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Research on Tibetan Languages
A bibliography

Contents

Related Fields[edit]

General Bibliographies of Tibetan Studies[edit]

I

n order to situate this bibliography among other Tibetan studies bibliographies, it is worth mentioning what other bibliographies are available. I have used all of the ones relevant for this study. But also this may help the student navigate the secondary literature in other areas. Bibliographies of primary sources, manuscript catalogues and the like have been excluded. Perhaps most relevant here is Clark (2006) which includes a bibliography of Tibetan dictionaries. Bibliographies of Tibetan studies concentrating on research in Japanese include Sadakane (1982, 1997) and Suo (1999). A useful bibliography of Chinese and Tibetan language works has been issued in three volumes covering the period 1949-2000 (Zhongguo Zangxue shumu 1994, 1997, 2001). The somewhat longer period 1872-2004 is covered in another two volume bibliography (Zhongguo zangxue lunwen 1999, 2006). However whereas the former has information in Tibetan and English as well as Chinese, the latter is a monolingual publication. Bibliographies focusing on work in other languages include French *(Aubin 1993), German *(Aschoff 1992), and Italian *(Angelini 1994).

Tibeto-Burman[edit]

Tibetan is generally considered a member of the Tibeto-Burman (also called Sino-Tibetan) family. Bibliographies of Tibeto-Burman studies include Shafer (1957), Hale (1982), and LaPolla and Lowe (1994). Another important bibliographic resource is van Driem (2001). Attempts to reconstruct Tibeto-Burman (none terribly successful) include Shafer (1966-???), Benedict (1972), and Matisoff (2003). MENTION SUB BRANCH RECONSTRUCTIONS. and GONG

The Bodish Languages[edit]

Apart from the Tibetan languages the Bodish subbranch of Tibeto-Burman is probably among the least researched branches of Tibeto-Burman. Languages regarded as members of this family include Bumthang (Michailovsky and Mazaudon 1994; van Driem 1995), Tshangla (Stack 1897, Hoffrenning 1959, Das Gupta 1968, Hoshi 1987; Andvik 1999), Monpa (Lu 1986; Nishida 1988, Sun et al. 1991, Lu 2002), and Zhangzhung (Nagano and LaPolla 2001). Zeissler (2004) is an attempt to postulate a broad theory of Bodish syntax in both its diachronic and geographic varieties, but attempts more than it achieves, and appears to have been based solely on secondary literature. Some papers on Kurtoep include Hyslop (2008a, 2008b, 2009).

The indigenous grammatical tradition[edit]

The study of the indigenous Tibetan grammatical tradition, while of course offering much insight into the language, is a field in itself. Therefore, no attempt to comprehensivly discuss the Tibetan genres of Sum rtags and Brda gsar rnying will be made in this bibliography. Studies of the Tibetan grammatical tradition include Inaba (1989), Miller (1976, 1993) and Verhagen (1994, and 2001). It remains a discipline in its infancy.

The Tibetan alphabet and paleography[edit]

Uray 1955, van Schaik. also articles on the alphabet by Francke, Filliozat (?), and Laufer.

Tibetan in contact with other languages[edit]

Studies of loanwords from Tibetan into other languages include Róna-Tas (1962, 1966) for Mongour, Emmerick (1983, 1985) for Khotanese, de Roerich (1957) for Mongolian, and Jacques (2004) for Japhug Rgyalroṅng. Studies of loanwords into Tibetan include Laufer (1916/18 and 1919) from various languages, Emmerick (1983, 1985) from Khotanese, and Beckwith and Walter (1997) from Indo-European, and Norbu and Takeuchi (1991) from Mongolian. Studies of Tibetan words written in other scripts include Laufer (1914), Miller (1955b), Li Fang-Kuei (1979), Zhang (1987), Che (1991) and Róna-Tas (1992). Studies concerning the influence of Tibetan on Tokharian include Sapir (1936) and Ivanov (1961).

Varieties of Written Tibetan[edit]

V

ery little rigorous work has been done on the classification of forms of Written Tibetan. The two categories that appear relatively well defined are "Old Tibetan" and "Modern Literary Tibetan". The former, "Old Tibetan" consists of imperial stone inscriptions on the one hand and Dunhuang documents and wood slips on the other hand. The latter, "Modern Literary Tibetan" may be defined as writing in Tibetan after the communist takeover of Tibet, or generically as the form of writing found in newspapers and modern secular publications such as novels and short stories. It is convenient to define "Classical Tibetan" negatively as all forms of Written Tibetan not belonging to these two categories.

Classical Tibetan[edit]

Classical Tibetan Grammars[edit]

The first published Tibetan grammar was that of de Koros, this was translated into German and slightly amended by Schmidt. Schmidt also has a Russian version. Foucaux learned Tibetan using de Koros materials but came to write his own grammar. Cordier (1907) is one of the few grammars to incorporate the various studies of Schiefner.

Beyer's grammar (1992) is insufficient in various respects. Despite being positively reviewed (Behr 1994, Davidson 1996, Eimer 1993, LaPolla 1994, Miller 1994). Beyer cites neither his predecessors nor his textual examples. He contributes little new, and muddles much of his sources. Other Tibetan grammars include: Inaba (1954), Hahn (1994), Hodge (1990), Bskal bzang vgyur med (1981, 1992), Wilson (1992), and Schwieger (2006). (DESCRIPTION OF EACH NEEDED)

BACOT, de KOROS, SCHMIDT, ROERICH (?)

Classical Tibetan Phonology[edit]

Classical Tibetan Morphology[edit]

Wolfenden (1928) discusses the 'prefix' m- used with nominals. Uray's papers on duplication (1954), -e (1953), and the diminutive (1952). Zhang Jichuang (2009) describes Classical Tibetan lexical morphology from the 'word family' perspective. Anton Schiefner (1877) and Michael Hahn (1978) have insightful studies of how the plurals -dag and -rnams differ. Hoshi (2012) explores the use of the polar question marker e arguing that it was borrowed into Classical Tibetan from eastern Tibetan dialects.

Lyovin (1970) makes some desultory remarks on the internal reconstruction of the verbal system, which in some ways presage the more thoroughgoing and more influential work of Coblin from a few years later.

Coblin (1976) undertakes an internal reconstruction of Tibetan that has been highly influential. His internal reconstruction eliminates all vowel and auslaut alternations from the verb stems.

Classical Tibetan Syntax[edit]

Taube (1953-1954) compares the verbal categories of Tibetan and Sanskrit as reflected by the Tibetan translation of the Bodhicaryāvatāra.

Thre is an excellent article on zero-anaphora in Classical Tibetan by Andersen (1987), which unfortunately seems not to have been noticed much by other researchers. Andersen discusses in particular the use of -pa-dang to block zero-anaphora. He also discusses constructions which are comparable to the passive and anti-passive.

The syntactic effect of converbial markers has also been adressed by Abel Zadoks and Felix Haller from the perspective of 'switch-reference'. Unfortunately none of the studies of Zadoks have been published, the handouts he presented at various conferences in the early 2000s are however invaluable. The study of Haller (2009) is mostly devoted to Shigatse dialect. In his treatment of Classical Tibetan (based on the Mila rnam thar) he acknowledges neither the previous work of Andersen and Zadoks, nor does he present sufficient examples to demonstrate his claims. One can hope for a fuller treatment in his forthcoming Habilitationsschrift.

Oetke (1977) discusses the use of vgyur, byed, and yin as auxiliary verbs, in particular with reference to conditional clauses in Buddhist literature. He suggests that the main distinction is one of 'control' versus 'non-control'. His seems to be the earliest discussion of this important distinction in any variety of Tibetan.

Sato (1994) discusses ergativity in Classical Tibetan. On the same topic is the disasterous article by Saxena (1989) which must be read together with the response to it by Dempsey (1993). Nagano (1994) discusses two examples one from Old TIbetan and one from Classical where he believes the suffix -kyis marks the patient of a transitive clause. He has another paper about this too somewhere.

Studies on the language of specific Classical Tibetan Documents[edit]

Roesler (2011) discusses the grammar of the Dpe chos of Po-to-ba Rin-chen-gsal.

Classical Tibetan Dictionaries and General Works of Tibetan Lexicography[edit]

Pre-modern dictionaries including Manchu-Tibetan, and Sanskrit-Tibetan dictionaries have been excluded. see Simon's article, the bibliography of Walters, and the article by Ruegg in Studia Tibetica 4.

The first Tibetan dictionary by a western author is a manuscript Tibetan-Latin dictionary by the Cappucian missionaries Giuseppe da Ascoli, Franceso Maria da Tours and F. Domenico da Fano (1674-1728), compiled between 1708 and 1713. This dictionary unfotunately remains unpublished but according to Simon (1964: 85) an extract is held at the Bibliothèque Nationale (Fonds Tibétain No. 542). Because this dictionary reportedly carries indication of pronunciation it could be of significant interest for Tibetan historical phonology. A Tibetan Italian dictionary was compiled by F. Francesco Orazio della Penna (1680-1745), a student of da Fano. The text of this work was translated into English and considerably mangled. The English version became the first published Tibetan dictionary (Schroeter 1826) but the original remains unpublished. These first two dictionaries and well as those of de Kőrös (1834), Schmidt (1841), Jäschke (1881), Desgodins (1899), and Das (1902) are well discussed by Simon and require no lenghty discussion here. de Kőrös is widely regarded as the founder of Tibetology as an academic discipline He has himself been the subject of a significant amount of research. Schmidt (1841) is largely a translation of de Kőrös (1834) into German, but it has been supplimented with lexicographical entries from some Tibetan-Mongolian glossaries at Schmidt's disposal. (WHICH ONES). Schmidt also prepared a Tibetan-Russian dictionary, which however I have not examined. A biography of Schmidt is provided in Babingen (1920). In Jäschke's first dictionary of 1866, the entries are alphabetized by their phonetic romanization, according to Latin alphabetical order. Tibetan script equivalents given for each entry, and differences of dialect are reported; information on verb syntax or stem variation occasionally reported. This dictionary was intended for practical use in the colloquial language. (OF LADAKH OR CENTRAL TIBET???) His 1881 dictionary does not differ significantly from the 1871 dictionary (IS THIS TRUE??). This is the first Tibetan dictionary of real caliber, and indeed as a work of lexicography is unrivaled to this day.

