Sidux/System and packages management, applications intallation

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
< Sidux
Jump to: navigation, search

Packages management[edit]

In Terminal[edit]

You have to softwares for packages management : "dpkg" and "apt-get".
1. If you want to install new software/package from repositories just type in Terminal as root:
apt-get update
apt-get install package_name
2. If you want to install a package "deb" downloaded from other site:
cd download_folder
dpkg -i package_name.deb
a. If a package needs additional dependences and installation has been stoped, then:
apt-get install -f
b. If a package has been not configurated correctly, fix it:
dpkg --reconfigure -a 
3. Removing packages:
apt-get remove package_name
4. Removing package with it's dependences:
apt-get --purge remove package_name
apt-get autoremove
5. Removing old versions of installation packages:
apt-get autoclean
6. If you don't know a package name look for it using:
apt-cache search package_name
 or
apt-file search package_name
7. If you want to install "bin" package, make:
sh package_name.bin
If the package doesn't have execute rights, change it:
chmod a+x package_name


Packages installation with Synaptic[edit]

sidux developers suggest to install packages using "apt-get" command only.
But you can do it with "apt-get" GUI called Synaptic, if you'd like:
apt-get install synaptic
Run Synaptic from: Menu-> System-> Synaptic Package Manager-> type your root password.
1. First icon "Reload" will refresh packages list.
2. "Search" icon will help you to find exect software.
3. When you recive package list mark your one clicking on "Mark for installation" and "Apply".
Package3.png
4. Confirm it and wait for finishing, then close Synaptic down.


System upgrading[edit]

1. sidux developers suggest to make system upgrade using only "apt-get" command:
apt-get update
apt-get upgrade
 or
apt-get dist-upgrade
2. If you want to keep older version of a package (upgrading will not be made), just block it:
 echo package_name hold|dpkg --set-selections
a. To check blocked packages agains upgrading:
dpkg --get-selections | grep hold
b. If you want unblock blocked package for upgrading it:
echo package_name install|dpkg --set-selections


Other repositories and public key[edit]

If you want to install a package from other server, just add an address to repositories list
using any text editor as a root to file:
/etc/apt/sources.list.d/debian.list
2. Then refresh package list with command:
apt-get update
2. If you recive a missing public key message so install it:
a. Sofware makers have public key sometimes to download so take it.
b. If not add a key using command:
gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv key_ID
gpg --export key_ID | apt-key add -


System management[edit]

Removing old system kernel[edit]

sidux makers upgrade system kernel often but they have given a small script to help removing old one easy.
1. Menu-> System-> kernel-remover
2. Mark a kernel version with lower number-> then OK.
Pakiet1.png
3. Should I remove this kernel? -> OK.
Pakiet2.png
The software doesn't show present version of kernel for removing just old ones but I suggest to not
removing all of theme, keep one old just in a case.


System administration[edit]

If you want to make any system changes just run: Menu-> Settings-> Xfce4 Settings Manager.
Package5.png
I'll show you the most important only.
1. Preferred Applications.
a. If you want to change any application for your one choose it from the list or "Other".
Package6.png
b. If you've selected "Other" choose an execute script from "/usr/bin" or your own folder.
Package7.png
2. Removable Drives and Media.
a. Storage tab: I suggest to not mark "Auto-run" and "Auto-open" programs and files on new drives.
Package8.png
b. Multimedia tab: Play audio or video CD's - choose any media player or do not mark it,
so you will run CD's files manually.
Package9.png
c. Cameras tab: Import digital photos when connected - use one of theme: gThumb, F-spot or DigiKam.
Package10.png
3. File Manager: Bahavior tab - Single or Double click to activate items to choose.
Package11.png
4. Workspaces: choose one or more.
Package12.png
5. Desktop: choose a wallpaper, icon size or media mounting on Desktop.
Package13.png
6. Display: choose a screen if you have more then one, its resolution and refresh rate.
Package14.png
7. Window Manager.
a. Style tab: choose a theme.
Package15.png
b. Keyboard tab: shortcut to manage.
Package16.png
8. Session and Startup.
a. Splash tab: choose any.
Package18.png
b. Application Autostart: you may add any application to start it when system starts.
Package19.png
9. Panel: castomize the panel settings - size, position, autohide or add new one.
Package20.png
10. Appearance: change windows style, icons theme or fonts.
Package21.png


Working on files[edit]

Midnight Commander[edit]

Sometimes you have to work on files and folders (often as a root).
One of the best way is using terminal's Midnight Commander:
Package4.png
su
root password
mc 
a. To copy a file/folder mark it in one window and click F5 key, it do that to a folder in second window.
b. To move a file/folder use F6 key.
c. If you want to delete a file/folder use F8.
d. F7 key creates new folder.
e. If you want to make a view for a file use F3 key, to edit it F4.


In Terminal[edit]

2. Another way to make all the works is typing a command in Terminal:
a. To create a file:
touch /home/user_name/new_file
b. To create folder:
mkdir /home/user_name/folder_name
c. To copy a file:
cp /path_to_file /path_to_new_folder
d. To copy a folder:
cd -r /path_to_folder /path_to_new_folder
e. To remove a file:
rm /path_to_file
f. To remove folder:
rm -r /path_to_folder
g. If a folder is not empty:
rm -rf /path_to_folder
h. To check files in a folder:
ls
i. To go to a folder one level lower:
cd folder_name
j. To go to a folder one level upper:
cd ..
k. To go to other folder:
cd /folder_patch


Thunar[edit]

Another way to do that with graphic application is using Thunar File Manager with mouse helps menu.


