Contemporary Educational Psychology
This Wikibook is about educational psychology--the study of how learning and teaching occur in educational settings. It is divided into chapters as listed below, which are preceded by an introduction that describes the features of the book in some detail. Initially most of the contributions have been made by myself, Kelvin Seifert, a professor of educational psychology at the University of Manitoba, Canada, though Chapter 10 and 11 (about assessment of learning) were drafted primarily by Rosemary Sutton, a professor of educational psychology at Cleveland State University. This may change over time--others may join, and eventually I may leave. If you wish to contact me try leaving a note on my talk page.
The sections below introduce the features of the book. If you want to skip the introduction, go directly to the Table of Contents.
Features of Contemporary Educational Psychology 
The book is divided into thirteen chapters, each dealing with topics, themes, and examples that represent one way of understanding educational psychology (admittedly my way, at least when the book was first posted). The overall organization resembles that of many commercial ed psych texts, but a careful look will show that it is definitely not identical with others.
Paralleling the PRAXIS II "Principles of Learning and Teaching" 
A key difference is that content is intended to parallel the content of the commonly used PRAXIS II test called “Principles of Learning and Teaching” (PLT), published by the Educational Testing Service. The PLT test is required in 25-30 American states for persons seeking permanent certification as public school teachers. If you happen to live in a U.S. state requiring a licensure exam for becoming a teacher, you may be familiar with the PRAXIS tests, and hopefully will appreciate the way this Wikibook is organized.
The decision to organize according to the PLT was based on the assumption that preparing for this exam would be easier if the text content mapped onto PLT topics in a straightforward, one-to-one manner. This is admittedly a rather simple assumption, but one that seemed at least worth trying. It has proved easier to implement for some topics and chapters than for others. You must of course be the ultimate judge of the book's success in mapping onto the PLT. Your assessment will depend a lot on your particular needs in preparing for licensure as a teacher. In any case, since this is a Wikibook, suggestions (on the discussion pages) or editing (on the "real" pages) are especially welcome.
Using the PLT as an organizing device, along with posting this book as a Wiki, are the two ways that Contemporary Educational Psychology differs from the major commercially available textbooks about educational psychology. If you do not live in a PRAXIS-using American state, or if you live outside the United States, the PLT-related feature of the organization will not much matter to you, one way or another, though you may still (hopefully) appreciate the online, open-source status of this particular textbook.
Structure of the book 
As of this current revision, all chapters have the following parts:
- Table of Contents
- Body of the chapter itself (this is the longest part of each chapter-file)
- Links to tables and figures discussed in the chapter--mostly just promised, not yet actual
- Chapter summary (less than one page when printed)
What is still to be added will be partly up to you as readers. In the opinion of KelvinLeeSeifert, further enhancements might include these features, in whole or in part:
- List of key terms from the chapter
- List of external Internet websites relevant to the chapter
- Complete references cited in the chapter (most of these are listed at the bottom of their relevant subpages, and some may overlap a bit from one chapter to another)
- More descriptions of a teaching experiences relevant to the chapters and sections (in addition to those already embedded in the text)
- More in-depth analyses of selected research issues or studies (in addition to those already in the text)
- Photographs relevant to particular written content
What's NOT in Contemporary Educational Psychology 
Since this book is not published commercially, it contains no pictures or elegant graphics--at least initially. It is also missing some of the teaching or "pedagogical" aids of some commercial books, such as a glossary of definitions or a website of supplementary materials. To get a permanent copy of a chapter or a section, you have to print the material for yourself. Some passages may seem a bit “American” in content, a fact that is likely to be noticeable and possibly annoying to some non-American readers. Whether these differences really are important will be for you to decide.
If it really is important for this book to resemble a conventional commercial textbook, then the material posted here can certainly be revised in that direction by additional contributions (including by contributions from yourself) over time. It is worth noting, though, that textbook styles vary significantly by country of origin and by field of study; the highly feature-enhanced style of some commercial texts is a strictly American phenomenon. For leads on what other styles are possible, check Edutech, a sort of hybrid blog/wiki based in Geneva, Switzerland.
