Handbook of Management Scales/Proactive performance improvement
Proactive performance improvement (alpha = 0.91) 
Upon completing a review of the literature, scale development is completed in five phases. The first two phases focus on item generation and qualitative validation. The third phase (quantitative pilot testing) involves a sample of 220 logistics managers in Germany. The fourth phase replicates these findings with a sample of 250 US logistics managers. The final phase differentiates the general scale tested and replicated in the previous two phases by assessing the merit of cost- and service-focused scales adapted from the general scale among a separate sample of 298 logistics managers in Germany.
- The LSP continuously makes suggestions for making activities more effective, even those outside its direct responsibility.
- When the situation changes, the LSP by itself modifies the logistics activities and processes, if this is useful and necessary to enhance the performance.
- The LSP shows initiative by approaching us with suggestions to enhance the performance.
- The LSP shows a high level of innovation with respect to performance improvements.
- Wallenburg et al. (2010): Developing a scale for proactive improvement within logistics outsourcing relationships. The International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 5–21.