the world’s people currently are excluded” in UN ICT Task Force [home page on-line]; available from
72 Development Gateway Foundation [home page on-line]; available from; accessed 31 August 2002.