Finnish/Grammar-Suffixes

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^^Contents^^ <<Grammar-Vowel harmony | Grammar-Suffixes |


Now the big part! In Finnish, like all Finno-Uralic languages, there are a huge series of suffixes to represent plurals, positions, postpositions (prepositions), pronouns and descriptions. They are grouped in to 4 groups of which there is a strict order, Group 1 which are plurals, Group 2 which are positions (2a) and postpositions (2b), Group 3 which are accusative pronuons (i.e. my, your...) And Group 4 which are descriptions (i.e. also, too). To describe the suffixes easily the word auto (car) is used.

Group 1: Plurals[edit]

The first group of suffixes are plurals, of which there are 3 different ways.

-t[edit]

You can pluralize many words by simply putting a "t" after the word:

  • auto → autot ; car → cars
  • kirja → kirjat ; book → books


If there are "kk", "pp", or "tt" in a word in a similar way like those below, pluralize it in the following way:

  • kukka → kukat ; flower → flowers
  • hattu → hatut ; hat → hats


If a word has "nk" in a similar way like those below, pluralize in the following way:

  • kenkä → kengät ; shoe → shoes
  • sanko → sangot ; bucket → buckets
  • henki → henget ; spirit → spirits


If a word ends with a letter "s" like those below, pluralize it in the following way:

  • varis → varikset ; crow → crows
  • tulos → tulokset ; result → results


If a word ends with "nen" like those below, pluralize it in the following way:

  • kukkanen → kukkaset ; small flower → small flowers
  • VirtanenVirtaset ;

-i (-j)[edit]

To pluralise a word with another suffix you put an i in between the word and the suffix(es). If where there is a cluster of more than 2 vowels, then the i becomes a j

  • autossani → autoissani in my car → in my cars
  • autoa → autoja car → cars (partitive)

-a[edit]

When there is a number before the word to indicate an amount, you put an a after the word (in fact this is not a plural at all, but partitive: it is the number that takes the formal role of auto in the sentence, more about that later)

  • auto → kaksi autoa car → two cars
  • autoni → kaksi autoani my car → my two cars

Exercises[edit]

Answer to these exercises are at the end of the page.

Exercise Number One[edit]

Pluralize these Finnish words. Translations in English are beside some words.

  1. talo (house)
  2. koira (dog)
  3. kirja (book)
  4. lappu (note)
  5. näppäimistö (keyboard)
  6. takki (coat)
  7. mökki (cottage)
  8. koti (home)
  9. katu (street)
  10. jalas (runner)
  11. Leinonen
  12. kello (clock/bell)
  13. mato (worm)
  14. sänky (bed)
  15. piste (dot/point)

Exercise number two[edit]

Pluralize the following words. These are a bit harder than the previous ones.

  1. teko (act)
  2. lumihanki
  3. laite (gadget)
  4. pilvi
  5. haapa
  6. tuuletin
  7. tiede
  8. kanne
  9. kansi
  10. vaaka

Exercise number three[edit]

Pluralize these words which have another suffixes. There are rough translations in English.

  1. autossa (in a car)
  2. autona (as a car)
  3. kellossani (in my clock)
  4. kelloa (clock(partitive))
  5. kynällä (with a pen)
  6. koneessa (in a machine)
  7. korissa (in a basket)
  8. kirjasta (from a book)

Answers[edit]

Exercise Number One[edit]

  1. talot (houses)
  2. koirat (dogs)
  3. kirjat (books)
  4. laput (notes)
  5. näppäimistöt (keyboards)
  6. takit
  7. mökit
  8. kodit
  9. kadut (streets)
  10. jalakset
  11. Leinoset
  12. kellot
  13. madot
  14. sängyt
  15. pisteet

Exercise number two[edit]

  1. teot (acts)
  2. lumihanget
  3. laitteet (gadgets)
  4. pilvet
  5. haavat
  6. tuulettimet
  7. tieteet
  8. kanteet
  9. kannet
  10. vaa'at

Exercise number three[edit]

  1. autoissa (in cars)
  2. autoina (as cars)
  3. kelloissani (in my clocks)
  4. kelloja ((clocks)partitive)
  5. kynillä (with pens)
  6. koneissa (in machines)
  7. koreissa (in baskets)
  8. kirjoista (from books)