GRUB boot loader[edit]

GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader) is a boot loader package installed in main drive sector.
It can run many operating systems.
There is Grub version 2 provided with sidux.
1. If you can't find all installed systems on your hard drive on boot loader list, type in Terminal as root:
su
update-grub
Changes will be effective after reboot system.
2. If you want to change system startup delay (it's normally 5 sec.) just edit the file as root:
sux 
mousepad /etc/default/grub
and change the line: GRUB_TIMEOUT=5 for any you'd like and save the file.
Package30.png


More about GRUB2 read on the project page: http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-2.en.html
And on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_GRUB


Time zone[edit]

If your system's clock doesn't display exect time, just reconfigure it:
Terminal as root:
dpkg-reconfigure tzdata
Choose a continent first and a town after.


Default system language[edit]

To change it just type in Terminal as root:
dpkg-reconfigure locales
Depending of "locales" package version mark your language or choose from a list (I suggest UTF8).


Personalization[edit]

Adding new entry to Menu[edit]

Most applications installers have scripts adding entry to Menu but sometimes you have to do it yourself.
Terminal as a root:
sux
mousepad /usr/share/applications/application_name.desktop
And type it in the new file:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Application name
Comment=What is it for
Exec=/path_to_execute_file
Icon=/path_to_graphic_file(icon)
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Software-categorie
Save the file and close Mousepad down. There is en example for "Touchepad" application below:
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Touchpad
Exec=gsynaptics
Icon=/home/pavroo/Icons/touchpad.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Settings;
The icon file patch can be different.


Desktop theme changing[edit]

1. Wallpaper: download new one from: gnome-look.org for example or use any picture.
a. Right click on your picture and choose: "Set as wallpaper"
2. Icons: download a set of icons from the same webside.
a. Extract it.
b. Open Terminal as root and run "mc" then move extracted new icon folder to: "/usr/share/icons".
c. Choose new icon theme from: Menu-> Settings-> Appearance-> Icons tab-> choose the new one or any.
d. Icon size changing: Menu-> Settings-> Desktop-> Icons tab-> Icon size.
3. Style: Menu-> Settings-> Appearance-> Style tab-> choose any.
4. Login window: download new one from the same webside from DGM Themes department.
a. Open: Menu-> Settings-> Login Window-> Local tab.
b. Click on "Add" and choose downloaded package.
c. Mark it and close the window down, the new login style will be working after next log in.


Panel castomize[edit]

Panel applets make faster access to many system and personal functions. I'll show you a few only.
Package22.png
1. Action Buttons lets you block desktop or shut system down in quick way.
Package29.png
2. DateTime adds a clock, date and calendar.
Package28.png
3. Weather Update brings temperature, atmosphere pressure, humidity, wind speed, etc.
Package23.png
4. Mail Watcher checks all your e-mail boxes on "pop3, imap, gmail" servers.
Package24.png
5. Network Monitor shows incoming and outgoing speed trafic.
Package25.png
6. Mixer Plugin lets you controling sound level for speakers and microphones.
Package26.png
7. Xfce4 Stopper just let you set a timer up.
Package27.png


Users and groups[edit]

User account changes[edit]

1. To add new user type in Terminal as root:
adduser new_user_name
2. If you want to change your password type in Terminal (not as root):
passwd
Changing password for your_name
Old password: type your present password
Enter the new password (minimum 5, maximum 8 characters).
Please use a combination of upper and lower case letters and numbers.
New password: type your new password
Re-enter new password: re-type your new password
Password changed
3. Removing an user:
userdel user_name
4. Removing an user with its home folder and all files:
userdel -r user_name


Root account changes[edit]

1. To change root password make (if you know it):
su
type present root password
passwd root
New password UNIX: type new root password
Re-enter new password for UNIX: re-type new root password
2. To change root password (if you forgot or don't know it):
a. Run computer from sidux LiveCD or any Linux Live distribition.
b. Open Terminal as root:
  • check root "/" partition name (it's "/dev/sda6" on my computer):
su or sudo (depends of Live distribution)
fdisk -l
  • create new folder "sid_temp" for example in "media" folder:
mkdir /media/sid_temp
  • mount root "/" partition of hard drive file system in Live system:
mount /dev/sda6 /media/sid_temp
  • check has been it mounted correctly:
cd /media/sid_temp
ls
  • and change unknown root password for new one:
chroot /media/sda6 passwd
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: password updated successfully
Pakiet32.png


Operations on groups[edit]

1. To create a new group:
groupadd group_name
2. To remove a group:
groupdel group_name
3. To add an user to a group:
adduser user_name group_name


Security[edit]

Basic informations[edit]

1. The main system security thing is the system itself becouse the system is locked with root password;
demaging it is very difficult.
2. Linux file system is virus-proof for most known malwares.
3. Regular updating remove mistakes and provides new applications functions.


Firewall[edit]

The firewall keeps out incoming access to your computer from outside.
So the first thing after system installation is the firewall activation.
You can do that in a few ways, just have a look: Sidux/Post-installation work/Firewall


Antivirus application[edit]

Sincerely - you don't need it at all but you can use it for outgoing e-mails scanning
- most our friends use diffrent operating system; and for external drives scanning befor
connecting theme to the diffrent OS.


If you'd like try an antivirus application avilable from Debian's repositories ClamAV with KlamAV GUI:
apt-get install clamav klamav
More about ClamAV here: clamav.net and on Wikipedia: Clam AntiVirus


Try others antivirus applications for Linux:
  1. avast!
  2. f-prot
  3. Panda
  4. AVG
  5. Dr.Web


Rootkits[edit]

Rootkit is a dengerous tool hidding processes with can take control of your computer over.
A tool for looking for and removing rootkits from linux system is chkrootkit.
Install it in Terminal:
apt-get install chkrootkit
To scan your operating system run the command:
chkrootkit


Next to Useable applications
Back to Main page