Hindi Lessons/Lesson 4
Lesson 4: Genders in Hindi. Hindi Verbs - Part 1.
Unlike many European languages which have have three genders or those such as English which have none, Hindi has precisely two, masculine and feminine. There is no reliable rule for which words are which, but one can often deduce a word's gender from its ending. Most Hindi words end in a vowel. Those ending in -a are usually masculine. Those ending in -i (actually the long i - ee) are usually feminine. There are of course some words that end in consonants or other vowels, whose gender cannot be predicted and must be learned. When we learn the adjectives and verb conjugation we will find that those -a and -i endings are very important. So, please remember that well:
-a (ा) - general mark of masculine words (singular!) - nouns, adjectives, verbs
-i (ी) - general mark of feminine words (even both - singular and plural) - nouns, adjectives, verbs
Many masculine Hindi words (ending in -a of course:) can be turned into feminine ones by simply replacing the -a ending with -i! For example:
लडका (ladka) = boy, लडकी (ladki) = girl
(Many Hindi speakers pronounce the 'd' in ladka/ladki as closer to the English "r", so don't wonder if you see somebody write in irc-chats "larka" or "larki"...)
बिल्ला (billa) = tomcat, बिल्ली (billi) = cat, pussycat
Some masculine words ending in -a:
कमरा (kamra) = room केला (kela) = banana तारा (tara) = star हवा (hava) = wind
Feminine Words ending in -i (-ee):
चीनी (chini) = sugar
But exceptions exist. for e.g., the following end in -i (-ee) but are masculine:
पानी (pani) = water पक्षी (pakshi) = bird
Some words ending with consonants:
दोस्त (dost) = friend (masculine) किताब (kitab) = book (feminine) औरत (aurat) = woman (feminine :-)
A word ending in a vowel different from -a or -i:
गुरु (guru) = teacher
To the general rule of the -a and -i ending there exist some exceptions, that is, there exist some masculine words, which end in -i. For example, the word for "man":
आदमी (aadmi) = man
Verbs in Hindi. General Information.
The infinitive form of every Hindi verb ends in ना (-na):
खाना (khana) = to eat
पीना (pina) = to drink
जाना (jana) = to go
आना (aana) = to come
करना (karna) = to do (remember this one as it's used in many compound verb forms)
देना (dena) = to give
लेना (lena) = to take
लिखना (likhna) = to write
पढना (padhna) = to read
समझना (samajhna) = to understand
समझाना (samjhaana) = to explain (i.e. to make someone understand)
सीखना (sikhna) = to learn
For the root of the verb, required for conjugation, remove its -na ending.
In plural the masculine -a ending becomes -e while the feminine -i ending either remains -i or becomes -i~:
-a (ा) - general mark of masculine words (singular) - MASC. SG.
-e (े) - general mark of masculine words (plural) - MASC. PL.
-i (ी) - general mark of feminine words (singular and plural) - FEM. SG. and PL.
-in and -i~ - occasional mark of feminine words (plural) - FEM. PL.
Now back to verbs:
Add "ता" (ta) to verb root for masculine singular and "ते" (te) for masculine plural. Add "ती" (ti) for feminine singular and plural.
खाता (khata) = eat पीता (pita) = drink etc.
However, although these verbs are now conjugated, they are not quite ready to use. One cannot say "Mai~ khata"; one must use the copula "to be," the most important verb in Hindi:
The verb "TO BE" (Hona - होना)
मैं हुं (mai~ hu~) = I am
तु है (tu hai) = You (intimate) are
तुम हो (tum ho) = You are
वह है (voh hai) = He/She/It/That is
हम हैं (ham hai~) = We are
आप हैं (aap hai~) = You are
वे हैं (ve hai~) = They are
Let's give you a pattern:
Verb root + TA / TE / TI + Conjugated corresponding form of "Hona" (to be) = Present Imperfect Tense
NB: Hindi does not use articles
मैं खाता हुं. (mai~ khata hu~) = I eat.
लडका खाता है. (larka khata hai) = The (A) boy eats.
लडकी खाती है. (ladki khati hai) = The (A) girl eats.
आप पीते हैं. (aap pite hai~) = You (polite sg.) drink OR You (plural) drink.
मैं पानी पीता हुं. (mai~ pani pita hu~) = I drink water.
तुम पानी पीते हो. (tum pani pite ho) = You drink water. NB: "tum" is the most used word for "you" and is actually plural. So whenever you use it, conjugate the verb as plural.
A final, somewhat "funny," example:
मैं सिगरेट पीता हुं. (mai~ sigaret pita hu~). I smoke a cigarette... The literal meaning of the sentence is "I drink a cigarette." Every language has its oddities and peculiarities!
More about other verb tenses in the next lesson(s). Please do revise this whole lesson well before continuing to the next one.