Hoppers

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Hoppers

Hoppers
Cicadella viridis web.jpg
Type: Insect
Family: Cicadellidae
Order: Hemiptera
Metamorphosis: Simple
Damaging stages: Nymphs and adults
Diseases vectored: Some species serve as vectors
Red-banded leafhopper Graphocephala coccinea

Leafhopper is a common name applied to any species from the family Cicadellidae. Leafhoppers, also known as hoppers, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Cicadelloidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera. Recent classification within the Hemiptera has changed the old term 'Homoptera' into two new suborders: Sternorryncha (aphids, whiteflies, scales, psyllids...) and Auchenorryncha (cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers...) with the suborder: Heteroptera containing a large group of insects known as the 'true-bugs', (gnat bugs, pond skaters, shore bugs, toad bugs, water boatmen, backswimmers, etc...)

Leafhoppers are found all over the world, and it is the second largest family in the Hemiptera; there are at least 20,000 described species. Leafhoppers have piercing sucking mouthparts, they feed on plant sap and can transmit plant-infecting viruses and bacteria. Species that are significant agricultural pests include the potato leafhopper, beet leafhopper, white apple leafhopper, two-spotted leafhopper, and glassy-winged sharpshooter. A Leafhoppers' diet commonly consists of plant sap from a wide and diverse range of plants. Leafhoppers mainly consume vegetation but have been known to indulge in small insects.

Description[edit]

The Cicadellidae combine the following features:

  • thickened part of the antennae very short and ending with a bristle (arista)
  • two simple eyes (ocelli) present on the top or front of the head
  • 3 segments on the tarsi
  • front femora with at most weak spines
  • hind tibia with one or more distinct keels, with a row of movable spines on each, sometimes on enlarged bases
  • base of middle legs close together where they originate under the thorax
  • front wings not particularly thickened. An additional, unique character of leafhoppers is the production of brochosomes which are thought to protect egg masses from predation and pathogens. Leafhoppers are susceptible to various pathogens; viruses as in the(Dicistroviridae), bacteria, fungi, as well as having a host of parasitoids which attack the eggs.

Symptoms and Signs[edit]

Ecology[edit]

Species[edit]

Control[edit]

References[edit]