Manchu/Lesson 7 - Verbs 2

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Text[edit]

ajige xanyan gvlmahvn jai ajige yacin gvlmahvn

ajige xanyan gvlmahvn jai ajige yacin gvlmahvn sakda niman i boode efime genehe. sakda niman beyei tariha lafu sogi be tesede doro buhe. ajige yacin gvlmahvn lafu sogi be gaifi, hendume:"yeyede baniha!" sehe. ajige xanyan gvlmahvn lafu sogi be gaihakv bairengge: "yeye, minde majige sogi use bucina!" sehe. sakda niman ajige xanyan gvlmahvn de emu xoforo sogi use be doro buhe. ajige xanyan gvlmahvn boode bedereme jihe manggi, yafan be ubaliyalame sulafi, sogi use be tariha. udu inenggi duleme, sogi use cinggiyanafi lafu sogi arsuname tucike. tere kiceme faxxame sogi de muke hungkereme, hukun dolome, orho be geterebume, umiyaha be wame bumbi. lafu sogi tataha adali hvdun hvwaxame amba oho.


ajige yacin gvlmahvn sakda niman i doro buhe lafu sogi boode juweme gaiha. tere inenggidari weileme ararkv hefeli urenehe erinde uthai sakda niman i buhe lafu sogi be jembi. lafu sogi emu inenggi deri emu inenggi komso oho, utala inenggi duleke manggi lafu sogi be jeme wajiha. ajige yacin gvlmahvn ningge jetere jaka akv ofi, geli sakda niman i boode sogi baime genehe. jugvn de ajige xanyan gvlmahvn emu damjan lafu sogi be meiherefi, sakda niman i booi baru genere be sabuha. ajige yacin gvlmahvn ambula gvwacihiyalafi, fonjime hendume: "ajige xanyan gvlmahvn, sini ere sogi be aibideri gaihangge?" ajige xanyan gvlmahvn jabume: "mini beyei tarihangge, damu beye tarihade teni ele mila sogi bici ombi" sehe.

Translation[edit]

The small white rabbit and the small black rabbit

A small white rabbit and a small black rabbit went to an old mountain goat's house to play. The old mountain goat gave some of the bok choi he had grown to them. The small black rabbit took the bok choi and said: "thank you grandfather". The small white rabit did not take the bok choi and pleaded (to the old mountain goat):"please grandfather, can you give me some bok choi seeds!". The old mountain goat gave him some seeds. After the little white rabbit returned home, he ploughed the soil in the garden and planted the seeds. After several days had passed the seeds sprouted small bok choi stalks. The small white rabbit dilligently watered the plants, fertilised the plants, removed any weeds and killed any insects. The bok choi grew quickly as if it had been pulled up.


The small black rabbit took the bok choi the old mountain goat gave him home. Each day he did not work, and when he was hungry he would take some of the bok choi the old mountain goat had given him and eat it. The bok choi became less and less each day, and after a few days it was all eaten. As the small black rabit had nothing to eat, he then went to the old mountain goat's house to ask for more vegetables. On the road there he (the small black rabbit) saw the small white rabbit walking towards the old mountain goat's house carrying a carrying pole of bok choi. The small black rabbit thought this was very strange and asked: "small white rabbit, where did you get these vegetables from?" The small white rabbit answered: "I grew them myself, only if you grow vegetables yourself will you have more than enough vegetables".