In the history of Tibetan lexicography special place must be afforded to the word of Chos kyi grags pa (1946). This is the first indigenous Tibetan dictionary (although the author was actually ethnically a Mongolian) to be organized alphabetically. Chos kyi grags pa received the aid of Dge 'dun chos 'phel in compiling the work. The latter has become a subject of scholarly inquiry in his own right, which now verges on a subdiscipline within Tibetan Studies (CITATIONS). Until recently this was used very widely be Tibetan as well as Western scholars. A number of lexeme from this dictionary are discussed in Wilhelm, F. (1962).

Gould and Richardson (1943) produced an interesting lexical resource. In a series which included Tibetan Verbs, and Tibetan Sentences. Each of 2950 syllables is numbered. Compound words are listed under each heading, and crossreferenced to each of their members. A phonetic transcription is given. Intransiive and transitive verbs are marked, aswell as honorifics and high honorifics. A real contribution to Tibetan etymology and word analysis which has not be properly followed up on. For a similar work see Tshe dbang rnam rgyal ([1958] 1997). Gould’s work is reviewed by Edgerton (1944), Barnett (1946) and Steward (1947).

A number of dictionaries can be mentioned all of which serve more or less the same function and are of roughly equal quality, i.e. derivative, somewhat unreliable, unscientific, but useful. In ths category would be a French-Tibetan dictionary (Giraudeau and Goré 1956) closely based on Desgodins (1899) but incorporating more modern technology as well, the Tibetan-Russian dictionary of Semichov (1963), which includes an appendix of verb tables, the Tibetan-German dictionary of Richter (1965), the Tibetan-English dictionary Buck (1969), which relies heavily on the French Catholic lexicographical tradition.

The luminous figure of early twentieth century Tibetology, George Nicholas de Roerich, left a long manuscript Tibetan-English dictionary as part of his Nachlass. It was edited and translated into Russian to form a twenty volume Tibetan-English and Russian dictionary. The size of the work and erudition of its author recommend it. Unfortunately not citing any sources it is not a methodological improvement on its peers, and is now rather difficult to obtain. CITATION

A number of other Tibetan-Tibetan or Tibetan-Chinese dictionaries were published in Tibet during the fifities, unfortunately they have all so far evaded me and it seems unproductive to share the inadaquet bibliographic scrapes which I have managed to collect.

A Tibetan-Tibetan dictionary of lasting importance is Tsan chung (1979). This is an excellent dictionary, with carefully written definitions. The cross references are excellent, and the handling of verbs is more sophisticated and reliable than in most dictionaries. Its relatively small size means that obscure words are not to be found, though it does have a strength in colloquial words and eastern dialect words. The examples appear to have been invented by the authors. While not a contribution to the scientific description of the Tibetan language, for a dictionary of its nature and size it is the best that can be achieved. Western students of Tibetan who do not yet know most basic vocabulary and are making the transition from using bilingual to monolingual dictionaries will find a particular asset in this work. It has been unfortunateley somewhat upstaged by its larger but less carefully edited sucessor, to be treated in the next paragraph. The dictionary which has become the current unrivaled standard is that of Zhang (1985). It is certainly a very large and useful work, but its merit is somewhat overrated. The definitions are so laconic as to sometimes be unintelligible, in particular words close in meaning are poorly differentiated. As usual, the compilers do not cite their examples or provide information on their sources. They have also haphazardly included geographical and biographical information properly outside the scope of a dictionary. Begun in 1928, as a translation of Jäschke (1881) the only mention of sources I am aware of cites western works, and Qing dynasty works in general. This work has been the subject of an translation into English (Skorupski 2001) though so far only until the letter nya, and supplement of more recent words has been compiled by Hackett (2001). The handling of tshad ma terminology in Zhang (1985) has been criticized by Bkra shis bzang po (1999). The verb entries have been excerpted and published separately as Li yung khrang (1989). Hackett (2003a) is a dictionary of verb stems and verbal collocations with lexical semantic information and paradigm example sentences taken from classical literature using techniques of corpus linguistics. Hill (2010) is a dictionary of verb stems collected from previous sources.

Old Tibetan[edit]

Takeuchi (2012) treats the periodization of Old Tibetan.

Old Tibetan Grammars[edit]

As yet no grammar of Old Tibetan has been written.

Old Tibetan Phonology[edit]

Hill (2010b) provides an overview of Old Tibetan synchronic phonology. Contributions to particular issues in Old Tibetan phonology include Beckwith (2006), Che (1981, 1984), Dragunov (1936, 1939), and Hill (2005b, 2006, 2007, 2009). Zhang Jichuan 張濟川 (1982) studies stop finals, sandhi with case markers, and the effects of the da-drag.

A newly discovered source for Tibetan historical phonology is a collection of Dunhuang texts which are the transcripts of oral teachings, and give information about the pronunciation of Tibetan in medieval Dunhuang (van Schaik 2007).

Nancy Caplow has reconstructed stress for proto-Tibetan (Caplow 2009). Jacques (2009a) has argued that consonants of the type Cwa orignate from *Cuba in pre-Tibetan. Temple (2012) explores the conditioning of palatalization in Old Tibetan.

Old Tibetan Morphology[edit]

Hill (2005a) treats changes in the inflection of the verb for 'to write', Jacques (2010) extends the same argument to a further group of verbs. Hill (2010a) discusses the case marker -las after verbal nouns. Hill (2012b) discusses case grammar. Jacques (2012) speculates about the history of verbal morphology.

Old Tibetan Syntax[edit]

Zeisler (2002) takes note of a potentialis use of the imperative stem in Old Tibetan.

Old Tibetan Dictionaries[edit]

To date only one work has been published which can be properly called a dictionary of Old Tibetan, this being Btsan lha ngag dbang tshul khrims (1997). This work carefully quotes and cites its sources, however not specifically enough to afford confirmation. Citations have been culled from Dunhuang texts as well as the Bdra gsar rnying, and commentarial literature. Thus it exceeds the scope of Old Tibetan per se, but this only adds to its utility. Despite the very high quality of this work, which exceeds that of most scholarship emmiting from the PRC, in my view a comprehensive dictionary-cum-thesaurus of Old Tibetan texts making specific citations is a remaining desideratum of both Tibetan and Tibeto-Burman studies. Another Old Tibetan dictionary is that of Rnam-rgyal Tshe-ring (2001) which I have not yet seen. Although not dictionaries as such the glossaries of Li and Coblin (1987), Richardson (1985), and F. W. Thomas (1935-1965) should be mentioned as lexicographical resources for Old Tibetan. Although the last is now quite outdated. A number of Old Tibetan texts have been fully indexed, though without any definitions or commentary in Choix 3 and 4, and in Takeuchi (1995), and (1997-1998). Although, Takeuchi (1995) does contain a short glossary of terms, and a variety of invaluable lexicographical data and discussion throughout. Work on Tibetan and Tibeto-Burman historical linguistics must reply foremost upon Old Tibetan, and although more work can be done in Old Tibetan lexicography, enough resources are already available to make the common practice of many Tibeto-Burmanists of replying exclusively on Jäschke 1881 now inexcusible. There is an indigenous tradition of providing glossaries of Old Tibetan words and phrases in Classical Tibetan, such works are extensively employed by Btsan lha ngag dbang tshul khrims (1997), Mimaki has made two studies of one of the earliest by Dbu pa blo gsal (Mimaki 1990, 1992). An overview of this literature in general is provided in an article by Manfred Taube.

Modern Literary Tibetan[edit]

Modern Literary Tibetan Grammars[edit]

In the later part of the 20th century one of the most active figures in Tibetan lexicography has been Melvyn C. Goldstein. His work is especially strong in political and military terminology. His first dictionary was published in 1975. It is very positively reviewed by Wylie (1980). Goldstein (1984) later compiled an English-Tibetan dictionary. The carefulness of editing seems uncharacteristic of Goldstein’s work. In 2001 he published a dictionary which is ostensibly a new edition 1975 dictionary though many times its size. It suffers from many basic problems such as cross་references which lead nowhere, and mistakes in alphabetical order. Although ostensibly centered around the language of contemporary news and literature, because the work incorporates other dictionaries more or less in totol, this work even contains Old Tibetan vocabulary. As the first place to turn for a word it has its place. Although this work is useful for reading texts, especially modern, because of its large vocabulary, it fails to contribute to scientific lexicography. The negative comments of the reviewers are well deserved (Beckwith 2001, Denwood 2002, Tsering 2002 CONSULT THIS ONE). Hackett (2001) edited and oversaw the compiling of a dictionary of neologisms compiled from PRC newspapers. This dictionary contains words not already in Zhang (1985), and is intended to serve as a supplement to it. Many quotations are provided drawn from "The Tibet Daily" (བོད་ལྗོངས་ཉིན་དེའི་ཚགས་པར་) and "Lhasa Evening News" (ལྷ་སའི་དགོང་དྲོའི་ཚགས་པར་), but no specific citations are provided. A older, smaller lexicon of newspaper terms can be found in the reader of Sedláček (1972), but many are outdated.