Contemporary Educational Psychology is also related to a student-written wiki about educational psychology, found at The Learning Technology Commons of the University of Manitoba. The two wikis are similar in initial organization of content, but they serve very different purposes and therefore may evolve in different directions over time. This Wikibook (Contemporary Educational Psychology) began with a “snapshot” of educational psychology taken at one point in time (2006-2007), as understood originally by two persons, Kelvin Seifert and Rosemary Sutton. Since Seifert and Sutton began with the expectation of writing a conventional university textbook, the initial posted draft has some of the earmarks of a printed text.
The student-written wiki-text about educational psychology began with the same table of contents as this Wikibook, but students were assigned the task of adding to and revising their own material. This circumstance may lead to the two online wiki-texts to begin with similar content, but to diverge eventually. Time will tell, however, how much this will happen.
Table of Contents 
This is a "brief" Table of Contents" in that it contains chapter titles only. Each chapter title links to a detailed table of contents for the chapter--one showing sections and subsections--and these in turn (of course) link to the actual material of the book.
- Chapter 1: The Changing Teaching Profession and You
- Chapter 2: The Learning Process
- Chapter 3: Student Development
- Chapter 4: Student Diversity
- Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs
- Chapter 6: Student Motivation
- Chapter 7: Classroom Management and the Learning Environment
- Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies
- Chapter 9: Instructional Planning
- Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies
- Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments
- Chapter 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication
- Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner
Complete Table of Contents 
1. The Joys of Teaching 2. Are There Also Challenges To Teaching? 3. Teaching Is Different From in the Past 1. New Trend #1: Diversity in Students Chapter 1: The Changing Teaching Profession and You/Teaching Is Different From in the Past/Diversity in Students 2. New Trend #2: Using Technology To Support Learning Chapter 1: The Changing Teaching Profession and You/Teaching Is Different From in the Past/Technology to Support Learning 3. New Trend #3: Accountability in Education Chapter 1: The Changing Teaching Profession and You/Accountability in Education 4. New Trend #4: Increased Professionalism of Teachers Chapter 1: The Changing Teaching Profession and You/Professionalism of Teachers 4. How Educational Psychology Can Help 5. Chapter Summary: The Changing Teaching Profession and You 6. Key Terms from Chapter 1 7. Internet Resources for Chapter 1 8. References
1. Teachers’ Perspectives on Learning 1. Dependence of Learning on Curriculum 2. Dependence of Learning on Teaching 3. Sequencing and Readiness 4. Transfer as a Crucial Part of Learning 2. Major Theories and Models of Learning 3. Behaviorism: Changes in What Students Do Behaviorism: Changes in What Students Do 4. Constructivism: Changes in How Students Think Constructivism: Changes in How Students Think 5. Chapter Summary 6. Key Terms 7. External Resources 8. References
1. Why Development Matters 2. Physical Development during the School Years 1. Trends in Height and Weight 2. Puberty and Its Effects on Students 3. Development of Motor Skills 4. Health and Illness 3. Cognitive Development: The Theory of Jean Piaget Chapter 3: Student Development/Cognitive Development: The Theory of Jean Piaget 1. Cognitive Development: The Theory of Jean Piaget 1. The Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to Age 2 2. The Preoperational Stage: Age 2 to 7 3. The Concrete Operational Stage: Age 7 to 11 4. The Formal Operational Stage: Age 11 and Beyond 4. Social Development: Relationships and Personal Motives Chapter 3: Student Development/Social Development: Relationships and Personal Motives 1. Social Development: Relationships and Personal Motives 1. Erik Erikson: Eight Psychosocial Crises of Development 1. Crises of Infants and Preschoolers: Trust, Autonomy, and Initiative 2. The Crisis of Childhood: Industry and Inferiority 3. The Crisis of Adolescence: Identity and Role Confusion 4. The Crises of Adulthood: Intimacy, Generativity, and Integrity 2. Abraham Maslow: A Hierarchy of Motives and Needs 1. Deficit Needs: Getting the Basic Necessities of Life 2. Being Needs: Becoming the Best That You Can Be 2. Moral Development: Forming a Sense of Rights and Responsibilities 3. References 5. Moral Development: Forming a Sense of Rights and Responsibilities Chapter 3: Student Development/Moral Development 1. Kohlberg’s Morality of Justice 1. Preconventional Justice: Obedience and Mutual Advantage 2. Conventional Justice: Conformity to Peers and Society 3. Postconventional Justice: Social Contract and Universal Principles 2. Gilligan’s Morality of Care 1. Position 1: Caring as Survival 2. Position 2: Conventional Caring 3. Position 3: Integrated Caring 3. References 6. Understanding “The Typical Student” versus Understanding Students 7. References
