Miskito/Lexicon

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Miskitu Aisas!

Miskito Language Course

Syllabus Bandera regne Miskito.png Planned lexicon
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Explanation[edit]

The table below is an initial lexical "source inventory". It represents a preliminary inventory of possible candidates for inclusion in the eventual lexicon (vocabulary) of the course. It is the not necessarily the case that a given item will end up in the course: that will be decided on an item-by-item basis as the development of the course unfolds. Thus, in the process of developing the lessons the present inventory serves as a checklist.

The present list was produced in a rather primitive manner through intuitive judgments about likelihood of each word's usefulness or importance. That is why it only represents a preliminary inventory! The procedure followed was to go through a Miskito-Spanish dictionary selecting some entries and copying these into a Word file. In the next step, the words selected were copied manually into a second file containing a four-column table (as below): the first three columns (Miskito, Spanish, part of speech) were taken from the source dictionary entries, and the fourth column (semantic field) was added.

Using Microsoft Word's sorting functions, from this tabulation we can mechanically generate four tables, ordered alphabetically by each of the four columns, giving us a Miskito-Spanish list, a Spanish-Miskito list, a list ordered by parts of speech and a thematic (semantic) list. Once these lists have been produced they may be used to review the resulting inventory checking for possible "defects". For example: using the thematic list we couild see what items have been entered for the semantic category "animals" and see whether this set of items looks like a sensible, balanced selection, whether any obvious items have been overlooked, whether any item has been accidentally placed in the wrong category, etc. etc. Referring back to the source dictionary, we can then attempt to correct and improve the inventory.

The reason why this table lists Spanish rather than English glosses is simply that it was decided to copy the glosses fairly mechanically from the source dictionary at this point. Translating the glosses might possibly have introduced a margin of error or confusion because of different possible translations and the possibility of misunderstandings. Authors using this list will therefore need some knowledge of Spanish to use this resource (sorry about that).

Warning: There may still be mistakes or inappropriate choices in this list, which is only intended as a rough checklist and working aid. Therefore the information shown here should never be taken on trust when developing the lessons, but rechecked against fuller sources (especially the source dictionary).

Lexicon[edit]