Spoken Tibetan Languages[edit]

D

escriptive work on Tibetan dialects began in a piecemeal fashion through the work of missionaries and explorers in the 19th century. Inevitably this research focused on the languages of border regions either in the far West or East. Subsequent work on spoken Tibetan languages has focused above all on Lhasa dialect, the 'lingua franca' of Central Tibet and the Tibetan exile community. These three forms of language are often confused in the literature. Recent work on a number of other dialects has filled out the picture.

Surveys and comparative works[edit]

Bonnerjea (1936) offers a pioneering contribution in the comparative phonology of Tibetic languages. His 1937 efforts at comparative morphology, entirely constrained by the straight-jacket of Latinate terminology, is however disappointing (Bonnerjea 1937).

The Tibetan Dialects Project at the University of Berne has been collecting data for a Comparative Dictionary of Tibetan Dialects. This massive project, headed for many years by Roland Bielmeier, is documenting the exact phonetic realisation of Tibetan-derived vocabulary in dozens of Tibetan languages in five countries.

Gesang Jumian & Gesang Yangjing (2002) provide a short introduction to several Tibetan dialects.

Wang Yao (1996) treats the phonetic evolution of the word zla-ba 'moon', and the phonetic evolution of zl- more generally, in several dialects. In the same year, Denwood (1996) treated the same set of questions.

Western Dialects[edit]

Jacques (2009b) has an article showing that what has been argued to be an archaism in the Western Tibetan vowel system is in fact an innovation.

Balti[edit]

Some early word lists for Balti include Vigne (1842), Austen (1866:PAGES), and Jäschke (1881: PAGES).

Balti Grammars[edit]

Bielmeier, Roland (1985). REVIEWED BY SPRIGG AND KVAERNE READ, SPRIGG

Lobsang, Ghulam Hassan (1995)

Eunice Jones (2008) has an MA thesis devoted to evidentiality and mirativity in Balti.

Balti Dictionaries[edit]

Sprigg (2002)

Ladakhi[edit]

Phonology[edit]

Miller (1956), Koshal (1976)

Texts[edit]

A Tibetan script Ladakhi text is Francke (DATE 2000).

Grammars[edit]

Grammars of Ladakhi include Francke ([1901] 1979), Koshal (1979, 1982), Norman (2001). Tournadre (1996) and Zeisler (2004) treat specific topics in Ladakhi grammar.

Dictionaries[edit]

Sandberg (1894) includes a long vocabulary of Ladakhi words. Dicionaries of Ladakhi include Ramsay (DATE), Norberg-Hodge and Paldan (199?) and Hamid (1998). Rebecca Norman is compiling a Ladakhi dictionary which will exceed all previous efforts in scope.

Works dealing with social linguistics include Zeisler (2006). Works that I have to read before evaluating include Dey (1975) and Koshal (1990).

Zanskar[edit]

Hoshi Michiyo (1978) has a glossary.

Purik[edit]

Bailey (1920: PAGES), short grammar, text and vocabulary.

Ngari[edit]

Qu and Tan (1983)

Central Tibetan (Ü-Tsang) (including Southern dialects)[edit]

Lhasa, 'Central', and 'Modern Standard'[edit]

Because many researchers do not rigorously distinguish the speech of the city of Lhasa per se from other forms of speech dubbed 'Lhasa Tibetan' it is convenient to treat Lhasa dialect together with the other dialects of Central Tibet which have been referred to as 'Lhasa' or generically as 'Central' Tibetan. In addition the lingua franca of the Tibetan exile often all called 'Lhasa' Tibetan is covered in this section.

Handbooks and Manuals[edit]

A number of works treat 'Central Tibetan' without referring more specifically to dialect. Grammars of 'Central Tibetan include Sandberg (1894), and Roerich and Phuntshok (1957) both of which include fairly extensive vocabularies. Early handbooks include Lewin (1879), Sandberg (1894), and Henderson (1903), Bell (1905). Roerich and Phuntshok, Amundsen It is not really clear that Lewin is describing Lhasa dialect.

A good discussion of the previous literature is in Haller's Shigatse grammar, which would almost be worth just translating here.

A discussion of the phonemes of Dbu-gtsang dialect is found in P. Miller (1951).

Handbooks and Manuals include those of the Changs, Goldstein and Nornang (1970), working with one of the same informants. Hu Tan (1989), which is very popular in China. Recently, and popular in Europe and North America is Tournadre and Dorje (2003).

Dictionaries[edit]

Hoshi (2003) is a colloquial Tibetan-Japanese verb dictionary. Kitamura and Nagano (1990) is a Tibetan Japanese dictionary which I have not yet seen.

Grammars[edit]

Kitamura (1977) has a short grammar. Hoshi M. (1988) also has a grammar. There is a longer grammar in Chinese by Wang Zhijing (1994). A Tibetan to Chinese dictionary of Lhasa dialect which i also haven't seen is yu et al. (1983).

Phonology[edit]

The phonology of Lhasa dialect, in particular the analysis of tone has been rather controversial. Sprigg (1955, 1961, 1993).

Hári (1979) studies tone.

The retention and over-application of -bC- word internally has been studied by Chang and Chang (1967) and Shirai (1999).

Pao et al. (1992) has a study of instrumental phonetics. Tang and Kong (1991) discuss vowels, vowel length and tone.

Róna-Tas (1984) compares the analysis of the vowel system across several authors, focusing of the description of Chang and Chang, from a typological perspective.

Hu Tan (1991b) has a study of final consonants.

Chang and Chang Sprigg Chao, Jin Peng (1958) treats mostly phonology. He suffers from the Chinese obssesion of giving the "same" sentence in several dialects. Zhou Li (1986) teaches how to read Tibetan script in the pronunciation of Lhasa. His description of phonology closely matches that of Tournadre, with a more detailed treatment of tone and tone sandhi.

Dawson wrote a PhD thesis (1980) on Lhasa phonology in keeping with the tradition of Goldstein and Nornang. She has also written a related paper on Lhasa vowels (1985).

Geziben (1996) has something on trochaic structures in the tone system.

Word Classes[edit]

Agha (1990)

Ergativity[edit]

Tournadre (1996) an article by the Changs.

Morphology[edit]

Robin and Vittrant (2007) treat reduplication in Lhasa dialect. Hu Tan (1991) discusses nominalization.

Verbal System[edit]

Evidentiality[edit]

Yukawa (1966) gives an excellent description of this morpheme, unfortunately however relying on the notion of 'person'. Jin (1979) describes yod, yod-pa-red, and 'dug, but I have not read his paper.

Takeuchi (1990) provides a masterful survey of the Lhasa Tibetan verbal system and sketches the development of evidential marking from Old Tibetan to several modern dialects. Saxena (19997), in contrast, offers an ignorant and error filled attempt at a treatment of the same question, bizarrely ignoring Takeuchi's previous study.

Delancey has treated the auxiliary system of Lhasa and Modern Standard Tibetan in a number of papers. In particular he has written about the use of the morpheme 'dug to express information new to the speaker, i.e. the admirative, called 'mirative' by DeLancey. Most researchers (e.g. Tournadre, Volkart) see 'dug instead as showing visually witnessed information. Hill (2012) argues against DeLancey's analysis, which DeLancey (2012) accepts.

Hongladarom (1994) traces the history of 'dug, and argues (incorrectly) that the meaning which DeLancey refers to is quite recent. Hill (2013) however shows that 'dug, had evidential functions already in Classical if not in Old Tibetan.

Hongladarom (1993) discusses the evidential system from the perspective of sociolinguistics and conventionalized social situations.

Bartee (1996) also treats the evidential system, from the perspective of deixis and 'cognative grammar' but because her framework still accepts such categories as 'person' and 'conjunct/disjunct' it is hard to use.

Tense and Aspect[edit]

Hoshi I. (1994a) discusses the temporal and aspectual uses of the V-ki-yod, etc. construction. A similar paper which I have not read is Hoshi I. (1994b) in Japanese. Hoshi I. also has an article on the auxiliary yong (1998) and the nominalizer mkhan (2004) in Lhasa Tibetan.

Light verbs[edit]

'Verbalizers' are treated by Kopp (1998).

Texts[edit]

There is a collection of texts by Chang and Chang (1978, 1981) and quite a series by Michiyo Hoshi.

Dingri[edit]

(Hermann 1989)

Western Drokpa[edit]

(Kretschmar 1986)

Southern Mustang[edit]

(Kretschmar 1995)

Shigatse[edit]

Shigatse (Jin Peng 1958, Haller 2000). In addition Kim (1996) discusses relativization in Shigatse.

Sherpa[edit]

It is mainly spoken in Nepal as well as in Sikkim/India. The Sherpa language is comprised of several dialects : Shorong (Solu), Pharak, Khumbu, Rolwaling and Dram (Tournadre and al. 2009b).

Schöttelndreyer (1978) studies Sherpa discourse.