1. Individual Styles of Learning and Thinking 2. Multiple Intelligences 3. Gender differences in the classroom Chapter 4: Student Diversity/Gender Differences 1. Gender Differences in the Classroom 1. Physical Differences in Gender Roles 2. Social Differences in Gender Roles 3. Academic and Cognitive Differences in the Genders 4. How Teachers Influence Gender Roles 1. Attention Paid 2. Public Talk versus Private Talk 3. Distributing Praise and Criticism 2. References 4. Differences in cultural expectations and learning styles Chapter 4: Student Diversity/Cultural Differences 1. Differences in Cultural Expectations and Styles 1. Bilingualism: Language Differences in the Classroom 1. Balanced or Fluent Bilingualism 2. Unbalanced Bilingualism 3. Language Loss 2. Cultural Differences in Language Use 3. Cultural Differences in Attitudes and Beliefs 2. References 5. Accommodating diversity in practice 6. References
1. Three People on the Margins 2. Growing Support for People with Disabilities: Legislation and Its Effects 1. Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504 2. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (or ADA). 3. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (or IDEA) 3. Responsibilities of Teachers for Students with Disabilities 1. Alternative Assessments 2. Least Restrictive Environment 3. Individual Educational Plan 4. Categories of Disabilities—and Their Ambiguities 1. Learning disabilities Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs/Learning disabilities 1. Learning Disabilities 1. Defining Learning Disabilities Clearly 2. Assisting Students with Learning Disabilities 1. Behaviorism: Reinforcement for Wrong Strategies 2. Metacognition and Responding Reflectively 3. Constructivism, Mentoring, and the Zone of Proximal Development 2. References 2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs/ADHD 1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 1. Differences in Perceptions: ADHD versus High Activity 2. Causes of ADHD 3. Teaching Students with ADHD 2. References 3. Intellectual disabilities Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs/Intellectual Disabilities 1. Intellectual Disabilities 1. Levels of Support for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities 2. Teaching Students with Intellectual Disabilities 1. Giving More Time and Practice Than Usual 2. Adaptive and Functional Skills 3. Include the Student Deliberately in Group Activities 4. Behavioral disorders Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs/Behavioral Disorders 1. Behavioral Disorders 1. Strategies for Teaching Students with Behavioral Disorders 1. Identifying Circumstances That Trigger Inappropriate Behaviors 2. Teaching Interpersonal Skills Explicitly 3. Fairness in Disciplining 2. References 5. Physical disabilities and sensory impairments Chapter 5: Students with Special Educational Needs/Physical and Sensory Impairments 1. Physical Disabilities and Sensory Impairments 1. Hearing Loss 1. Signs of Hearing Loss 2. Teaching Students with Hearing Loss 2. Visual Impairment 1. Signs of Visual Impairment 2. Teaching Students with Visual Impairment 2. References 5. The value of including students with special needs 6. References
1. Motives as Behavior 1. Operant Conditioning as a Way of Motivating 2. Cautions about Behavioral Perspectives on Motivation 2. Motives as goals Chapter 6: Student Motivation/Motives as Goals 1. Motives as Goals 1. Goals That Contribute to Achievement 2. Goals That Affect Achievement Indirectly 1. Failure-avoidant Goals 2. Social Goals 3. Encouraging Mastery Goals 2. References 3. Motives as interests Chapter 6: Student Motivation/Motives as Interests 1. Motives as Interests 1. Situational Interest versus Personal Interest 1. Benefits of Personal Interest 2. Stimulating Situational Interests 1. A Caution: Seductive Details 2. References 4. Motives related to attributions Chapter 6: Student Motivation/Motives Related to Attributions 1. Motives Related to Attributions 1. Locus, Stability, and Controllability 2. Influencing Students’ Attributions 2. References 5. Motives as self-efficacy Chapter 6: Student Motivation/Motives as Self-Efficacy 1. Motives as Self-Efficacy 1. Effects of Self-Efficacy on Students’ Behavior 1. Choice of Tasks 2. Persistence at Tasks 3. Response to Failure 2. Learned Helplessness and Self-Efficacy 3. Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs 1. Prior Experiences of Mastery 2. Watching Others’ Experiences of Mastery 3. Social Messages and Persuasion 4. Emotions Related to Success, Stress or Discomfort 5. A Caution: Motivation as Content versus Motivation as Process 2. References 6. Motivation as self-determination Chapter 6: Student Motivation/Motivation as Self-Determination 1. Motivation as Self-Determination 1. Self-Determination and Intrinsic Motivation 2. Using Self-Determination Theory in the Classroom 1. Supporting Autonomy in Learners 2. Supporting the Need for Competence 3. Supporting the Need to Relate To Others 3. Keeping Self-Determination in Perspective 2. References 7. Expectancy x value: effects on students’ motives Chapter 6: Student Motivation/Expectancy-Value Theory 1. Expectancy x Value: Effects on Students’ Motivation 2. References 8. The bottom line about motivation: sustaining focus on learning 9. References
1. Why classroom management matters 2. Preventing management problems by focusing students on learning Chapter 7: Classroom Management and the Learning Environment/Preventing Management Programs 1. Preventing Management Problems by Focusing Students on Learning 1. Preventing Management Problems by Focusing Students on Learning 1. Arranging Classroom Space 1. Displays and Wall Space 2. Computers in the Classroom 3. Visibility of and Interactions with Students 4. Spatial Arrangements Unique To Grade Levels or Subjects 2. Establishing Daily Procedures and Routines 3. Establishing Classroom Rules 2. References 2. Pacing and structuring lessons and activities Chapter 7: Classroom Management and the Learning Environment/Pacing and Structuring 1. Pacing and Structuring Lessons and Activities 1. Choosing Tasks at an Appropriate Level of Difficulty 2. Providing Moderate Amounts of Structure and Detail 3. Managing Transitions 4. Maintaining the Flow of Activities 5. Communicating the Importance of Learning and of Positive Behavior 1. Giving Timely Feedback 2. Maintaining Accurate Records 6. Communicating with Parents and Caregivers 2. References 3. Responding to student misbehaviour Chapter 7: Classroom Management and the Learning Environment/Responding to Misbehavior 1. Responding to Student Misbehavior 1. Ignoring Misbehaviors 2. Gesturing Nonverbally 3. Natural and Logical Consequences 4. Conflict Resolution and Problem Solving 2. References 4. Keeping management issues in perspective 5. References
1. Forms of Thinking Associated with Classroom Learning 1. Critical Thinking 2. Creative thinking Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies/Creative Thinking 1. Creative Thinking 2. References 3. Problem-solving Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies/Problem-Solving 1. Well-structured versus Ill-structured Problems 2. Heuristics and Algorithms 3. Common Obstacles to Solving Problems 4. Strategies To Assist Problem Solving 5. References 2. Major instructional strategies and their relationships Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies/Major Instructional Strategies 1. Major Instructional Strategies and Their Relationships 1. Teacher-Directed Instruction 1. Lectures and Readings 1. Advance Organizers 2. Recalling and Relating Prior Knowledge 3. Elaborating and Extending Information 4. Organizing New Information 2. Mastery Learning 2. References 2. Lectures and Readings 3. Mastery learning Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies/Mastery Learning 1. Mastery Learning 2. Direct Instruction 3. Madeline Hunter’s Effective Teaching Model 4. What Are the Limits of Teacher-Directed Instruction? 5. References 4. Direct instruction 5. Madeline Hunter’s Effective Teaching Model 3. Student-centered models of learning Chapter 8: Instructional Strategies/Student-Centered Models of Learning 1. Inquiry Learning 2. Cooperative Learning 3. Examples of Cooperative and Collaborative Learning 4. References 4. Instructional strategies: An abundance of choices 5. References
1. Selecting general learning goals 2. Selecting General Learning Goals 1. National and State Learning Standards 2. Curriculum Frameworks and Curriculum Guides 3. Formulating learning objectives Chapter 9: Instructional Planning/Formulating Learning Objectives 1. From General to Specific: Selecting Content Topics 2. From Specific to General: Behavioral Objectives 3. Finding the Best in Both Approaches 4. References 2. Taxonomies of educational objectives Chapter 9: Instructional Planning/Taxonomies of Educational Objectives 1. Taxonomies of Educational Objectives 1. Bloom’s Taxonomy 2. Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised 3. Taxonomies of Affective Objectives and Psychomotor Objectives 2. References 4. Students as a source of instructional goals Chapter 9: Instructional Planning/Students and Instructional Goals 1. Students as a Source of Instructional Goals 1. Emergent Curriculum 2. Multicultural and Anti-Bias Education 2. References 5. Enhancing student learning through a variety of resources Chapter 9: Instructional Planning/Enhancing Learning with Variety of Resources 1. Enhancing Student Learning through a Variety of Resources 1. The Internet as a Learning Tool 2. Using Local Experts and Field Trips 1. Local Experts 2. Field Trips 3. Service Learning 2. References 6. Creating bridges among curriculum goals and students’ experiences Chapter 9: Instructional Planning/Creating Bridges with Students' Experiences 1. Creating Bridges Among Curriculum Goals and Students’ Prior Experiences 1. Modeling 1. Modeling as a Demonstration 2. Modeling as Simplified Representation 2. Activating Prior Knowledge 3. Anticipating Preconceptions of Students 4. Guided Practice, Independent Practice, and Homework 1. Guided Practice 2. Independent Practice 3. Homework 2. References 7. Planning for instruction as well as for learning 8. References
1. Basic Concepts 2. Assessment for Learning: An Overview 3. Selecting appropriate assessment techniques, Part 1: High quality assessments Chapter 10: Teacher-Made Assessment Strategies/Selecting Appropriate Assessments, Part 1 1. Selecting Appropriate Assessment Techniques, Part 1: High Quality Assessments 1. Validity 2. Reliability 3. Absence of Bias 2. References 2. Validity 3. Reliability 4. Selecting Appropriate Assessment Techniques, Part 2: Types of Teacher-made Assessments Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies/Selecting Appropriate Assessment Techniques, Part 2 1. Selecting Appropriate Assessment Techniques, Part 2: Types of Teacher-made Assessments 1. Teachers’ Observation, Questioning, and Record Keeping 1. Observation 2. Questioning 3. Record Keeping 2. References 2. Teacher’s observations, questioning, record keeping 3. Selected response items Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies/Selected Response Items 1. Selected Response Items 1. Common Problems 2. Strengths and Weaknesses of Selected Response Items 2. References 4. Constructed response items Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies/Constructed Response Items 1. Completion and Short Answer 2. Extended Response 3. Scoring Rubrics 4. References 5. Performance assessments Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies/Performance Assessments 1. Performance Assessments 1. Advantages and Disadvantages 2. Portfolios 1. Advantages and Disadvantages 3. References 2. Portfolios 5. Assessment that enhances motivation and student confidence Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies/Assessment That Enhances Motivation 1. Assessment that Enhances Motivation and Student Confidence 1. Teachers’ Purposes and Beliefs 2. Choosing Assessments 3. Providing Feedback 4. Self and Peer Assessment 2. References 2. Adjusting instruction based on assessment Chapter 10: Teacher-Made Assessment Strategies/Adjusting Instruction re Assessment 1. Adjusting Instruction Based on Assessment 2. Communication with Parents and Guardians 3. Action Research: Studying yourself and your students 1. Cycles of Planning, Acting and Reflecting 2. Ethical issues—privacy and voluntary consent 4. References 3. Communicating with parents and guardians 4. Action research: Studying yourself and your students 6. Grading and Reporting Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies/Grading and Reporting 1. How are various assignments and assessments weighted? 2. How should grades be calculated? 3. What kinds of grade descriptions should be used? 4. References 7. Summary of Chapter 10: Teacher-made Assessment Strategies 8. References
1. Basic Concepts 1. Uses of standardized tests 1. Types of Standardized Tests 2. High Stakes Testing by States Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments/High Stakes Testing by States 1. Standards Based Assessment 1. Academic Content Standards 2. Alignment of Standards, Testing and Classroom Curriculum 3. Sampling content 2. Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) 1. Subgroups and AYP 2. Sanctions and AYP 3. References 2. Standards Based Assessment 3. Adequate Yearly Progress 4. Growth or Value Added models Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments/Growth or Value Added Models 1. Growth or Value Added Models 1. Differing State Standards 2. Implications for Beginning Teachers 2. References 5. International Testing Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments/International Testing 1. International Testing 1. Testing in the Canadian Provinces 2. International Comparisons 2. References 3. Understanding Test Results Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments/Understanding Test Results 1. Basic Concepts about Standardized Measurement 1. Frequency Distributions 2. Central tendency and Variability 3. Kinds of Test Scores 1. Z-score 2. T score 3. Stanines 4. Grade Equivalent Scores 2. References 2. Issues with Standardized Tests Chapter 11: Standardized and Other Formal Assessments/Issues about Standardized Tests 1. Are Standardized Tests Biased? 2. Item Content and Format 3. Accuracy of Predictions 4. Stereotype Threat 5. Do Teachers Teach to the Tests? 6. Do Students and Educators Cheat? 7. References 4. Summary and Conclusions 5. References
