Radiation Oncology/Sarcoma/Chondrosarcoma

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Epidemiology[edit]

  • Heterogenous group of tumors forming cartilagenous tumors
    • If there is evidence of osteoid or bone production, the tumor is classified as an osteosarcoma
  • Median age in 3rd to 4th decades; 50% in patients >40
  • Distribution:
    • Pelvis (31%)
    • Femur (21%)
    • Shoulder girdle (13%)
    • Diaphyseal portion of long bones
    • Skull base - can be a clinical challenge, since frequently limited resectability
  • Clinical presentation
    • Pain is a sign of active growth, and is an ominous sign
    • Otherwise symptoms depend on location
  • Radiographic presentation
    • Two distinct patterns
      • Small, well-defined lytic lesion within a narrow zone of transition, with surrounding sclerosis
      • No sclerotic border
    • Endosteal scalloping is a key sign of malignancy

Histologic Subtypes[edit]

  • Central (76%)
  • Peripheral
  • Mesenchymal: high rate of metastatic spread
  • Dedifferentiated: may resemble a fibrosarcoma or osteosarcoma; highly aggressive
  • Clear cell: slow growing, multiple local recurrences
  • Most tend to be low grade

Treatment Overview[edit]

  • Treatment is maximum surgical resection while minimizing functional disability. Decompression of visual and other neural structures, blood vessels, and brain stem should be achieved.
  • Adjuvant RT typically indicated in cases of incomplete resection
  • No effective chemotherapy at this time

Radiotherapy[edit]

  • MDACC; 1982 (1961-76) PMID 6806219 -- "Fifteen year radiotherapy experience with chondrosarcoma of bone." (McNaney D, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1982 Feb;8(2):187-90.)
    • Retrospective. 20 pts treated with curative intent (11, definitive RT; 3 post-op RT; 3 RT + chemo; 3 recurrent after surgery). RT doses 4000 - 7000 cGy (1000 / wk) using photons and/or neutrons.
    • Sites: 13 pelvis, 4 spine, 2 distal femur, 1 H&N
    • Subgroups:
      • RT alone: 5 of 11 (45%) alive without progressive local disease (at median 30 months). OS 54% at 30 months. Median dose 6600 cGy. 4 pts treated with mixed photons + neutrons. The rest treated with photons alone.
      • Post-op: 2 of 3 alive w/o progressive disease at 44 and 52 months. Dose range 4500-6000 cGy.
      • RT+chemo w/o surgery: 2 of 3 alive w/o progressive disease at 15 and 29 months. Dose range 4000-6400 cGy.
      • RT for recurrence: 2 of 3 alive w/o progressive disease at 19 and 77 months. Dose range 6200-7000 cGy.
    • 11 of 20 (55%) show no evidence of progressive local disease at median 30 months. Two additional patients surgically salvaged after RT failure; overall survival rate 65% (13/20).
    • Severe complications in 5 pts: 3 foot drop, 1 subcutaneous fibrosis, 1 eye enucleation.
  • Princess Margaret; 1980 (1958-76) PMID 7379008 -- "Radiotherapy of chondrosarcoma of bone." (Harwood AR, Cancer. 1980 Jun 1;45(11):2769-77.)
    • Retrospective. 31 pts (20 pts - definitive RT, 11 pts - palliative).
    • Conclusion: "Our experience shows quite clearly that chondrosarcoma of bone can no longer be classified as a radioresistant tumor."

Proton Beam Radiotherapy[edit]

  • Orsay; 2008 (France)(1996-2006) PMID 18440726 -- "Proton therapy in pediatric skull base and cervical canal low-grade bone malignancies." (Habrand JL, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Jul 1;71(3):672-5. Epub 2008 Apr 25.)
    • Retrospective. 30 children with chordoma (n=26), chondrosarcoma (n=3), and chondroma (n=1). Location in skull base (n=13), skull base with extension to cervical canal (n=12), or cervical canal (n=1). Median age 13.5 years. Surgery followed by photon/proton therapy. Mean total dose 68.4 CGE (54.6-71); mean photon dose 37.4 Gy (30.6-45), mean proton dose 32.1 CGE (20-70.2). F/U 2.2 years
    • Outcome: Local control chordoma 21/26 (81%), chondrosarcoma 3/3 (100%), chondroma 1/1 (100%). 5-year PFS chordoma 77%, chondrosarcoma 100%
    • Toxicity: Grade 3 auditory toxicty 1 patient, Grade 2 pituitary failure 7 patients
    • Conclusion: Well tolerated, excellent local control
  • MGH, 1999 - PMID 10555005 -- "Chondrosarcoma of the base of the skull: a clinicopathologic study of 200 cases with emphasis on its distinction from chordoma." Rosenberg AE et al. Am J Surg Pathol 1999 Nov;23(11):1370-8.
    • 200 pts w/ chondrosarcoma tx'd w/ proton/photon radiation as a portion of tx regimen. Pts received 64.2-79.6 CGE (median 72 CGE).
    • 5 yr local control 99%, 10 yr local control 98%.
    • 5 and 10 yr dz specific survival rate both 99%.
    • Conclusion: excellent prognosis w/ aggressive management in contrast to chordoma which has substantially worse prognosis.
  • Loma Linda, 1999 (1992-98) - PMID 10470818 -- "Proton radiation therapy for chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the skull base." Hug EB et al. J Neurosurg. 1999 Sep;91(3):432-9.
    • 25 chondrosarcomas (and 33 chordoma) pts tx'd w/ proton beam irradiation after maximal surgery. Dose range of 64.8-79.2 CGE.
    • 5yr OS for chondrosarcoma was 100%. 5yr local control for chondrosarcoma was 92%.
    • Control rates were influenced by brainstem involvement and tumor volume.
    • Chondrosarcoma with better outcomes than chordoma.
  • Netherlands, 1998 - PMID 9667567 -- "Intracranial chondrosarcoma: review of the literature and report of 15 cases." Korten AG et al. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998 Jul;65(1):88-92.
    • Reviewed all cases of intracranial chondrosarcoma in the Netherlands and available data in the literature.
    • Found surgery alone to have a 53% local recurrence rate w/ average time to recurrence of 32 months.
    • Adjuvant charged particle irradiation had local control of 78-91% at 5 yrs, and 5 yr OS of 83-94%.