Tournadre and al. (2009b) wrote the first Sherpa-English dictionary, based on the Khumbu dialect, which provides Tibetan provides both Tibetan and Nepali equivalents as well as the Tibetan etymology. Sherpa words are presented in a romanization system with a notation of tones. This dictionary includes a brief description of the Sherpa-speaking area, dialectal variation, and the linguistic affiliation of the language. It is the first publication to provide information about the phonological correspondences of Literary Tibetan in Sherpa. These correspondences, as well as the basic lexicon, clearly show that Sherpa is derived from Old Tibetan and is closely related to Classical Literary Tibetan. The specificities of Sherpa verb morphology are described in great detail in an appendix of this dictionary.

Jirel[edit]

Maibaum, A. and Strahm, E.(2005) wrote the first Jirel dictionary. Tournadre and al. (2009:22) say:

"Jirel is another Tibetic language which is closely related to Sherpa. Most Jirel speakers live in Jiri, a village in the Dolakha district, near the Solu area. Jirel has preserved a number of conservative phonological features which were lost in Sherpa (such as the final /t/ sound, as discussed in section 2.1 of Appendix 3). The mutual intelligibility between Sherpa and Jirel is not high. Jirel has been more strongly influenced by Nepali and Hindu language and culture than has Sherpa."

Kyirong-Kagate[edit]

This group is comprised of several dialects according to Tournadre (2005): Kyirong (Lende), Kagate, Tsum, Langtang and Yolmo (Helambu Sherpa). There is an extensive dictionary of Yolmo by Hari, A.M. and Chhegu Lama (2004) as well as a shorter grammatical description (Hari 2010). According to Tournadre and al. (2009:22):

"Yolmo is another Tibetic language spoken in Sindhupalchok and Nuwakot districts. It is often referred to as “Helambu Sherpa” by the Nepalese people. However, as demonstrated by Anna Maria Hari (2004: 699), Yolmo is closely related to Kagate, and is not a Sherpa dialect."

While Hari has worked on the Melamchi Valley variety spoken in the Sindhupalchok district, Yolmo is also spoken in the Lamjung district of Nepal (Gawne 2010), and a smaller dictionary of that variety also exists (Gawne 2011), as well as a grammatical description as part of Gawne (forthcoming). There has been considerably less work published on Kagate, with an extensive phonemic description by Höhlig and Hari (1976) and a short discussion of reference in narratives Höhlig (1978).

There is very little in the way of descriptive work on Kyirong, save for a grammar by Brigitte Huber (2005) that also includes historical annotations. Hildebrandt and Perry (2011) note that the Gyalsumdo language variety spoken in the Manage district of Nepal shows strong similarities to Kyirong, as well as Nubri, and would therefore likely be classed in the "Kyirong-Kagate" group.

Bhutia (or Lhoke or Drenjongke)[edit]

Spoken in Sikkim/India (Sandberg 1895)

Dzongkha[edit]

The national language of Bhutan was dubbed 'Dzongka' and committed to writing. The native speakers of this language are known as the Ngalong. Byrne (1909) provides an early description. Walsh (1905) describes the Gro-mo dialect spoken in Chumbi. On behalf of the government of Bhutan, van Driem (1992) wrote a complete grammar.

Amdo Tibetan (North East Group)[edit]

Early Word lists[edit]

(Prževal'skij 1875: 259) (Széchenyi 1898, vol. 3: 421)

Sbra-nag (Grum-Gržimajlo 1899: 419, cf. Kara 1984)

Standard Amdo[edit]

(Dṅos grub 1989) Various things by Hua Kan, also that textbook by Kevin Stuart, Karl Peet et al.

Ebihara (2009) treats the auxiliary verbs song and byung.

Amdo Sherpa[edit]

(Nagano 1980)

Reb-goṅ[edit]

(Gō 1954, cf. Stein 1955) (de Roerich 1958)

Mdzo-dge-sde-pa[edit]

(Sun 1986)

Dpa ri[edit]

Hermanns (1952), Hua and Ma (1992), Ma (1994), Bessho and Ebihara (2007), Ebihara (2012)

A-mchog[edit]

(Wu 1982)

Źo-ṅu[edit]

(Sun 2003)

Mgo-log[edit]

(de Roerich 1958) (Sprigg 1987)

Chabcha/Cherje[edit]

Suzuki 2004. Ebihara 2008.

rNgawa[edit]

Suzuki & Yeshemtsho 2006.

Rma chu[edit]

Zhou Maocao 2003

A rig[edit]

Shao Mingyuan 2011

Khams Tibetan (Eastern Groups)[edit]

Early Works[edit]

The language of Qoqonor, Sbatang, and Tsarong in Rockhill (1891: 361-370).

Chab mdo (Needham 1886, Jin Peng 1958)

Khams (Jäschke 1881: xvi-xvii)

Khams (de Roerich 1958)

Khams, Dar-rtse-mdo 1 (Migot 1957)

Khams, Dar-rtse-mdo 2 (Migot 1957)

Khams, Rtaḥu (Migot 1957) : Amdo nomadic variety

Khams, Dkar-mdzes (Migot 1957)

Khams, Sde-dge (Migot 1957)

Derge (sDedge)[edit]

Häsler 1999

Nangchen[edit]

Causemann 1989

Dongwang (gTormarong)[edit]

Bartee 2007

Other Dialects[edit]

Baima[edit]

There is a dialect Baima, which has undergone such radical phonetic developments that some scholars believe it is not a Tibetan dialect. Chirkova has devoted a number of studies to this dialect.

Tibetan Computational and Corpus Linguistics[edit]

Hackett, P. (2000a, 2000b) present the theory and initial results of experiments in the construction of a Tibetan Information Retrieval system using the first publicly available corpus of classical literary Tibetan (ACIP). In particular, both works highlight the construction of an automatic rule-based part-of-speech tagger in combination with a word-segmentation algorithm.

Hackett, P. (2003b) presented theoretical and statistical estimates for the morphological entropy of literary Tibetan.

Wangher, Andreas and Bettina Zeisler (2004). (DESCRIPTION NEEDED)

Tsering Rgyal (2005). (DESCRIPTION NEEDED)

Sun, Y. (2009). (DESCRIPTION NEEDED)

Hackett, P. (2010) presents techniques of topic-boundary detection for precision indexing of corpora of Tibetan classical literature.

Caizhijie and Cairang Zhuoma (2010) discuss the development of the 'Pandita' dictionary for Tibetan auto-segmentation and part-of-speech tagging.

Cairang Zhuoma and Cai Zhijie (2011) describes an algorithm used for "decomposing" Tibetan words, which seems to mean to assigning each letter to its place in the syllable, e.g. -g- in bsgrubs is the ming-gzhi, -s is the yang-'jugs, etc. I am not really clear what practical purpose such a system serves.

Tsering Rgyal and Dbangphyug Tsering (2010) presents an overview of a dictionary-based part-of-speech tagger, including a detailed list of the categories and entities they attempted to tag.

Liu, H. et al. (2010). Sun, Y. (2010). (DESCRIPTION NEEDED)

Chungku, C., J. et al. (2010) discusses a project to developed a Dzongka corpus and tag set.

Jiang Di (2003) is working on syntactic chunking.

References[edit]

Agha, Asif[edit]

  • (1990) Lexical structure and grammatical categories in Lhasa Tibetan.Ph.D., The University of Chicago.

Angelini, Pietro[edit]

  • (1994). Leggere il Tibet: bibliografia italiana del paese delle nevi, 1624-1993. Bologna: Il Nove.

Amundsen, Edward[edit]

  • Amundsen, Edward (1903). Primer of Standard Tibetan. Ghoom: The Scand. All. Tibetan Mission Press. 

Andersen, Paul Kent.[edit]

  • Andersen, Paul Kent (1987). "Zero-anaphora and related phenomena in Classical Tibetan". Studies in Language 11: 279-312. 

Andvik, Erik[edit]

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Aschoff, Jürgen C.[edit]

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Aubin, Françoise[edit]

  • Aubin, Françoise (1993). Ecrits récents sur le Tibet et les Tibétains: bibliographie commentée. Paris: Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, Centre d’études et de recherches internationales. 

Austen, H. H. G.[edit]

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Babinger, F.[edit]

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Bailey, T. Grahame[edit]

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Barnett, L. D.[edit]

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Bartee, Ellen[edit]

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Beckwith, Christopher I.[edit]

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Behr, Wolfgang[edit]

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Bell, Charles[edit]

  • Bell, Charles (1905). Manual of Colloquial Tibetan. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press. 

Benedict, Paul[edit]

  • Benedict, Paul (1972). Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus. Cambridge: at the University Press.  [reviewed: Bodman, N. (1975), Chang, K. (1973), Coblin, W. S. (1972-3), Haudricourt, A (1973), Lehman, F. K (1975), Matisoff, J. (1975), Miller, R. A. (1974), Sedláček, K. (1974), Sprigg, R. K. (1973)]

Bessho Yusuke 別所 裕介 and Ebihara Shiho 海老原 志穂[edit]

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Beyer, Stephan V.[edit]

  • Beyer, Stephen (1992). The Classical Tibetan language. New York: State University of New York.  Reprint 1993, (Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica series, 116.) Delhi: Sri Satguru.

Bielmeier, Roland[edit]

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Bielmeier, Roland (1985) (in German). Das Märchen von Prinzen Čobzaṅ. Beiträge zur tibetische Erzählforschung. 6. Sankt Augustin: VGH Wissenschaftsverlag. 

