Digital Rhetoric/Collaboration and Wikinomics
The Four Ideas of Collaboration
Openness on collaboration among businesses and government will create a productive collaboration to provide an effective strategy to improve creation and knowledge socially, technologically, politically and strategically.
In our modern digital age especially in the last decade and with the help of internet innovation, that has transformed the way our societies collaborate. Openness in business changes the way businesses are run, with the openness of collaboration they can bring a best opportunity and better effects to bring their business profit. This would increase the idea if they collaborate with people from different part of the world which could provide different idea for better creation and innovation.
Most of professional companies are realizing that openness is a great tool to compete with their competitor. Companies and organization need to know when, and how to allow individuals to share idea and innovation on their business platform participation. Amazon, eBay, Google, and flicker are an open plat form which allows third parties to participate in their platform. For example “Amazon, and open-platform prodigy, harnesses the power of 140,000 active developer and gains nearly 30 percent of its revenue from third-party seller that leverage its e-commerce engine.”(Tapscott and Williams) “how mass collaboration changes everything”
Openness in government allows each agency to create more service and would transmit to more and productive way. Internet provides openness to provide a better and greater tool to improve in all levels of collaboration.
Open collaboration also have a greater effect on each individuals, going back to the topic of remixing and creative of common of our discussion earlier in the semester. YouTube is a great example of an open collaborative tool which allows each individual to post, remix, share, share and discuss a post. This is an effective way to improve the creation of individuals, which is getting the ideas to allow individual to improve his or her post.
“Peering is voluntary interconnection of administratively separate Internet networks for the purpose of exchanging traffic between the customers of each network.” Peering are idea, information and other useful sources that are being shared among individuals to improve the creation of one other. Peering and collaboration will provide each individual to exchange idea with each other. Online collaboration creates peering effortless to the user and it would help them to gain information, and get a feedback from other about his or her creation.
Peering applications such as LimeWire and Ares allow computer users to upload documents, videos, music, and or programs in order to share with a wide rang of people. Typically these programs have a negative connotation because they promote rampant piracy. However, these Peer 2 Peer (P2P) programs allow for mass collaboration at the blink of an eye. Majoring of corporation are using decentralizing decision and with communicating “peer-to-peer fashion, which allows employee to take up new ideas to communicate easily and openly among each other.
Sharing is an exchange of files such as document, audio, video, PDF and other digital file on a computer network. File sharing can be used in variety of different way. Peer-to-Peer files sharing is a content of file sharing particularly anything in digital format."Peer-To-Peer"With the modernization of high-speed Internet file sharing has became popular among individuals.
One of the most excellent sharing service is “Drop.io is an excellent private file sharing and collaboration service”. This service allows the user to share a variety of different file. This service is mostly used by organization, corporation and other private user to share file among selected individuals."Drop.io" allows accessed individual to “shared on ‘View only’, ‘View & Add Notes’, ‘View, Add Notes & Files’”. User can create as much storage as they desire, and they have an option to protect by creating a password for their preferred file. This service allows individual to set an automated delete drop, this will give them control of how long should they keep a post. Sharing can be used to increase knowledge and ideas among individuals, when we talk about sharing it doesn’t have to be illegal sharing. User can take an advantage to share idea on blog post, discussion and get idea from others creation.
With more companies looking to expand world-wide it is important to realize what is meant by the phrase acting globally. When working in a global team through a virtual office (online) teams of workers need to understand the different cultures in which they are collaborating with. Each member in a team should voice their expectations for a project in order to work cohesively. Issues with copyright also arise when working in a global market. One country's copyright laws may be completely different than another country's laws. Collaborators need research the laws of their fellow co-workers in order to know what the limitations are for each country. Technology, and the ability to transmit data, needs to be up-to-date in order to smoothly collaborate between teams of people in different parts of the world. Workers in a global collaboration need to know and be trained in the technology they use or else communication and collaboration will never work globally. Co-workers should not use culturally specific language, such as slang and terminology only used in certain countries. When acting globally everything should be in a simplified language. In order to create a positive relationship when working with people on a global scale, co-workers should respect cultural differences and not try to force their culture on others.
Collaboration tools such as Skype and Cisco telecommunication software programs are becoming the norm in order for collaboration to occur globally and cheaply. Instead of traveling everywhere companies are choosing to invest in the technologies of telecommunication in order to cut costs and instantly communicate visually at the push of a button. Technology is continually changing on a daily basis. Recently, Skype created a Skype application for Apple's iPhone and iPod Touch in which anyone with a Skype account can talk on their iPhone or iPod Touch for free using a Wi-Fi or wireless internet connection. This allows for people all over the world to communicate with each other for free, again with the push of a button.
