Exercise as it relates to Disease/Guideline for using Resistance exercise with Hypertension

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This page is a project for the unit Health Disease and Exercise.

Hypertension Background[edit]

Blood pressure is a measure of the force arteries are subjected to by the heart pumping blood around the body. Hypertension, high blood pressure, is defined by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare as blood pressure at or above 140/90.[1][2] The main risk factors for hypertension are alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, high dietary salt intake and being overweight.[2] Tobacco smoke increases the risk of adverse health outcomes in hypertensive people.[2] Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular condition in Australia; 11% or 2.1 million of the Australian population in 2005.[3]

Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Blood Pressure[edit]

There are a number of lifestyle measures effective in reducing hypertension.

  • Diet: reducing intake of fats, red meat, sugar and sodium. [2][4]
  • Exercise
  • Weight Reduction[5][6]

Resistance Training Benefits[edit]

Resistance training, also known as weight training or strength training, increases muscle strength, endurance and power.[7] Resistance training has many health benefits:[8] [7]

  • Decreases body fat percentage
  • Increases lean body mass
  • Decreases diastolic blood pressure
  • Increases VO2 max
  • Increases basal Metabolism

Resistance training has been shown to lower blood pressure.[9][10]

Resistance Training Recommendations[edit]

Those with blood pressure outside the values of 90/60-160/110 should consult a doctor before commencing resistance training.[9]

It is recommended that resistance training be incorporated into an exercise program including aerobic exercise and flexibility; the recommendations are: [11][12][13]

  • 2-3 sets
  • 8-12 repetitions within each set
  • 2 sessions per week
  • 8-10 exercises within the session
  • No above head exercises should be performed; the associated increase in blood pressure with these exercises may be harmful
  • No "one repetition maximum" lifting
  • Weight range of lifting is to be between 40-60% of one repetition maximum

External Links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. A.D.A.M Medical Encyclopaedia, "Hypertension", Pub Med Health, viewed 24th september 2011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001502/
  2. a b c d Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, "High Blood Pressure", Australian Federal Government, Viewed 30th September 2011. http://www.aihw.gov.au/high-blood-pressure/
  3. Australian Bureau of Statistics, "4821.0.55.001 - Cardiovascular Disease in Australia: A Snapshot, 2004-05", Australian Federal Government, Viewed 30th of September 2011. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4821.0.55.001
  4. Whelton, P, et al, "Primary Prevention of Hypertension - Clinical and public Health Advisory from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program", American Medical Association, Viewed 21st of September 2011. http://pedneph.info/NewFiles/HBP/hbp%20adobe%20articles/Primary%20prevention%20of%20hypertension.pdf
  5. Stevens, V, et al, "Weight Loss Intervention in Phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention" Archives of Internal Medicine, Viewed 2nd of October 2011. http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/153/7/849
  6. He, J, "Long-Term Effects of Weight Loss and Dietary Sodium Reduction on Incidence of Hypertension", American Heart Association, viewed 18th of October 2011.http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/35/2/544.full
  7. a b Better Health Channel, "Resistance training -Beginners", Victorian Government, Viewed 3rd of October 2011. http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/resistance_training?open
  8. American Heart Foundation, "Resistance Exercise in Individuals With and Without Cardiovascular Disease : Benefits, Rationale, Safety, and Prescription - An Advisory From the Committee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention, Council on Clinical Cardiology" American Heart Foundation, Viewed 10th of October 2011. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/101/7/828/T1.expansion.html
  9. a b Sorace, P, et al, "Hypertension and Resistance Training", Strength and Conditioning Journal, viewed 5th of October 2011.http://www.cross-fitllc.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Hypertension-and-Resistance-Training.pdf
  10. Fagard, R, "Effects of Endurance Training on Blood Pressure, Blood Pressure–Regulating Mechanisms, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors", American Heart Association, viewed 15th of October 2011.http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/46/4/667.full
  11. "ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription", 2009, American College of Sports Medicine, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
  12. Hypertension/High Blood Pressure Health Center, "Exercise Tips for Those With High Blood Pressure. http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/safe-exercise-tips
  13. "Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, "Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of hypertension". Vol, 31. No, 11. P, s624, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.