  • (1988). “The Reconstruction of the Stop Series and the Verbal System in Tibetan.” Languages and History in East Asia: Festschrift for Tatsuo Nishida on the Occasion of his 60th Birthday. Kyoto: Shokado. 15-27.
  • Bielmeier, Roland (1988). "The Reconstruction of the Stop Series and the Verbal System in Tibetan". Languages and History in East Asia: Festschrift for Tatsuo Nishida on the Occasion of his 60th Birthday (Kyoto: Shokado): 15-27. 


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Bodman, N.[edit]

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Bonnerjea, Biren[edit]

  • (1936). "Phonology of Some Tibeto-Burman Dialects of the Himalayan Region." T'oung Pao (Second Series) 32.4:238-258.
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Bkra shis bzang po[edit]

  • (1999). bod rgya tshig mdzod chen mo yi tshad ma'i skor la dpyad pa [Comments on Tshad ma in the Bod rgya tshig mdzod chen mo] Chengdu: dar thang bshad grwa.

Bskal bzang vgyur med[edit]

  • (1981). Bod kyi brdav sprod rig pavi khrid rgyun rab gsal me long. Chengdu: Si khron Mi rigs Dpe skrun khang.
  • (1992). Le clair miroir: enseignement de la grammaire tibétaine. Nicolas Tournadre and Heather Stoddard, trans. Arvillard : Editions Prajñā.

Btsan lha ngag dbang tshul khrims[edit]

  • (1997). Brda dkrol gser gyi me long zhes ba bzhugs so. Beijing: Mi rigs dpe skrun khang.

Buck, Stuart H.[edit]

  • Buck, Stuart H. (1969). Tibetan-English dictionary, with supplement.. Washington: Catholic University of America Press. 
  • Buck, Stuart H. (1989). Bhutanese newspaper reader.. Wheaton, MD: Dunwoody Press. 

Byrne, St. Quentin[edit]

  • Byrne, St. Quentin (1909). A Colloquial Grammar of the Bhutanese Language. Allahabad: Pioneer Press. 

Caizhijie and Cairang Zhuoma[edit]

Causemann, Margret[edit]

  • Causemann, Margret (1989). Dialekt und Erzählungen der Nangchenpas. (Beiträge zur tibetischen Erzählforschung 11.). VGH Wissenschaftsverlag: Bonn. 

Caplow, Nancy[edit]

  • (2009). The role of stress in Tibetan tonogenesis: A study in historical comparative acoustics. Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara.

Chang, Kun[edit]

  • (1973). (review of Benedict 1972). Journal of Asian Studies 32: 335-337.

Chang, Kun & Betty Shefts[edit]

  • Chang, Kun; Betty Shefts (1964). A Manual of Spoken Tibetan (Lhasa Dialect). Seattle: University of Washington Press. 
  • Chang, Kun; Betty Shefts (1965). "A Morphophonemic Problem in the Spoken Tibetan of Lhasa". Journal of the American Oriental Society 85 (1): 34-39. 
  • Chang, Kun; Betty Shefts (1967). "Spoken Tibetan Morphophonemics: p". Language 43 (2): 512-525. 
  • Chang, Kun; Betty Shefts (1969). "Vowel harmony in spoken Lhasa Tibetan". Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia sinica 40: 53–124. 
  • Chang, Kun; Betty Shefts (1978). Spoken Tibetan texts. Vol. II. Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, special publications. 74. Taipei: Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica. 
  • Chang, Kun; Betty Shefts (1980). "Ergativity in Spoken Tibetan.". Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 51 (1): 15-32. 
  • 1980 (?). “Perfective and imperfective in Spoken Tibetan.” Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 52/2:303-21
  • Chang, Kun; Betty Shefts (1981). Spoken Tibetan texts. Vol. IV. Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, special publications. 74. Taipei: Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica. 
  • Chang, Kun; Betty Shefts (1984). "The certainty hierarchy among Spoken Tibetan verbs of being". Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 55 (4): 603–635. 
  • 1984. “The Spoken Tibetn verb kap”. L. Ligeti (ed.), Tibetan and Budhist Studies Commemorating the 200th Anniversary of the Birth of Alexander Csoma de Körös. Budapest: Akadémia Kiadó. Vol I. 131-142
  • 1993. “Tense and aspect in spoken Tibetan.” In: Ernst Steinkellner and Helmut Tauscher (eds.), Contributions on Tibetan language, history, and culture. Proceedings of the Csoma de Kőrös Symposium held at Velm-Vienna, Austria, 13–19 September 1981. Vol. I. (Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde 10.) Wien: Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien Universität Wien: 329–37.

Che Qian 車謙[edit]

  • Che Qian 車謙 (1981). "從gcig談起—關於古藏語聲母中清塞音、塞擦音送氣和不送氣問題 Cong gcig tanqi – guanyu gu Zangyu shengmu zhong qingseyin secayin songqi he bu songqi wenti [Starting from gcig: concerning the aspiration of initials of voiceless plosives in Ancient Tibetan]". 民族語文 Minzu Yuwen 2: 36-39. 
  • Che Qian 車謙 (1984). "古藏語裏有复合元音嗎 Gu Zangyu li you fuhe yuanyin ma? [Did Old Tibetan have diphthongs?]". 中央民族學院學報 Zhongyang Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao 3: 102-105. 
  • Che Qian 車謙 (1990). "Certain phonetic changes in Tibetan in the light of variant and erroneous spellings in Old Tibetan documents of the Royal period". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 13 (1): 1-10. 
  • Che Qian 車謙 (1991). "On certain Tibetan and Chinese phonological questions of the medieval period". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 14: 65-92. 
  • Che Qian 車謙 (1992). "A preliminary discussion of subject marking (byed-sgra) in Lhasa Tibetan". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 15 (1): 53–63. 

Chirkova, Katia[edit]

  • Chirkova, Katia (2005). Báimǎ nominal postpositions and their etymology. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 28.2: 1-41.
  • Chirkova, Katia (2008). On the Position of Báimǎ within Tibetan. Evidence and Counter-Evidence. Essays in Honour of Frederik Kortlandt. Alexander Lubotsky, Jos Schaeken, and Jeroen Wiedenhof, eds. Amsterdam: Rodopi. vol. 2, 69-91
  • Chirkova, Katia 2008b. 白马语示证范畴及其与藏语方言的比较 báimǎyǔ shìzhèng fànchóu jíqí yǔ Zàngyǔ fāngyán de bǐjiào [Evidentials in Baima and Tibetan dialects compared] Mínzú yuwen 《民族语文》, vol. 3, 36-43.

Chos kyi grags pa[edit]

  • (1946). བརྡ་དག་མིང་ཚིག་གསལ་བ་བཞུགས།, Lhasa: privately printed by Hur kang bsod nam dpel bar, 1950; reprinted Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe / mi rigs dpe skrun khang 1957; Dharamsala: Damchoe Sangpo, 1980; (electronic edition) Kathmandu: Tibetan Computer Company, 2000. Translated into Chinese as 格西曲札藏文辭典 Gexi Quzha Zangwen cidian, Beijing: 民族出版社 Minzu chubanshe, 1957; reprinted: Tokyo: 西藏佛教研究会;発売所山喜房仏書林 Chibetto Bukkyō Kenkyūkai; hatsubaijo Sankibō Busshorin. 昭和 Shōwa 47 [=1972]).

Chungku, C., J. Rabgay, and G. Faaß[edit]

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Clark, Larry V. et al.[edit]

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Coblin, W. South[edit]

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  • Coblin, W. South (1976). "Notes on Tibetan verbal morphology". T'oung Pao 52 (1-3): 45-60. 

Cordier, Palmyr[edit]

Davidson, Roland M.[edit]

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Das Gupta, Kamalesh[edit]

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Dawson, Willa[edit]

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Dey, Pradip.[edit]

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Das, Sarat Chandra[edit]

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Delancey, Scott[edit]

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  • Delancey, Scott (1984). "Transitivity and ergative case in Lhasa Tibetan". Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: 131-140. 
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  • Delancey, Scott (1990). "Tibetan evidence for Nungish metathesis". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 12 (2): 25-31. 
  • Delancey, Scott (1990). "Contour tones from lost syllables in Central Tibetan". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 12 (2): 33-34.. 
  • Delancey, Scott (1991). "The origins of verb serialization in Modern Tibetan". Studies in Language 15 (1): 1-23.. 
  • Delancey, Scott (1992). "The historical status of the conjunct/disjunct pattern in Tibeto-Burman". Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 25: 39-62.. 
  • Delancey, Scott (1997). "Mirativity: the grammatical marking of unexpected information". Linguistic Typology 1: 33-52. 
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  • (2012) 'Still mirative after all these years. Linguistic Typology 16.3

Dempsey, Jakob[edit]

Denwood, Philip[edit]

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Desgodins, Auguste[edit]

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Dragunov, Alexadr[edit]

van Driem, George[edit]

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Ebihara Shiho 海老原 志穂[edit]

  • (2008).Seikaisyō Kyōwaken no Chibettogo Amudohōgen [A descriptive Study on the Amdo Dialect of Tibetan Spoken in Gonghe County, Qinghai Province]. PhD dissertation, The University of Tokyo.
  • (2009). "Auxiliary Verbs Concerning 'Intentionality' and 'Directionality' in Amdo Tibetan" チベット文化圈における言語基層の解明 101-114.
  • (2010). Amdo-Tibetan Pronunciation and Conversation: for ILCAA Intensive Language Course 2010, Textbook 1. Tokyo: ILCAA.
  • (2012) "Preliminary field report on dPa'ris dialect of Amdo Tibetan." Historical Development of the Tibetan Languages. Tsuguhito Takeuchi and Norihiko Hayashi, eds. Kobe: Research Institute of Foreign Studies, Kobe University of Foreign Studies. 149-161.

