Practical Electronics/Basic Theory

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Matter[edit]

Matter refers to any physical quantity that can be measured and has its own physical and chemical properties.

Physical Properties[edit]

All matter exists in one of three states, called the classical States. They are: solid such as an ice cube, liquid such as water and gas such as water vapour.

All matter has mass, volume and density. Density is equal to the ratio of mass over volume.

D = \frac{M}{V}

where

M, Mass measured in Kilogram kg
V, Volume measured in Kilogram m3
D, Density measured in Kilogram kg/m3

Chemical Properties[edit]

All matters are made up of one or more chemical Elements.

Each chemical element is made up of atoms. An atom is the smallest part that makes up an element.

As of 10 April 2010, there 118 confirmed chemical elements known to man, organised in what is known as the periodic table, which lists each elements chemical symbol, atomic number and atomic mass.

m
E
z

Where

m, Mass
E, Element
z, Atomic number

Sub Atomic Electric Charged Particles[edit]

Further study of matter has shown that atoms are made up of sub-atomic particles that carry electric charge. There are three kinds of charged particles, as far we're concerned here.

  • Electron
Electrons carry negative charge has a symbol e- and a mass of
  • Proton
Proton carries positive charge has a symbol p+ and a mass of
  • Neutron
Neutron carries no charge has a symbol n0 and a mass of

Rutherford's Model[edit]

In 1911, Rutherford propose a model of matter from charged particles Electron , Proton, Neutron. According to Ruther Ford's model,

  1. All matter has a Mass M a Volume V and a Density equals to the ratio of Mass over Volume exist in one three states Solid like Ice cube, Liquid like Water , Gas like Water vapor
  2. All matter made up from Charged Particles the smallest indivisible part still has matter's characteristics
  3. All matter has a Nucleus made of Proton and Neutron in the center and Electron's orbits circulating around the Nucleus
  4. Number of electrons in the orbits must be equal to number of protons in the nucleus . Atomic number in the Periodic Table indicates number of Protons in the neucleus or the number of electrons in orbits.
  5. Only Electron in the outermost orbit can participate in reaction

Bohr's Model[edit]

In 1913, Bohr proposed that

  1. Each electron's orbit has a quanta of energy correspond to an Energy Level Number n .
  2. There are 4 Energy Level Number n = 1 ..4 . n = 4 has the highest energy level . n = 1 has the lowest energy level
  3. When electron moves from High Energy Level to Low Energy Level Electron will emits Electromagnetic Light Wave
  4. En-1 - En = hf

Electrostatic Charge[edit]

Electrostatic refers to the process of matter becomes Electric Charge

Electric Charge[edit]

Normally all matter are neutral or have net Charge equal to zero . When an object lose or gain electron . Object becomes Positive Charge or Negative Charge .

Matter + e --> -
Matter - e --> +

All Charges pocess a Quantity of Electric Charge called Electric Charge denoted as Q measured in Couloum (C) an Electric Field made of Electric Field Lines radiate outward or inward . For Negatively Charge, the Electric Field Lines radiates inward . For Positively Charge, the Electric Field Lines radiates outward. Electric Field is denoted as E measured in N/C .

Negative Charge , -Q . ---> Negative Charge <--- .
Positive Charge , +Q . <--- Positive Charge --->

Charges interact with each other according to Coulomb's Law

Like Charges repulse . Unlike Charges attract , Negative Charge attract Positive Charge

Electricity[edit]

The interaction of charges cause a force of repulsion or attraction between charges. this force of repulsion or attraction cause Electricity

ElectroStatic Force[edit]

ElectroStatic Force or Coulomb Force is the force of attraction between two unlike Charges . For 2 static point charges of different polarities lying in a straight line on a plane . The force of attraction of the two point charge can be calculated by Coulomb's Law

F = k \frac{Q_+ Q_-}{r^2}
F , Electric Force of Attraction
k , Constant of Attraction
r , Distance of separation

ElectroDynamic Force[edit]

electroDynamic force produced by potential

Charge & Electric Force[edit]