Miskito Spanish Part of speech Semantic category
ahkia cuándo av/in time
ahkia hasta cj time
aibapaia pagar v commerce
aibuskaia mojarse v/rx
aihni pronto av time
aihtabaia bañarse v hygiene
aihwa mucho q
aiklabaia pelear v/rx social relations
aikuki juntamente av
ailal mucho q
aingwa bastante q
aingwa bueno, sano aj
aingwa completo, perfecto aj
aisa padre n-ka
aisaia hablar v language
aisi kaikaia leer vc language
aisubaia nacer, parir v body functions
aisubi sakaia dar a luz vc body functions
aitnikaia acostarse v actions
aiwanaia cantar v language
aiwawanra cantante n-ka
alahbaia bajar (tr.) v actions
alahwaia bajarse v actions
alkaia agarrar v actions
amaia quemarse, encenderse v
aman quemado pl
an cuántos q/in
angkaia quemar v
ani cuál d/in
anira dónde av space
anti tía materna n-ka kinship
apaia faltar v
apia no pt
apia kaka o cj
apu sin pp
aras caballo n-ka animals
atkaia comprar v commerce
atki sakaia conseguir v
au si cj
auhni sabroso aj food
auyamakira inteligente aj personal traits
awala río n-ka environment
aya maíz n-ka vegetation
bahamna entonces av time
bahamuna semejante, parecido aj
bahki inútilmente av
baikaia partir, reventar v
baila cerca av space
baila cercano aj space
baila lado n-ka
baku como pp?
baku bara entonces cj
bal luwaia pasar vc actions
balaia venir v actions
baman sólo, solamente av
bamna por eso cj
bamna porque cj
ban así av
ban todavía av
ban kra quizás av
bangbang conejo n-ka animals
banghkaia llenar v
banghwaia llenarse v
bani cada q
bara porque cj
bara y cj
batil botella n-ka
bik saco n-ka
bikaia enterrar, sepultar v
bila boca ni body
bila palabra, idioma ni language
bilara dentro pp space
blablasa sucio aj
blahwaia reñir v
blikaia enviar v
briaia tener v
brid pan n-ka food
brihbalaia traer v actions
brihwaia llevar v actions
bui pt
bukaia levantar v actions
bukra allá av space
buskaia mojar v
buswaia mojar v
butku paloma n-ka animals
buwaia levantarse v actions
dahra relato, informe, chisme ni language
daiwan animal nirr animals
dama anciano, abuelo n-ka kinship
dama viejo aj personal traits
danh completamente av
dans baile n
dans pulaia bailar vc actions
daukaia hacer v
dia qué pn/in
diaia beber v body functions
diara cosa n
dikaia limpiar v hygiene
dikia parentesco ni kinship
dikia parte ni
dikwa olla, cazuela n-ka cooking
dimwaia meterse v
dingkaia meter v actions
dis sólo, solamente av
dor/dur puerta n-ka house
dukia bienes ni
dukiara por pp
duri bote n-ka transport
dus árbol n-a vegetation
hilp munaia ayudar vc social relations
ikaia matar v social relations
ilingkaia abrir v actions
ilingwaia abrirse v
imhplikaia robar v social relations
inaia llorar v body functions
inma hierba n-ka vegetation
iwaia sentarse v actions
iwaika silla, asiento n house
kabu mar n-ka environment
kahbaia colocar v actions
kahmi huacal n-ka cooking
kahmuntra tecomate n-ka cooking
kaia ser, estar v
kaikaia ver v actions
kaina antes av time
kaisa vamos ij
kaka si cj
kakau cacao n-ka food
kakma nariz ni body
kakna día n time
kalila gallina n-ka animals
kalkaia romper v actions
kalwaia romperse v
kan porque cj
kan kutbaia cubrir v
kangbaia tocar v work
kanra antes de pp time
karnika fuerza, poder ni personal traits
kat hasta pp
kati luna n-ka environment
kati mes n-ka time
kau más av
kau todavía av time
kauhaia caer v actions
kauhla frío aj
ki pt/in
kikaia reír v actions
kikal hermana n-ka kinship
kipla roca, peña n-ka environment
kla río arriba av space
klahka brazo ni body
klakaia cortar v actions
klâkaia doler v body functions
kli nuevamente av time
kli-kli repetidamente av time
klunghka estómago ni body
kmisri escorpión n-ka animals
kra quizás av
krauhni seco, solo, vacío aj
krawaia acordarse v thought
krikaia quebrar v actions
krikri cama n-ka house
kriwaia quebrarse v
kuka abuela n-ka kinship