Open-source and its Importance in Collaboration
Forms of collaboration online are most likely open-source or partially open-source. Open-source can be defined as having the ability to share forms of digital media that is not traditionally packaged and sold to consumers in stores. An open-sourced program allows for anyone around the world to make changes to coding of software or websites in order to improve upon them, making the digital coding better or more up-to-date. An example of an open-sourced program is the internet browser Mozilla Firefox. Firefox invites programmers from all over the world to work on the design and update the features and security of the internet browser. Updates for Firefox occur on almost a monthly basis in order to keep the browser as secure as possible. There is more of a chance of someone catching someone else's errors and as well as the ability to have more consistent updates. This is different from traditional browsers like Microsoft's Internet Explorer which has big updates every few years. The ability to have many different people collaborating over a digital space allows for people to work eliminating physical barriers such as workspace and travel costs. More eyes have the ability to view something that is open-sourced rather than only limited to a workforce of a dozen people.
Examples of partially open-sourced digital media is the website Wikipedia and the tool Google Docs. Wikipedia, as everyone knows, is the most popular form of collaboration on the internet. It is a gigantic digital encyclopedia. Everyone, who has access to a computer and the internet, can access Wikipedia. A user can read every page on Wikipedia and make changes to or add information to Wikipedia as they see fit. However, people cannot make changes to how the website looks or operates. Thus, it is partially open-sourced. Google Docs, another partially open-sourced tool, opens the door of collaboration to anyone who has a Google account. A user has the ability to create or upload a document to Google Docs and work completely online. No data is stored on a user's own computer which allows for "lighter" computers. Where partial open-source comes into play is with editing of the actual content of a Google document. An original creator of a document has the ability to choose who can edit and access their document. Having the ability of online data storage, apart from traditional data storage on a user's computer, is that a user does not need massive programs such as Microsoft Office (which includes Word, Excel, PowerPoint, etc.). Not only are computers lighter but all files can be shared seamlessly with other people. Collaboration is becoming effortless in that people no longer have to send their documents back and forth by e-mail or hard-copy, everything is located easily online.
The OScar Project is an experimental open-source project that is unique. Can the concepts of open-source be applied to material objects? OScar is short for open-source car. The project is a new approach to online collaboration. The article “Open-source at 90 mph” quotes the project's founder, Markus Merz, of wanting to build "a car without an engineering center, without a boss, without money, and without borders" only with "the help of the collective creativity of the Internet community." The project uses the concepts of open-source in the designing of a smart car by many collaborators from their own computers over the internet using the same concepts talked about in these collaboration chapters. The OScar's prototype will eventually be physically built as a result of all the collaborators' efforts. The OScar project is now using their own Wiki as a source for user documentation. The OScar project emphasizes mastering of the process and thorougness rather than working towards a deadline. This is a common emphasis that appears in all open-sourced products, allowing for future innovations.
New Forms of Collaboration
Now, more than ever, people are having a bigger impact on different forms of digital technology. Recently, the team of Xbox decided to open its online world of Xbox Live (a social network for gamers to play together using the internet) to game developers in relation to Xbox 360. The Xbox 360 game development kit by XNA Game Studio is available to Xbox Live members through the online marketplace. This software allows the gaming community to develop their own games and post them to be purchased by gamers on Xbox Live. These small time developers make money when gamers download their games to their own Xbox console. The development kit encourages people to create and market games they make with the kit and sell them without having to invest a lot of money into a game. This has the ability to allow professional and novice creators alike to create something that expresses what they enjoy while allowing others to enjoy their ideas as well for a fairly cheap price.
A wiki workplace allows for information to be easily accessed and maintained in order to have a powerful informational tool. Wikis are beginning to be used more in the workplace because of the start of a younger workforce entering the business world. This younger workforce is more likely to use the new features related to web-based technology. The same concept of using a Wiki was applied for the creation of these chapters you are now reading. Wikis help spur creativity and growth allowing for anyone within a company to state their own ideas and contribute more to a company. Recently IBM hosted InnovationJam. InnovationJam was an giant online brainstorming meeting. IBM employees, no matter where they were in the world, had the ability to join the online meeting in virtual space. The online meeting included 100,000 people from 160 countries working for IBM and occurred over two 72 hour sessions.
Collaboration on Facebook
Facebook mass animation project with collaboration of both of Intel and Dell will create a major project with gathering idea from massive collaborator. This collaboration will enable the animator or a fan to collaborate on a live music. On this project collaborator will contribute scenes up to five-minutes which could be selected as a leap into feature film. Using facebook makes collaboration easier from a variety of music from different part of the world, different background, ethnicity and cultures. I think collaboration on facebook have became a greater impacts on millions of users around the world. Digital collaboration made sharing and idea easy which allows different individual to layout his or her idea to accomplish the great project. Now anyone can sign up for facebook, and would be capable to collaboration, chat, create group page, and share idea with anyone they desire.