If there is a Electric Force that sets stationary charge in straight motion to cause a flow of charge called Current then the Electric Field can be calculated by Ampere's Law

F = E Q
E = \frac{F}{Q}
I = \frac{Q}{t}

Charge & Magnetic Force[edit]

If there is a Magnetic Force that can change the direction of the moving charge perpendicular to the initial direction of moving charge, such that Positive charge will moved up perpendicular to the initial direction and Negative Charge will move down perpendicular to the initial direction, then Magnetic Field can be calculated by Lorentz's Law

F = B v Q
B = \frac{F}{v Q}

ElectroMagnetic Force[edit]

The total force acting on the moving charge is the sum of the Electric Force calculated by Ampere's Law plus the Magnetic Force calculated by Lorentz's Law. The sum of Ampere's Force and Lorentz's force is called ElectroMagnetic Force

F = E Q + B v Q = Q ( E + v B )

Matter and Electricity[edit]

Matter that interact with Electricity is divided into three groups Conductor,Non Conductor,Semi Conductor depends on the ease of how current flow in the matter

All matter that allows current to flow with ease are called Conductor. For example all Metals like Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) are used to make Conductor
All matter that does not allow current to flow in it are called Non Conductor . For example Rubber
All matter that allows current to flow somewhere between conductor and non conductor are called Semi Conductor . For example Silicon (Si), Gemanium (Ge)

Conductor and Electricity[edit]

When connect conductor with source of Electricity in a closed loop circuit . The Force of Electricity will exert a pressure to make conductor's charges to move in a straight line . The pressure of the Electricity Force is called Voltage denoted as V measured in Volt (v) . The straight line movemoment of charges in the conductor is called Current denoted as I measured in Amp (A)

Voltage[edit]

Voltage is defined as The pressure of the Electricity Force to make charges in the conductor to move in straight line and calculated by the ratio of Work Done on an Electric Charge . Voltage is denoted as V measured in Volt v .

V = \frac{W}{Q}
1v = 1J / 1C

Current[edit]

Current is defined as number of eletric charges flow through an area of conductor in a period of Time . Current is calculated by the ratio of Electric Charge on Time . Current is denoted as I measured in Ampere A

I = \frac{Q}{t}
1A = 1C / 1s

Power[edit]

Power is defined as Energy of a Work over Time. Power is calculated by the product of Voltage and Current . Power is denoted as P measured in watt or Volt Amp VA

P = V I = \frac{W}{Q} \frac{Q}{t} = \frac{W}{t} = E , vA or J/sec or watt
1 watt = 1v x 1A

Resistance[edit]

Resistance is defined as the ratio of Voltage over Current . Resistance is denoted as R measured in Ohm

R = \frac{V}{I}
1 = 1V / 1A

Resistance & Temperature[edit]

It's been observed that Resistance of a conductor changes with change in Temperature

R = Ro + nT For Conductor
R = Ro enT For Semi Conductor

Resistance & Electric Power Loss[edit]

Also, When conductor of resistance R conducts current . Conductor releases Heat Energy into the surrounding result in loss of Electric Power Energy directly proportional to the resistance of the conductor

P_R = I^2 R = \frac{V^2}{R}

Without Energy loss the Power supplied is Pi

P_i = VI

With energy loss PR known as Power Loss or Dissipated Power

P_R = V_R I_R = I^2 R = \frac{V^2}{R}

The real Power supplied would be

P_o = P - P_R
P_o = VI - I^2 R = I (V - IR)
P_o = VI - \frac{V^2}{R} = V (I - \frac{V}{R})


The efficiecy of Power transmission can be calculated as the percentage of Real Power over the Supplied Power

n = \frac{P_o}{P_i}
n = \frac{P_i Cos \Theta}{P_i} = Cos \Theta
n = \frac{V - IR}{V}
n = \frac{I - \frac{V}{R}}{I}

Conductance[edit]

Conductance is defined as the ratio of Current over Voltage . Conductance is denoted as Y measured in Siemen 1 / Ω

Y = \frac{I}{V}
1S = 1A / 1V