Edgerton, Franklin[edit]

  • (1944). Review of Gould and Richardson (1943). Language 20: 174-175.

Eimer, Helmut[edit]

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Francke, A. H.[edit]

Gawne, Lauren[edit]

  • (2010). "Lamjung Yolmo: a dialect of Yolmo, also known as Helambu Sherpa." Nepalese Linguistics 25: 34-41.
  • (2011). Lamjung Yolmo-Nepali-English dictionary. Melbourne, Custom Book Centre; The University of Melbourne.
  • (forthcoming). Lamjung Yolmo: Grammar and social cognition. PhD dissertation, The University of Melbourne.

Gesang Jumian (格桑居冕 = Skal bzang 'gyur med)[edit]

  • 1985. Zangyu Batanghua de yuyin fenxi [An analysis of the phonology of ’Ba’-thang Tibetan]. Minzu Yuwen 1985.2:16-27.

Gesang Jumian (格桑居冕 = Skal bzang 'gyur med) and Gesang Yangjing (格桑央京 = Skal bzang dbyangs can)[edit]

  • 2002 藏语方言槪论 Zang yu fang yan gai lun [Overview of the Tibetan dialects]. Beijing: 民族出版社 Minzu chubanshe.

Geziben, Deji-Sezhen[edit]

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Giraudeau, Pierre Philippe et Françis Goré[edit]

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Goldstein, Melvyn C.[edit]

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Gould, Basil John, Sir, and Hugh Edward Richardson[edit]

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Hahn, Michael[edit]

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Hale, Austin[edit]

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Haller, Felix[edit]

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Hamid, Abdul.[edit]

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Hári, Anna Mária.[edit]

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Häsler, Katrin Louise.[edit]

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Haudricourt, A[edit]

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Henderson, Vincent C[edit]

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Hermann, Silke[edit]

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Hermanns, Matthias[edit]

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Hodge, Stephen[edit]

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Höhlig, Monika[edit]

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Hongladarom, Krisadawan (กฤษดาวรรณ หงศ์ลดารมภ์)[edit]

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Hu Tan (胡 坦)[edit]

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Hua, Kan (華侃)[edit]

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Hua, Kan (華侃) and Duozangta (朵藏他)[edit]

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Hua, Kan (華侃) and Longbojia (龍博甲)[edit]

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Hoffrenning, Ralf W.[edit]

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Hoshi Izumi (星泉)[edit]

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Hoshi, Michiyo (星 実千代)[edit]

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Hoshi, Michiyo (星 実千代) and Hoshi Izumi (星泉)[edit]

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Huang Bufan (黃布凡)[edit]

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Huang, Bufan (黃布凡), Suonan Jiangcai (索南江才), and Zhang Minghui (張明慧).[edit]

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Huang, Bufan (黃布凡), and Zhang Minghui (張明慧)[edit]

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Huber, Brigite[edit]

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Inaba Shōju 稲葉正就[edit]

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Jacques, Guillaume[edit]

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Jäschke, Heinrich August[edit]

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Jiang Di 江荻[edit]

Jin Peng [Chin P’eng] 金鵬[edit]

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Kim, M. H.[edit]

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Kitamura Hajime[edit]

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Kitamura Hajime 北村甫 and Nagano Yasuhiko 長野泰彦[edit]

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Kopp, Teresa Kunkel[edit]

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de Kőrös, Alexander Csoma [= Kőrösi Csoma, Sándor] with Sangs rgyas Phun tshogs[edit]

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Koshal, Sanyukta[edit]

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LaPolla, Randy J.[edit]

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Laufer, Berthold[edit]

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Lehman, F. K[edit]

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Li Fang-Kuei[edit]

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Lobsang, Ghulam Hassan[edit]

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Lu shao zun 陸紹尊[edit]

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Lyovin, Anatole V.[edit]

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Ma Maoqian[edit]

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Maibaum, Anita[edit]

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Matisoff, James A.[edit]

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Mimaki, Katsumi[edit]

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Nagano, Sadako[edit]

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Nagano, Yasuhiko[edit]

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Nagano, Yasuhiko and Randy J. LaPolla, eds.[edit]

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Needham, J.F.[edit]

Nishida Tatsuo[edit]

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Norbu, Thubten Jigme and Tsuguhito Takeuchi[edit]

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Oetke, Claus[edit]

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Roesler, Ulrike[edit]

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Sadakane Ayako (貞兼綾子)[edit]

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Saxena, Anju[edit]

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Sato Michio[edit]

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Schiefner, Anton[edit]

Schmidt, Iakov Ivanovich[edit]

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Schöttelndreyer, Burkhard[edit]

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Shafer, Robert[edit]

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Shao, Mingyuan(邵明园)[edit]

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Shirai Satoko 白井 聡子[edit]

Simon, Walter[edit]

Sprigg, Richard Keith[edit]

Sprigg, Richard Keith (2002). Balti-English English-Balti dictionary. Richmond: RoutledgeCurzon.

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Skorupski, Tadeuse[edit]

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Sack, E.[edit]

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Steward, FIRST NAME[edit]

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Sun Hong-kai, et al.[edit]

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Sun, Jackson T. S.(孫天心)[edit]

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  • Sun, Jackson T. S (孫天心) 2005. 〈嘉戎語組語言的音高:兩個個案研究〉. 《語言研究》. 25.1: 50-59.
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Sun, Y.[edit]

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Suo Wenqing (索文清)[edit]

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Suzuki Hiroyuki 鈴木 博之[edit]