Third party developer might not expect what a serious possibility facebook might offer. In today digital age almost everyone have access to internet. Varieties of peoples are addicted to online collaboration either chatting with buddy, post blogs, post videos and online document. With an idea of creating "MyOffice" facebook will help businesses and other large corporation to collaborate and discuss multi project with a variety or client and business partner. This new application allows individuals who are part of that "group to organize event, schedule meeting, discuss ideas and much more".
The new featured tool that facebook is providing will enhance collaboration among students on universities, businesses that have limited space. "Huddle Workspaces" allows individual to work on their site such as LinkedIn inside facebook. Another tool that will improve collaboration on facebook is study groups, which allows students, organization to collaborate and share ideas post discussion remix and edit each other posting. It’s more like create of commons which allows users to create tools for other user to share information. This tool allows the creator to have the complete ownership of their creation. Create of common law is base on the idea of digital rhetoric, which is provided to variety of user around the world. Manifestations of digital rhetoric play a big role in create commons that allows other people to extend their creation by sharing the idea form other.
YouTube and Collaboration 
YouTube is becoming a great factor in our social life, with the creation of active sharing which allows the user flag the content that they are currently viewing. YouTube is an open video source where anyone can post, edited and remix a video from all part of the world. When the user put and active sharing on a currently playing video they, anyone can see his or her user name who’s viewing the same video at the same time. YouTube want to expand their videos beyond web browsers and distribute their video onto mobile and television. YouTube also providing platform for user to post idea debate based on the posted item.
Using blogs and wikis could be a greatest effect on mass collaboration among business. “YouTube already shares ad revenue with the best producers of video on its site and people make a living this way,” says Williams, referring to such individuals as “prosumers”.
YouTube is about to take collaboration; some companies are struggling to keep its employee form watching YouTube, while some corporation is creating corporate YouTube. Company like “Philadelphia-based Rohmand Haas C “created YouTube Corporate to provide its employee access of training video, and information about variety of topic in their corporation. An advantage of Corporate YouTube will help companies to achieve important goal in a short period of time. Corporate YouTube will eliminate traveling cost, and employees’ time this will get their training easier, since they can get most of the training via video site. This allows employee to create post, view video which provide important information about their corporate. Most corporations are in the stage of posting information about their marketing production on YouTube to improve sale.
Distribution video on YouTube is free, and the cost of production is affordable since most people don’t expect high quality. When viewer video a video they don’t look for quality, instead they are looking to gain the most important out of the video. Once companies and corporation allows worker and other external user to post video about their brand products and new creation it will help the corporate to improve its innovation.
How Culture Effects Collaboration
Culture plays a major role in collaboration. It is something that needs to be overcome in order for collaboration to successfully occur. Dutch psychologist Geert Hofstede conducted surveys while working at IBM, in the human resources department, in Europe. Hofstede's surveys were attempting to discover "how people solved problems and how they worked together and what their attitudes were to authority." This in depth research is now part of the Hoftstead Dimensions. Hoftstead discovered that the top five countries that did not stray from rules or plans and would continue with procedure no matter what were 1. Greece 2. Portugal 3. Guatemala 4. Uruguay 5. Belgium. The five countries at the bottom of the list, which could deviate from a plan if necessary, were 49. Hong Kong 50. Sweden 51. Denmark 52. Jamaica 53. Singapore. Hofstead's Dimensions most known theory is the Power Distance Index (PDI). This relates to how cultures values or respect authority. For example, in many countries, people are afraid to disagree with their boss because they feel like their boss has the final word. This would be an example of a high-power distance. In the United States, there tends to be a low-power distance in which people typically see themselves as on the same playing level. There has been research that correlates plane crashes with the Power Distance Index (the top of the scale having more plane crashes). The top five Power Distance Index countries are 1. Brazil 2. South Korea 3. Morocco 4. Mexico 5. Philippines and the lowest on the scale are 15. United States 16. Ireland 17. South Africa 18. Australia 19. New Zealand (Gladwell 177-223).
In order for collaboration to occur between cultures the mindsets of the collaborators need to be open and multiple questions need to be asked. Most collaborations between cultures fail before they even get started. This is often the case when companies market their products globally. Problems occur when companies do not research their target market, seeing markets as their own (ego-centrism). The food company Kellogg produced their cereal Cornflakes in India. India does not like to start their day with cold sensations such as cold milk on cereal. When you pour warm milk on Cornflakes it turns soggy fast. Kellogg needed to backtrack and develop the cereal to hold up in warm milk as well. Kellogg could have avoided the problem all together if they had collaborated with people from India before marketing their product.
Whirlpool, another company that marketed to India without collaborating first with people in India, created washer machines that had the word "Sari" cycle instead of "Delicate" cycle. The problem with this was Whirlpool did not change the force in which the "Sari" cycle operated and when people in India washed their finely woven clothes or Sari in their washer machines, their clothes would be caught up and destroyed in the machines. Whirlpool could have avoided having to design another washer machine and lose their market shares in India if it had just collaborated with India and communicated their intentions to better understand the culture (Chavan).