Danish/Lesson 1

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
< Danish
Jump to: navigation, search

^ Lektion 2: Familie ^ Lektion 3: Tal og Farver ^


A note on pronunciation[edit]

Danish words are rather difficult for English-speakers to pronounce correctly when given only the written form. Even after hearing the words being spoken, the sounds can be frustrating to reproduce. The pronunciation guide is an attempt to explain how the words should be spoken, but these rules are quite hard to follow when confronted with a word like Smørrebrødsjomfru (refers to a woman making something called "Smørrebrød", which is a slice of dark bread with butter and a lot of fillings on top, like salad, fish, "remoulade" etc.).

Here's a very incomplete list of tips for the simple greetings in this lesson:

  • Hej ("Hi") = almost like the English Hi. Sound sample Media:Hej.ogg
  • Dav ("Hi" in a redneck manner) = say Dau. Sound sample Media:Dav.ogg
  • Goddag ("Goodday") = the last g is silent. Sound sample Media:Goddag.ogg
  • Godmorgen ("Goodmorning") = "go-moarn". The r is pronounced in the back of the throat, nearly silent. Sound sample Media:Godmorgen.ogg

Hellos and Goodbyes in Danish[edit]

Hellos:

Hello!        Hej!
              Hejsa!
              Dav!
              Goddag!
Good morning! Godmorgen!
Good evening! Godaften!

Goodbyes:

Goodbye!      Farvel!
Bye!          Hej hej!
Later!        Vi ses!
Good night!   Godnat!

Samtale 1 ~ Conversation 1[edit]

Sofie and Louise are friends. They meet and talk about their day.

Louise: Hej Sofie, hvordan går det?
Sofie: Det går godt, tak. Hvad med dig?
Louise: Jeg har det fint.
Sofie: Hvad så?
Louise: Ikke noget særligt
Sofie: Hej hej, Louise.
Louise: Vi ses.

Ordforklaringer ~ Vocabulary[edit]

Hej = Hi, hello
Hvordan går det? / Hvordan har du det? = How's it going? / How are you (Literally: "How goes it?" / "How (do) you have it?")
Det går godt / Jeg har det fint = Well / I'm fine (Literally: "It goes good." / "I have it fine.")
Tak = Thanks
Hvad med dig? = How about you? (Literally: "What with you?)
Hvad så? = What's up? (Literally: "What then?")
Ikke noget særligt = Nothing in particular (Literally: "Not anything particular")

You can probably figure out the rest, with the help of the Hellos and Goodbyes table.

Samtale 2[edit]

Take a look at this short formal conversation to see how Danes address each other formally.

Hr. Nilsen: Goddag! Hvordan har De det?
Hr. Klaaborg: Goddag! Jeg har det fint, tak.
Hr. Nilsen: Godt, Farvel!
Hr. Klaaborg: Farvel!

Voice sample (one voice) Media:Da-samtale2.ogg

Ordforklaringer[edit]

Hr. = Mister (mr.)
Frk., Frøken = Ms., Miss
Fr., Fru = Mrs., Missis

You may have noticed that hr. Nilsen referred to hr. Klaaborg as De. This is the polite form for you, as opposed to the casual du, which Sofie and Louise used. This is rarely used in Danish today though, but can still be seen when people demand great respect, like, for example, the nobility.

Flere ordforklaringer ~ More vocabulary[edit]

besøge                    visit
bro                       bridge
ven, venner               friend, friends
samtale, samtaler         conversation, conversations
grammatik                 grammar
lektie                    homework
lektion                   lesson
gade, vej                 street, road
ordforklaringer           word explanations, vocabulary
at gå                     to go/walk
med                       with
at være                   to be
at møde                   to meet
at besøge                 to visit
at forstå                 to understand
men                       but, however
også                      also, too, as well
tak                       thank you; thanks
det                       it (pronoun)
nej                       no
ja                        yes
korrekt                   correct
allerede                  already
smuk                      beautiful
meget                     very
og                        and

Pronominer ~ Pronouns[edit]

The Danish pronouns shouldn't be too hard to memorize, as they are most of the time close to their English equivalents. vi = we and os = us, for example.

Subject (nominative) Object (accusative)
Danish English Danish English
1st Person Singular jeg I mig me
2nd Person Singular du you dig you
3rd Person Singular han
hun
den/det
he
she
it
ham
hende
den/det
him
her
it
         
1st Person Plural vi we os us
2nd Person Plural I you jer you
3rd Person Plural/
Polite 2nd Person Singular
de they dem them

^ Lektion 2: Familie ^ Lektion 3: Tal og Farver ^