  • (2004) " アムドチベット語チャプチャ・チェルジェ牧民方言の音声分析(Amudo Chibettogo Chapucha-Cheruje Bokumin Hōgen no Onseibunseki) Amdo Tibetan Chabcha/Cherje Nomadic Dialect : a Phonetic Analysis" Kyoto University Linguistic Research 『京都大学言語学研究』(Kyōto Daigaku Gengogaku Kenkyuu) 23: 145-166.
  • (2005) " チベット語音節構造の研究(Chibettogo Onsetsu Kōzō no Kenkyuu) Study on the syllable system in Tibetan" Journal of Asian and African Studies 『アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究』(Azia Afurika Gengo Bunka Kenkyuu) 69: 1-23.
  • (2005) " チベット語丹巴・梭坡[Sogpho] 方言の音声分析(Chibettogo Danba-Sopo [Sogpho] Hōgen no Onseibunseki) Phonetic Analysis of Tibetan Sogpho Dialect" NIDABA 『ニダバ』 34: 96-104.
  • (2005) " Einige Bemerkungen über den Ursprung des creaky Tons im Tibetischen von Sharkhog [Songpan-Jiuzhaigou]" Kyoto University Linguistic Research 『京都大学言語学研究』(Kyōto Daigaku Gengogaku Kenkyuu) 24: 45-57.
  • (2006) " チベット語塔公[Lhagang] 方言の方言特徴とその背景(Chibettogo Tōkō [Lhagang] Hōgen no Hōgentokuchō to sono Haikei) Dialectal Characteristics of Tibetan Lhagang Dialect and its Background" NIDABA 『ニダバ』 35: 39-47.
  • (2006) " アムドチベット語中阿壩[rNgawa]方言の音声分析(Amudo Chibettogo Tyuu-Aba [rNgawa] Hōgen no Onseibunseki) Amdo Tibetan rNgawa dialect : Phonetic Analysis" Asian and African Languages and Linguistics (AALL) 『アジア・アフリカの言語と言語学』(Azia Afurika no Gengo to Gengogaku) 1: 59-88. (collaborated with Yeshemtsho)
  • (2007) " 甘孜州郷城県カムチベット語の方言特徴(Kanzesyuu Kyōzyō Kamu Chibettogo no Hōgentokuchō) Dialectal Characteristics of Khams Tibetan Chaphreng Dialect" NIDABA 『ニダバ』 36: 17-26.
  • (2007) " カムチベット語新都橋[Rangakha]方言の音声分析(Kam Chibettogo Shintokyō [Rangakha] Hōgen no Onseibunseki) Khams Tibetan Rangakha dialect : Phonetic Analysis" Asian and African Languages and Linguistics (AALL) 『アジア・アフリカの言語と言語学』(Azia Afurika no Gengo to Gengogaku) 2: 131-162.
  • (2007) " チベット語包座[Babzo]方言の音声分析とその方言特徴(Chibettogo Hōza [Babzo] Hōgen no Onsei Bunseki to sono Hōgen Tokuchō) Tibetan Babzo Dialect: Phonetic and Dialectal Analysis" Journal of Asian and African Studies 『アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究』(Azia Afurika Gengo Bunka Kenkyuu) 74: 101-120.
  • (2008) " 迪慶州瀾滄江流域カムチベット語(徳欽/雲嶺/燕門/巴迪方言)の方言特徴(Tekikeisyuu Lansōkō Ryuuiki Kamu Chibettogo (Tokukin/Unrei/Enmon/Bateki Hōgen) no Hōgentokutyō) Dialectal Characteristics of Khams Tibetan spoken along Lancang Rivier in bDechen (nJol/Yungling/Yanmen/Budy Dialects)" NIDABA 『ニダバ』 37: 115-124.
  • (2008) " Nouveau regard sur les dialectes tibétains à l’est d’Aba : phonétique et classification du dialecte de Sharkhog [Songpan-Jiuzhaigou]" Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 31.1: 85-108.
  • (2008) " ヒャルチベット語九寨溝・玉瓦[gZhungwa]方言の音声分析(Hyaru Chibettogo Kyuusaikō-Gyikuga [gZhungwa] Hōgen no Onseibunseki) Shar Tibetan gZhungwa dialect : Phonetic Analysis" Asian and African Languages and Linguistics (AALL) 『アジア・アフリカの言語と言語学』(Azia Afurika no Gengo to Gengogaku) 3: 135-168.
  • (2009) " Introduction to the method of the Tibetan linguistic geography —— a case study in the Ethnic Corridor ofWest Sichuan ——" In: Yasuhiko Nagano (ed.) Linguistic Substratum in Tibet —— New Perspective towards Historical Methodology (No. 16102001) Report Vol. 3: 15-34.
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  • (2009) " 金沙江流域カムチベット語(奔子欄/尼西/拖頂/霞若/其宗方言)の方言特徴(Tekikeisyuu Kinsakō Ryuuiki Kamu Chibettogo (Honziran/Nisei/Totyō/Kazyaku/Kisyuu Hōgen) no Hōgentokutyō) Dialectal Characteristics of Khams Tibetan spoken along Jinsha Rivier in bDechen (sPomtserag/Nyishe/Thoteng/Byagzhol/Qizong Dialects)" NIDABA 『ニダバ』 38: 29-38.
  • (2009) " Deux remarques à propos du développement du ra-btags en tibétain parlé" Revue d’étude tibétaine 16: 75-82.
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  • (2009) " カムチベット語奔子欄[sPomtserag]方言の音声分析(Kamu Chibettogo Honshiran [sPomtsherag] Hōgen no Onseibunseki) Khams Tibetan sPomtserag dialect : Phonetic Analysis" Asian and African Languages and Linguistics (AALL) 『アジア・アフリカの言語と言語学』(Azia Afurika no Gengo to Gengogaku) 4: 219-258.
  • (2009) " Tibetan dialects spoken in Shar khog and Khod po khog" EAST and WEST 59(1-4): 273-283.
  • (2010) " カムチベット語瓊波/沖倉[Khyungpo/Khromtshang]方言の音声分析とその方言特徴(Kam Chibettogo Kyōha/Chuusō [Khyungpo/Khromtshang] Hōgen no Onsei Bunseki to sono Hōgen Tokuchō) Khams Tibetan Khyungpo/Khromtshang Dialect: Phonetic and Dialectal Analysis" Journal of Asian and African Studies 『アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究』(Azia Afurika Gengo Bunka Kenkyuu) 79: 95-120.
  • (2010) " カムチベット語燕門/斯嘎[Yanmen/Sakar] 方言の方言特徴(Kamu Chibettogo Enmon/Siga [Yanmen/Sakar] Hōgen no Hōgentokutyō) Dialectal Characteristics of Khams Tibetan Sakar Dialects" NIDABA 『ニダバ』 39: 78-87.
  • (2010) " カムチベット語香格里拉県浪都[Lamdo]方言の方言所属(Kamu Chibettogo Shangriraken Lōto [Lamdo] Hōgen no Hoogen Shozoku) Dialectal Position of the Lamdo [Langdu] dialect of Khams Tibetan spoken in Shangri-La County" Bulletin of National Museum of Ethnology『国立民族学博物館研究報告』(Kokuritsu Minzokugaku Hakubutsukan Kenkyuu Hōkoku) 35.1: 231-264.
  • (2010) " カムチベット語維西塔城[mThachu]方言におけるそり舌化母音---その音声学的特徴の記述と分析(Kamu Chibettogo Isei Tōzyō [mThachu] Hōgen ni okeru Sorisita Boin---sono Onseigakuteki Tokutyoo no Kizyutu to Bunseki) Retroflex vowels in Khams Tibetan mThachu Dialect : Description and Analysis of its Phonetic Characteristics" Kyoto University Linguistic Research 『京都大学言語学研究』(Kyōto Daigaku Gengogaku Kenkyuu) 29: 27-42.
  • (2010) " ヒャルチベット語大寨[Astong]方言の音声分析(Hyaru Chibettogo Daisai [Astong] Hōgen no Onseibunseki) Shar Tibetan Astong dialect : Phonetic Analysis" Asian and African Languages and Linguistics (AALL) 『アジア・アフリカの言語と言語学』(Azia Afurika no Gengo to Gengogaku) 5: 117-155.
  • (2011) " Deux remarques supplémentaires à propos du développement du ra-btags en tibétain parlé" Revue d’étude tibétaine 20: 123-133.
  • (2011) " Phonetic analysis of dGudzong Tibetan: The vernacular of Khams Tibetan spoken in the rGyalrong area" Bulletin of National Museum of Ethnology 35.4: 617-653.
  • (2011) " 〈嘎嘎塘藏語的咽化元音與其來源(Gagatang Zangyu de Yanhua Yuanyin yu qi Laiyuan) Pharyngealised Vowels in Gagatang Tibetan and their Origin" Language and Linguistics 『語言曁語言學』(Yuyan ji Yuyanxue) 12.2: 477-500.

Takeuchi Tsuguhito 武内紹人[edit]

  • 1990 “チベット語の述部に置ける助動詞の昨日と園発達方栄 Chibetto-go no jutsubu ni okeru jodōshi no kinō to sono hattatsu katei / The semantic Function of Auxiliary verbs in Tibetan and their historical development” Asian Languages and General Linguistics, Tokyo (1990): 6-16
  • Takeuchi, Tsuguhito (1995). Old Tibetan contracts from Central Asia 中央アジア発現古チベット語契約文書. Tokyo: Daizō shuppan. 
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Takeuchi, Tsuguhito and Yoshiharu Takahashi[edit]

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Tang Kerang 譚剋讓 and Kong Jiangping 孔江平[edit]

  • (1991). "藏語拉薩話元音、韻母的長短及其與聲調的關繫 Vowels, vowel length and the relationship tone in Lhasa Tibetan." 民族語文 Minzu Yuwen 1991.2: 12-21.

Taube, Manfred[edit]

  • Taube, Manfred. 1953-1954. Die Wiedergabe sanskritischer Verbformen im tibetishe Texte des Bodhicaryavatara. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Karl Marx-Universität Leipzig. Gesellschafts- und Sprachwissenschafliche Reie. 3. Jahrgang (1953/54), Heft 4. 393-412.
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Temple, Ross[edit]

  • Temple, Ross (2012). Conditioning Environments of Old Tibetan Palatalization. MA thesis, Indiana University.

Tharchin, G. Rev.[edit]

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Thomas, Frederick William[edit]

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Tillemans, Tom[edit]

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Tillemans, T. / Herforth, D.[edit]

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Tsan chung[edit]

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Tshe dbang rnam rgyal[edit]

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Tsering, Dhondup[edit]

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Tsering Rgyal[edit]

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Uray, Géza[edit]

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Verhagen, Pieter[edit]

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Vigne, Godfrey Thomas[edit]

Walsh, E. H. C.[edit]

  • Walsh, E. H. C. (1905). A vocabulary of the Tromowa dialect of Tibetan spoken in the Chumbi valley: together with a corresponding vocabulary of Sikhimese and of Central (standard) Tibetan. Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Book Depot. 

Wangher, Andreas and Bettina Zeisler[edit]

  • (2004) "A Syntactically Annotated Corpus of Tibetan." The 4th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation,

Wang Yao 王尧[edit]

  • Wang Yao. 1996. "藏语zla─ba一词音义考 The sound and meaning of the word zla-ba in Tibetan language." 民族语文 Minzu Yuwen 1996, no. 5, pp. 48-52.

Wang Zhijing 王志敬[edit]

  • (1994). བོད་སྐད་ལྷ་སའི་སྐད་ཀྱི་འགྲོ་ལུགས / 藏语拉萨口语语法 Zangyu Lasa kouyu yufa [A grammar of spoken Lhasa Tibetan]. 中央民族大学出版社: 新华书店北京发行所发行, Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe.

Wen Yu[edit]

  • (1947) "Phonetic Changes of the Superadded and Prefixed Letters in Eastern Tibetan Dialects." Studia Serica 5: 1-22.

Wilhelm, Friedrich[edit]

  • (1962). “Ein Beitrag zur tibetischen Lexikographie.” Central Asiatic Journal 7: 212-225.

Wilson, Joe B.[edit]

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Wolfenden, Stuart N.[edit]

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Wylie, Turrell V.[edit]

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Yu Daoquan 于道泉 et al.[edit]

  • (1983) 藏汉对照拉萨口语词典 Bod Rgya śan sbyar gyi Lha sa'i kha skad tshig mdzod / Zang Han dui zhao Lasa kou yu ci dian. Beijing:  民族出版社 Minzu chubanshe.

