Folksprak/Grammar/Pronouns

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Article and Possessive pronouns[edit]

The definite article de and the indefinite article en precede the noun. Both have a short e.

  • de hus (EN the house)
  • en hus (EN a house)


The plural form of the definite article is de, too. In Fůlkspræk, though, there is a difference between the singular form đă and the plural form đĕ.

  • de husen (EN the houses)
  • husen (EN houses)

The pronoun de has a long e. In Fůlkspræk you can see the difference between the article đĕ and the pronoun đe. In order to make this difference explicit in Folksprak, you can use a trema above the e.

  • dë, de fruen (EN they, the women)


Numbers and possessive pronouns are used as articles as well.

  • min hus (EN my house)
  • seven husen (EN seven houses)


Pay attention, that the number en has a long e, whereas the indefinite article en has a short one. In Fůlkspræk you see the difference between the number ạn and the indefinite article ặn. In order to make an explicit difference in Folksprak, you may use a trema.

  • ën hus (EN one house)

Pronouns[edit]

Pronouns of things, times and places[edit]

The asking pronouns for things, times and places are respectively wat, wan andn war (EN what, when and where). Their stem vowels are short. Analogous, the answering pronouns are dat, dan and dar (EN that, than and there). The respective referencing pronouns (i. e. pronouns for things, times and places that are already known to the listener) are het, hen and her (EN it, now, here).

  • wat, dat, het (EN what, that, it)
  • wan, dan, hen (EN when, then, now)
  • war, dar, her (EN where, there, here)

Instead of hen, nu (EN now) is used normally.


Particularly, wat and dat are used as asking and answering articles.

  • Wat bok is din bok? (EN Which book is your book?)
  • Dat bok. (EN That book.)


Pronouns of third person[edit]

In order to refer to third persons, the asking pronoun wa (EN who) is used. There are two answering pronouns for third persons: da and de (EN this one respectively these) for singular and plural. Analogous, there are two referencing pronouns for the thir person: hi and he (EN he respectively she and they).

  • wo (EN who)
  • da <-> de (EN this one <-> these)
  • hi <-> he (EN he / she / it <-> they)

The forms da and he are unusual but correct. But instead you may use dat, het, hi, han or hun instead of da, and de for he.

Particularly, da and de are used, shortened, as the definite article.

  • de mann (EN the man)
  • de mannen (EN the men)


Particularly, hi is used in hidag (EN today).

Personal pronouns in general (like third person pronouns, too) change, when they are used as an object of a preposition or a verb. The third person pronouns then end in -m. The stem vowel is shortened then.

  • De ga to him. (EN They go to her / him.)
  • Hi ga to dem. (EN He / she goes to them.)

(Also correct forms are in these cases: dam, dans respectively hem, hens.)


Personal pronouns in geneeral (like third person pronouns, too) don't have a genitive form ending in -'s, but a special form. The possessive third person pronouns end in -s (without ´).

  • his hus (EN his / her house)
  • des hus (EN their house Haus)
  • was hus (EN whose house)


Für dritte Personen in der Einzahl gibt es noch zwei weitere Pronomen (alle mit kurzem Stammvokal): hun und han (EN sie und er), jeweils explizit für das weibliche sowie das männliche Geschlecht. Als Objekt lauten sie hum und ham und ihre Formen als Possessivpronomen lauten huns und hans. There are two more pronouns (each one with short stem vowel) for the third person singular: hun and han (EN she and he), respectively for the female and the male gender. In the objective case they turn to hum and ham and their possessive forms are huns and hans.

  • Hun seh ham for hans hus. (EN She sees him in front of his house.)
  • Han seh hum for huns hus. (EN He sees her in front of her house.)

Pronouns of the first and second person[edit]

The forms of the first and second person pronouns are quite irregular (both for singular and plural).

  • ik, mi, min (EN I, me, my)
  • du, di, din (EN you, you, your)
  • wi, ons, onser (EN we, us, our)
  • ji, ju, jor (EN you, you, your)


NB: The form ik has a short vowel.


Pronouns of kind[edit]

The pronouns of kind are quite strange, too.

  • we, do, so (EN how, so, so)


Particularly, we and so are used in the asking and answering adjective welik and solik (EN 'what a and such a).

  • welik bok (EN what kind of book)
  • solik bok (EN such a kind of book)


The form do is used only in the combination doh.

  • doh (EN though)