kulkaia contar v language
kulmara junto con pp
kuma chile n-ka food
kuna pero cj
kunhku corto aj dimensions
kupia corazón ni body
kupia kraukaia despertar (tr.) vc
kupia krawaia despertarse vc body functions
kupiara en el centro pp space
kuswa tortuga de agua dulce n-ka animals
kwahkaia transportar v work
kwâkaia abrir v actions
kwawaia abrirse v
kyama oreja ni body
la ley n-ka society
lahbaia bajar (tr.) v actions
lahwaia bajar (intr.) v actions
laih lejos av space
laikaia verter v actions
laka costumbre n society
lakaia convertir, traducir v language
laki yabaia devolver vc social relations
lakra hermana/o de sexo opuesto ni kinship
lal cabeza ni body
lalah dinero n-ka commerce
lamara cerca pp space
lan daukaia enseñar vc thought
lan takaia aprender vc thought
langhkaia soltar v actions
langhwaia soltarse v
lapta caliente aj
laptika calor ni body functions
latara afuera av space
latwan dolor n-ka body functions
latwan kaikaia amar vc social relations
latwan wahwaya sufrir vc body functions
lawaia enojarse v social relations
lâwaia secarse v
lâwan seco pl
lawi daukaia regañar vc social relations
li agua nirr environment
li ahwaia llover vc weather
lih tortuga verde (marina) n-ka animals
lihkaia gustar v thought
lika pt
lila amante n-ka social relations
lila centro ni space
lilara en medio de pp space
lingbaia tocar (hacer sonar) v
lingwaia sonar v
liwa gusano nirr animals
luha falto, careciendo av?
luhpia pequeño, poquito aj
lukaia pensar v thought
lukwaia hervir (intr.) v
lus takaia perder n
luwaia cruzar (intr.) v
ma fruta ni food
ma semilla, grano ni vegetation
ma mangkaia sembrar vc vegetation
mahbra huevo, testículo ni food
mahka ya, inmediatamente av time
maia spouse ni social relations
maira casado/a aj social relations
maira pareja n social relations
mairin mujer n-ka people
makabaia pedir v language
makabi walaia preguntar vc language
makaia construir v work
man sólo, solamente av
mana caro aj commerce
mana pago, sueldo ni commerce
mangkaia poner v actions
mangu mango n-ka food
mani verano n-ka time
manis mucho q
mapara contra, hacia, al encuentro de pp space
marikaia enseñar, mostrar v thought
marit casado/a aj social relations
marit esposo n-ka social relations
marit takaia casarse vc social relations
markit mercado n-ka commerce
mata por pp
maura poco q
mawan cara ni body
maya río abajo, hacia el mar av space
mayara abajo av space
mihta mano ni body
mika pt
mina pie ni body
miskaia pescar v work
Miskitu Miskito n-ka people
mula nieto ni kinship
munaia hacer v
munhtara debajo pp space
musa cuerpo ni body
na este d
nahara aquí av space
nahki cómo av/in
nahwala ayer av time
naika más tarde av time
naiwa hoy av time
nakra ojo ni body
naku así av
nan así, un poquito av
nana cuello ni body
napa diente ni body
nara porque, ya que cj
naura ahí av space
ni pt
ni de, con cj
nika pt
nina nombre ni people
nina makaia nombrar vc
ninara en nombre, en ausencia, detrás pp
ninkara después pp/cj time
nu takaia saber vc thought
pain kaikaia apreciar vc thought
palaia volar v actions
pali muy, mucho av
pan siquiera, al menos, aunque av
pana a cambio av/pp commerce
papu hormiga n-ka animals
pasin como pp
pat rápidamente av time
pata (see plun)
paun libra n dimensions
piaia comer v body functions
piakaia cocer v cooking
piawaia cocerse v cooking
pihni blanco aj colours
pihwaia secarse v
pihwan seco pl
platu plátano n-ka food
plikaia buscar v
pliki sakaia escoger, encontrar vc
plis lugar n-ka space
plun comida nirr food
prahni corto aj dimensions
prais precio n-ka commerce
prakaia cerrar v actions
priskaia atar v work
prukaia pegar v actions
pruwaia morir v body functions
puk todo q
pulaia jugar v social relations
purara arriba, encima av space
pus gato n-ka animals
pyu tiempo, fecha, vez n-a time
pyuara cuando cj time
pyuta culebra n-ka animals