Yukawa Yasutosi 湯川泰敏[edit]

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Zemp, Marius[edit]

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Zeisler, Bettina[edit]

  • (2000). Narrative conventions in Tibetan languages: The issue of mirativity. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 23.2: 39-78.
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  • (2002): "The development of temporal coding in Tibetan: some suggestions for a functional internal reconstruction. (1): Unexpected use of the 'imperative' stem in Old Tibetan and Themchen (Amdo Tibetan)." In: Henk Blezer (ed.), Tibet, Past and Present. PIATS 2000: Tibetan studies: Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies. Leiden 2000. (Brills Tibetan Studies Library, 2/1.) Leiden etc.: Brill: 441-453.
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  • (2006). “Why Ladakhi must not be written – Being part of the great tradition: Another kind of global thinking.” Anju Saxen & Lars Borin (eds.), Lesser-Known Languages of South Asia. Status and Policies, Case Studies and Applications of Information Technology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 175-94.
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Zhang Jichuan 張濟川[edit]

  • Zhang Jichuan 張濟川 (1982). "古藏语塞音韵尾读音初探 [A preliminary study of the pronuncition of stop endings in ancient Tibetan]" (in Chinese). 民族語文 Mizu Yuwen 6: 17-30. 
  • Zhang Jichuan 張濟川 (1996). "古代藏語方音差別與正字法 Gudai Zangyu fangyin chabie yu zhengzifa [Old Tibetan dialectal differences and Tibetan orthography]" (in Chinese). 民族語文 Mizu Yuwen 3: 22-24. 
  • (2009) 藏語詞族研究 Zangyu cizu yanjiu [Tibetan Word Family Research]. Beijing: Shehui kexue chubanshe.

Zhang Liansheng[edit]

  • (1985) The phonetic structure of ABCB type words in modern Lhasa Tibetan. Soundings in Tibetan civilization. B.N. Aziz, M. Kapstein, eds. Delhi: Manohar. 20-34.
  • (1986). “The puzzle of da-drag in Tibetan.” Linguistics of the Tibeo-Burman Area 9/1:47-64
  • (1987). “The consonant system of middle-old Tibetan and the tonogenesis of Tibetan.” Ph.D. thesis University of California, Berkeley
  • (1988)“A quantative study of the Preservation in Modern Tibetan of Ancient Tibetan Final stop *-k.” Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 4th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies Schloss Hohenkammer — Munich 1985. Helga Uebach and Jampa L. Panglung, eds. (Studia Tibetica 2). Munich: Kommission für Zentralasiatische Studien Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 567-582.

Zhang Yisun 张怡荪 / Krang dpyi sun[edit]

  • (1985). Bod rgya tshig mdzod chen mo / 藏汉大辞典 Zang Han Da Cidian. Beijing: Mi rigs dpe skrun kang / 民族出版社 Minzu Chubanshe, 1985, 1993, 2000.

Zhou Maocao 周毛草[edit]

  • (2003) 玛曲藏语研究 Maqu Zangyu yanjiu. Beijing: 民族出版社 Minzu chubanshe, 2003.

Zhou Li[edit]

  • (1986) Bod yig gi sgra sbyor slob deb: Lha sa'i skad / 藏文拼音教材Zangwen-pinyin-jiaocai. Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe.

Choix III 1990: Yoshiro Imaeda and Tsuguhito Takeuchi, Choix de documents tibétains conservés à la Bibliothèque nationale, Tome III, Corpus syllabique. Paris: Bibliothèque nationale. Choix IV 2001: Yoshiro Imaeda, Tsuguhito Takeuchi, Izumi Hoshi, Yoshimichi Ohara and Iwao Ishikawa, Choix de documents tibétains conservés à la Bibliothèque nationale, Tome IV, Corpus syllabique, Tokyo: ILCAA, Université des Langues Étrangères de Tokyo.

Franke, Herbert, ed. (2005-). Wörterbuch der tibetischen Schriftsprache. Munich: Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Kommission beim Verlag C. H. Beck.

Richardson, Hugh (1985). A Corpus of Early Tibetan Inscriptions. (James G. Forlong series 29). London: Royal Asiatic Society.

Sagart, Laurent (2006). [Review of Matisoff 2003] Diachronica 23.1: 206-223

Schroeter, Rev. Frederic Christian Gotthelf 1826. A Dictionary of the Bhotanta or Boutan Language. Serampore.

Simon, Walter (1964). "Tibetan Lexicography and Etymological Research." Transactions of the Philological Society : 85-107.

Snellgrove, David (1954). (review of Marcelle Lalou's) “Manuel elementaire de tibétain classique.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 16.1: 198-199.


[Zhongguo zangxue lunwen 1999] 中国藏学论文资料索引 Zhongguo Zangxue lunwen zi liao suoyin. 1872-1995. Beijing : Zhongguo Zangxue chubanshe 中国藏学出版社, 1999.

  • [Zhongguo zangxue lunwen 2006] 中国藏学论文资料索引 Zhongguo Zangxue lunwen zi liao suoyin 1996-2004. Beijing : Zhongguo Zangxue chubanshe 中国藏学出版社, 1999.

[Zhongguo zangxue shumu (1994).] 中国藏学书目Zhongguo Zangxue shumu 1949-1991 / Krung-goʾi Bod rig paʾi dpe chaʾi dkar chag, 1949-1991 / Catalogue of Chinese Publications in Tibetan Studies, 1949-1991. Beijing: 外文出版社Waiwen chubanshe 1994.

[Zhongguo zangxue shumu (1997).] 中国藏学书目续编 Zhongguo Zangxue shumu xubian 1992-1995,/ Kruṅ-goʾi Bod rig paʾi dpe chaʾi dkar chag, 1949-1991 / Catalogue of Chinese publications in Tibetan studies, 1992-1995. Beijing : 外文出版社 Waiwen chubanshe, 1997.

[Zhongguo zangxue shumu (2001).] 中国藏学书目三编 Zhongguo Zangxue shumu sanbian (1996-2000). Kruṅ-goʾi Bod rig paʾi dpe chaʾi dkar chag gsar bsgrigs (1996-2000) / Catalogue of Chinese publications in Tibetan studies (1996-2000). Beijing : 外文出版社 Waiwen chubanshe, 2001.


LaPolla, Randy J. “Phonetic Development of Tibetan.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman area 11.2 (1988): 93-97.

Review of Inaba in East and West 6.

Delancy, Scott. (1987). "Etymological notes on Tibeto-Burman case particles." Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 8. 59-77.

E. H. C. Walsh ‘The Tibetan Language and Recent Dictionaries’ JASB 72 (1903/4) p. 65-86. (a review of Das?)

in Die Erforschung des Tocharischen (1960-1984) von Werner Thomas. Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GMBH, Stuttgart 1985. we have Ivanov, V. V. Tibetskie kal'ki v tocharskich tekstach [Tibetische Lehnwörter /Lehnübersetzunen/ in den tocharischen Texten] KSINA 57 (1961) 35-40. KSINA : Kratkie soobshchenija instituta narodov Azii.

Simonsson, Nils. "Sanskrit na, Tibetan ma yin" Orientalia Suecana 9 (1960): 11-27. Simonsson, Nils. "On the concept of sentence in ancient Indian and tibetan theory and on the function of case particles in Tibetan according to Tibetan Grammarians," Fenno-Ugrica Suecana 5 (1982): 281-291.

Here are some bibliographic notices from Pavel Poucha's "The Tibetan Language as Example of General Validity of Linguistic Laws" Asienwissenschaftliche Beitrage: Johannes Schubert in memoriam. Eds. Eberhardt Richter and Manfred Taube. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1978: 113-122.

A. A. Dragunov, Voiced plosives and affricates in Ancient Tibetan, Acad. Sinica 7, 1936 (:Buletin of the Institute of History and Philology) pp. 165ff. the same, Osobennosti fonologicheskoj sistemy drevnetibetskogo jazyka, Zapiski Inst. vostokovedenija AN SSR, 7, 1939, p. 284ff. J. H. Edgar, The Tibetan Tonal System, G. W. Ch. Border Res. Soc. 5, 1952, pp. 64ff. Robert Shafer, Prefixed n-, ng- in Tibetan, Sino-Tibetica 1, 1938; Prefixed m- in Tibetan, ib. 3, 1938, p. 11ff. The vocalism of Sino-Tibetan, JAOS 60, 1940, p. 302ff., 61, 1941, pp. 18ff., Problems of Sino-Tibetan phonetics, JAOS, 70, 1950 pp. 96ff. Phonétique comparée de quelques préfixes simples en sino-tibétain, BSL. 46, 1950, pp. 144ff. and other works of this author mentioned in this Bibliography of Sino-Tibetan Languages, Wiesbaden 1957. Further W. Simon, Certain Tibetan suffixes and their combinations, HJAS. 5, 1940, pp. 372ff., The Range of sound alternations in Tibetan word families, AM. Ser. 2, vol. 1, 1949, pp. 3ff. Rolf Stein, Notes d'etymologie tibétaine, BEFEO, 41, 1941. fasc. 2 pp. 203ff. Geza Uray, Some problems of the ancient Tibetan verbal morphology, methodical observations on recent studeis, Acta Linguistica 3, Budapest 1953, pp. 37ff. Stuart N. Wolfenden, The prefix m- with certain substantives in Tibetan, Language 4, 1928 pp. 277ff. Significance of early Tibetan wordforms, JRAS, 1928, pp. 896ff. To the B. Laufer's Loan-Words in Tibetan, T'oung Pao 1916, pp. 403ff. there is a supplement by the same authors Sino-Iranica, Chinese contruibutions to the History of Civilization in Ancient Iran, Chicao 1919, in the chapter "Additional notes on loan words in Tibetan" pp. 591ff. A contribution to the development of Tibetan is also the stud by Chin P'eng, Verbal Inflection in Classical Tibetan and Present-day Lhasa Dialect, Linguistic researches, 1, 1958, pp. 169ff.Template:Tibetan