Vocab[edit]

............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................
Manchu Vocabulary English Translation Manchu Vocabulary English Translation
adali The same aibideri From where
ambula Very arambi To do
arsunambi To go and sprout (see also arsumbi - to sprout) baimbi To look for, to ask for
bairengge Asking. asked baru Towards
bederembi To return bedereme Co-ordinate form of bederembi
bedereme jihe To come back beye Body
bucina Please give, To give (opatative) cinggiya Thin
damjan Carrying pole deri From
dolombi To pour doro Politeness
doro bumbi To give (a gift) duleke To pass (past tense)
dulembi To pass, to go through, by means of efimbi To play
efime Co-ordinate form of efimbi efime genehe To go and play
ele More.. More… erin Time, hour
erinde At this time faxxambi To use effort
fonjimbi To ask gaiha To take (past tense)
gaihakv To not take gaimbi To take, to ask for
geli Again genehe To have gone (p/tense of genembi)
geterebumbi To clear, to eliminate gvlmahvn Rabbit
gvwacihiyalambi To be surprised hefeli Stomach
hukun Fertiliser hungkerembi To water
hvdun Fast hvwaxambi To grow
jabumbi To respond jaka Thing, item
jembi To eat jetere Something to eat
juwembi To transport, to take kicembi To be industrious
komso A few lafu sogi Bok Choi
majige Some manggi After
meiherembi To carry on one's shoulders mila Wide open
niman Mountain goat ningge The one that, 的, 者 (verbal suffix)
sabuha To see (past tense) sakda Old
sehe To have said (past tense of sembi - to say) sogi Vegetables
sogi use Vegetable seeds sulambi To leave to the next generation, to be left over
tariha To have grown (past tense tarimbi-to grow) tarihangge The …. That were planted (我种的)
tataha To pull (past tense) teni And then
tese They tesede To them
tucike To come out (past tense) tucimbi To go out
ubaliyalambi To turn over, to plough udu A few
umiyaha Insect urenehe To be cooked, ripe (past tense, directional voice)
use Seeds utala Many
uthai Then wajimbi To finish
wambi To kill weilembi To work
weileme ararkv To not work xanyan White
xoforo A bit, a pinch yacin Black
yafan Garden yeye Grandfather (polite term of address)

Grammar[edit]

Verbs (part 2)[edit]

Voice (态) in Manchu verbs[edit]

Manchu verbs have seven different voices (态). The first voice is the subjective voice, which is the normal verb form. All other voices are formed by adding a suffix between the stem of the verb and the final ‘-mbi’. This forms a new verb. For example: taci-mbi (to study), taci-bu-mbi (to teach). Tacibumbi is the active form of the verb tacimbi and therefore has a completely different meaning. Note: suffixes for tense and mood can be added to the end of the new form of the verb as the suffixes for voice are part of the verb stem. E.g. tacibuha (I taught), tacibura (I will teach) etc.

The seven voices (note the two directional voices count as one voice) are:

1) 主动 Subjective

This is the normal voice of the verb and does not take any suffix. E.g.

  • tacimbi - To study

2) 使动 Active (-bu-, -(m)bu-)

This voice shows that you are doing the action to something or someone. You would usually use the case marker ‘be’ to show what you are doing the action to. E.g.

  • bi simbe manju gisun tacibuha - I taught you Manchu
  • bi imbe genebuhe - I let him go

3) 被动 Passive (-bu-, -(m)bu-)

This voice shows that the action is being done to you. You would usually use the case marker ‘de’ to indicate the direction of the action. E.g.

  • bi tere de tantabuha - I was bashed up by him

4) 方向去 Dir (to) (-na-, -ne-, -no-)

This voice shows the direction of an action and is similar to English ‘to go’. E.g.

  • bithe hvlanambi - To go and read
  • si bithe udanaci - If you go and buy books

5) 方向来 Dir (fr) (-ji-, -(n)ji-)

This voice shows the direction of an action and is similar to English ‘to come’.E.g.

  • bithe hvlajimbi - To come and read
  • Xiao Wang ya erinde isinjimbi? - When does xiao Wang arrive?

6) 齐动 Cooperative (-ca-, -ce-, -co-)

This voice indicates that an action is being done by a group. It is similar to the English word ‘together’. E.g.

  • tese tacikv de eficembi - They are playing together at school
  • eten i forgon de urgulecehe - Together we celebrate in victory

7) 互动 Reciprocal (-nu-, -ndu-)

This voice is used to indicate reciprocal action. It is similar to the English word ‘each other’. E.g.