rakaia curar v body functions
rapia tío paterno n-ka kinship
raya nuevo aj
ridi listo, preparado aj
rum cuarto n-ka house
sabi inmediatamente av time
saiwaia anochecer v time
saiwan anochecer n time
sakaia sacar v actions
sakuna pero cj
sandi domingo n time
sap en silencio, secretamente av
sap/shap tienda n commerce
sat clase n-ka
saura malo aj
si miedo n-a thought
si briaia tener miedo vc thought
sikbaia lavar v hygiene
sikia aguacate n-ka food
siknis enfermo aj body functions
siksa negro aj colours
silmika hamaca ni house
silp por uno mismo av
sim mismo aj
sin también cj
sip capaz aj
sipaia coser v work
sirpi pequeño aj dimensions
slilman estrella n-ka environment
srakia bisabuelo, antepasado ni kinship
sukra maduro, podrido aj
sula venado nirr animals
sunaia subir v actions
sus zapato n-ka
susu desnudo aj body
sut todo q
swapaia cansarse v body functions
swapan cansado pl body functions
swapkaia cansar v
swiaia dejar v
ta punta n-ka
ta baikaia apoyar, sostener vc
ta briaia guiar vc
ta krikaia comenzar vc actions
tahbaia bañar v hygiene
tahkia compañero ni social relations
tahti tío materno n-ka kinship
taihka tía paterna n-ka kinship
taim cuando cj time
taim tiempo n-ka time
takaia salir v actions
takaskaia prohibir, detener v
takaskaia quedarse v actions
taki waia irse, retirarse v actions
tala sangre n-ya body
talia parecido ni
tangni flor n-ka vegetation
tani al lado de pp space
tanis tonto aj personal traits
tanta delgado aj dimensions
tara grande aj dimensions
tasba tierra, suelo n-ya environment
taski sucio aj hygiene
taukaia andar v actions
taura primero av time
tawa pelo ni body
tawaia regresar, convertirse v actions
tawan a causa de pp
tawan village N-ka environment
taya piel ni body
ti n-ka food
tibang conejo n-ka animals
tibil mesa n-ka house
tihmia noche n-ka time
tihmu oscuro aj
tihu profundo aj
tikaia perder v
tila algunos, varios q
tilara entre, en medio de pp space
tingki gracias, gratitud ij
tisku luego, pronto av time
titan mañana n-ka time
tiwaia perderse v
tnata ano, fin n time
tnatamana por causa de pp
trai kaikaia intentar vc actions
trai munaia intentar vc actions
tuktan niño n-ka people
tumatis tomate n-ka food
tuskaia lavar v hygiene
tutni tarde n-ka time
twas papaya n-ka food
twi zacate n-ka environment
twilkaia cargar v work
twisa lengua ni body
tyara jóven aj people
tyara jóven n-ka people
ulbaia escribir v language
umpara cerca av space
umpira pobre aj people
un labio, orilla, borde n-a body
upla hombre, persona n-ka people
utla casa nirr house
uya mucho q
uya muy
wahbaia recoger v actions
wahma jóven (varón) n ? people
wahya hoja, página n-ka vegetation
waia ir, irse v actions
waitna hombre, varón n-ka people
wal con pp
wal dos q
wala otro d
walaia oír v actions
walhwal cuatro q
wali daukaia obedecer vc social relations
walpa piedra n-ya environment
want kaia querer, desear vc thought
wapaia caminar v actions
wark trabajo n-ka work
wark takaia trabajar vc work
wataukaia pasearse v
wiaia decir v language
wihka lejos av space
wik semana n-ka time
wil pues, a menos que cj
wilkaia amarrar v work
win takaia ganar vc commerce
wina carne n-ka food
wina desde pp space
winaia llamar v language
windar ventana n-ka house
wiria poco q / av
wisi para cj
ya quién pn / in
yabaia dar v social relations
yabal camino n-ka environment
yakan sólo, solamente av
yakwra alto aj personal traits
yamni bueno aj
yapti madre n-ka kinship
yauhka tomorrow av time
yu día n-a time
yul perro n-a animals

Abbreviations (parts of speech)[edit]

aj adjecive
av adverb
cj conjunction
d determiner
ij interjection
in interrogative
n noun (invariable)
n-ka noun (ligature -ka)
ni inalienable noun
nirr irregular noun
pl participle
pn pronoun
pp postposition
pt particle
q quantifier
rx reflexive
v verb
vc compound verb