1. Communication in Classrooms vs. Communication Elsewhere Chapter 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication/Communication in Class vs. Elsewhere 1. Communication in Classrooms vs. Communication Elsewhere 1. Functions of Talk: Content, Procedures, and Behavior Control 2. Verbal, Nonverbal, and Unintended Communication 2. References 2. Effective Verbal Communication Chapter 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication/Verbal vs. Nonverbal Communication 1. Effective Verbal Communication 1. Effective Content Talk 2. Effective Procedural and Control Talk 3. Effective Nonverbal Communication 1. Eye Contact 4. Wait Time 5. Social Distance 2. References 3. Effective Nonverbal Communication 4. Structures of Participation: Effects on Communication Chapter 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication/Structures of Participation 1. Lecture 2. Questions and Answers 3. Classroom Discussion 4. Group Work 5. References 5. Communication Styles in the Classroom Chapter 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication/Communication Styles in the Classroom 1. Communication Styles in the Classroom 1. How Teachers Talk 2. How Students Talk 2. References 6. Using Classroom Talk to Stimulate Students’ Thinking Chapter 12: The Nature of Classroom Communication/Classroom Talk to Stimulate Thinking 1. Using Classroom Talk to Stimulate Students' Thinking 1. Probing for Learner Understanding 2. Helping Students To Articulate Their Ideas and Thinking 3. Promoting Academic Risk-Taking and Problem-Solving 4. Promoting a Caring Community 2. References 7. The Bottom Line: Messages Sent, Messages Reconstructed 8. References
1. Types of resources for professional development and learning Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner/Resources for Professional Development 1. Types of Resources for Professional Development and Learning 1. Colleagues as a Resource 2. Professional Associations and Professional Development Activities 2. Reading and Understanding Professional Articles Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner/Understanding Professional Articles 1. Reading and Understanding Professional Articles 1. Three Purposes of Educational Publications 2. Authors’ Assumptions about Readers 2. References 3. Examples of Professional Publications Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner/Examples of Professional Articles 1. Example #1: How Do Children Acquire Moral Commitments? 1. Relevance: A Framework for Understanding Moral Development 2. The Reader's Role: Interested Observer of Children 2. Example #2: Learning Disability as a Misleading Label 1. Relevance: A Critical Framework 2. The Readers’ Role: Concerned Advocate for Social Justice 3. Example #3: The Impact of Bilingualism on Reading 1. Relevance: Recommendations for Teaching English as an Additional Language 2. The Reader's Role: Both Teacher and Researcher 4. References 4. Action Research: Hearing from teachers about improving practice Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner/Action Research 1. Action Research: Hearing from Teachers about Improving Practice 1. The Nature of Action Research 2. Action Research in Practice 1. Example #1: Focusing on Motivating Students 2. Example #2: Focusing on Development 3. Example #3: Focusing on Collaboration 2. References 5. The challenges of action research Chapter 13: The Reflective Practitioner/Cautions and Challenges of Action Research 1. Ethical Cautions about Action Research 1. Insuring Privacy of the Student 2. Gaining Informed Consent 3. Insuring Freedom to Participate 2. Practical Challenges about Action Research 3. References 6. Benefiting from All Kinds of Research 7. References
Related External Links 
Educational Psychology -- a free, open-source textbook downloadable as a PDF file. It is meant to serve as an introduction to educational psychology for preservice teachers. The book uses some of the same content as this wikibook, but has been revised and reorganized extensively.
teachingedpsych.wikispaces.com --a wiki of resources for teaching introductory educational psychology.
Personality psychology wiki This is a wiki, not HTML-based.
An introductory psychology wiki emphasizing videos A wiki-based site that is especially rich in short videos useful for teaching introductory psychology
- Educational Testing Service. (2004). Study Guide for 'Principles of Learning and Teaching, 2nd edition. Princeton, NJ: Author