  • nadan gurun adandume nakarakv - The seven kingdoms fought each other without end
  • niyalmasa ishunde aisilandumbi - The people help eachother out

8) 连续 Continuous (-da-,-de-;-ta-,-te-;-xa-,-xe-,-xo-; -ca-,-ce-,-co-; -ja-,-je-, -jo-)

This voice is used to indicate the continuous nature of an action and is like English ‘always’, or ‘often’

  • bi simbe aisilatambi - I often/always help you

Forms (式) of the Manchu verb[edit]

The Manchu verb has 6 basic forms:


1) Affirmative

This is the normal form of the verb. E.g.

  • bi te manju gisun be tacime ilihabi - I am currently studying Manchu
  • boode mini ama bi - My father is at home
  • bi abalara de indahvn gamambi - I take dogs when I go hunting


2) Negative

This form is the negative form of the verb. Manchu unlike English forms the negative form of a verb by adding suffixes to the verb stem. The two negative forms of Manchu verbs are:

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Present negative -rakv ararakv Don’t write
Past negative -hakv  (-hekv, -hokv) arahakv  Didn’t write
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................

Some further examples of the negative form are:

  • bi harbin de genehekv - I did not go to Harbin
  • bi manju gisun be gisurerakv - I don't speak Manchu


3) Interrogative

This is the question form of the verb. The interrogative form has both a positive and a negative form. The negative form is then further divided into a present and past negative interrogative form. The negative interrogative from is basically formed by adding -n to the end of the negative form of the verb (see table):

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Interrogative -o ararao? Are you writing?
Negative Interrogative (present) -rakvn ararakvn Are you not writing?
Negative Interrogative (past) -hakvn(-hekvn, -hokvn) arahakvn? Did you not write?
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................

Some further examples of the interrogative form are:

  • si abalara de indahvn gamambio? - Do you take dogs when you go hunting?
  • si xiao wang be tuwarakvn? - Do you not see Xiao Wang?
  • si harbin de genehekvn? - Haven't you been to Harbin?


4) Imperative

The imperative form is the form of the verb that is used when you want to tell somebody to do (or not do) something. In Manchu there is a polite imperative form, a negative imperative form and a normal imperative form (see table):

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Imperative ara  Write!
Imperative (negative) ume ……. -ra (-re, -ro)  ume arara Don’t write
Imperative (pol 1) -rao  (-reo, -roo) ararao  Write please
Imperative (pol 1) -ki buki Please give
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................

Some further examples of the imperative form are:

  • tuwa (look!)
  • inde ume tuwara - Don't look at him
  • si gala be oburoo - Wash your hands please
  • minde tere bithe be buki - Can you please give me that book


5) Optative

The optative form is where you want another person to do something. There are three different optative forms in Manchu (see table):

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Optative 1  -kini  arakini  May he write
Optative 2 -cina  aracina  I hope you will write
Optative 3 -kini sembi marakini sembi I want you to return
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................

Some further examples of the optative form are:

  • si ere buda be jacina - I hope you will eat this food
  • bi simbe harbin hoton de genekini sembi - I want you to go to Harbin


6) Desiderative

The desiderative form is where you want to do something. It corresponds to English I want to, or I will. Note the -ki form of the desiderative can also be used as a polite imperative. There are two different desiderative forms in Manchu (see table):

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................
Desiderative 1 -ki araki I will write
Desiderative 2 -ki sembi taciki sembi I want to study
......................................... ......................................... ......................................... .........................................

Some further examples of the desiderative form are:

  • bi sinde majige okto buki - I will give you some medicine
  • bi amgaki sembi - I want to sleep



Lesson 6 (Verbs 1) ---- Contents ---- Lesson 8 (Verbs 3)

References[edit]

  • The text for this lesson was taken from: 庄吉发. <<满语故事译粹>>, 文史哲出版社.