Coaching Youth Middle Distance Runners: Competition
Middle Distance Runners
Training | Competition
To some extent, "the differences in variability of race times between types of race, ability groups, age groups, and sexes probably arise from differences in competitive experience and attitude toward competing" (Hopkins & Hewson, 2001, p. 1588). There can also be no doubt that environmental effects, such as altitude and climate, can significantly affect competition performance (Hollings, Hopkins, & Hume, 2012). Therefore, it is often not the fastest runner who wins a championship middle distance race but rather the athlete with the best tactics (Thiel, Foster, Banzer, & De Koning, 2012). Coaches, then, should stress the importance of effective racing strategies.
When deciding appropriate events for individual runners, it important to understand that the term "middle distance" includes a wide range of competitions requiring distinct skills and tactics. Different races utilize various energy systems: The longer the race, the more aerobic energy is required; conversely, the shorter the race, the more the athlete's body relies on anaerobic power (Brandon, 1995; Hill, 1999). Athletes who participate in middle distance races can come from a variety of backgrounds; therefore, not all athletes who are suited for one race may be suited for the other. Additionally, the traditional schedule for many athletics competitions is structured for the organizers' convenience, not the athletes'. Coaches should be aware of the time required to recover between races, especially during meets held in warmer temperatures: "Youth athletes are capable of tolerating the heat and performing reasonably well and safely in a range of hot environments if they prepare well, manage hydration sufficiently, and are provided the opportunity to recover adequately between contests" (Bergeron, 2009, p. 513). Runners who compete in multiple events may prefer to adopt a more conservative race strategy (Brown, 2005).
Tapering is the process by which an athlete reduces his or her training load for a period of time prior to a competition in order to improve performance. A taper that reduces volume—but not intensity—is an effective tool for improving race performance (Mujika, 2010; Mujika & Padilla, 2003). In a meta-analysis of the literature regarding the tapering process for athletes, Bosquet, Montpetit, Arvisais, and Mujika (2007) concluded that "a two-week taper during which training volume is exponentially reduced by 41–60% seems to be the most efficient strategy to maximize performance gains" (p. 1364). Even a three-week reduction in training has been shown to have no negative effect on endurance training adaptations (Houmard et al., 1990).
Although minimizing distance is an important factor in successful middle distance running (Jones & Whipp, 2002), runners can position themselves slightly off the outside shoulder of other athletes during competition to draft off of them. For their master's theses, Corvalán-Grössling (1995), Arnett (2002), and Bailey (2011) measured the psychological and physiological effects of drafting off of other runners at various angles. All three found distinct advantages to the tactic. Not only did it reduce the oxygen need for the following runner, but running at a slight angle on the outside shoulder decreased his or her RPE, even though that method produced no physiological benefit over following directly behind. Even if the drafting runner is clearly better than the person he or she is following, it still makes sense to draft, since it takes away the possibility of the weaker athlete using the same drafting strategy (Pitcher, 2009).
Pacing strategies for elite performances in middle distance running events differ markedly between events, with shorter races requiring faster starts and longer races necessitating more careful control of pace (Tucker, Lambert, & Noakes, 2006). While it is theoretically possible to achieve one's best performance with a simple "all-out" strategy in a middle distance race (Morton, 2009), this is often not the case in practice, and consistent and deliberate pacing is essential for young runners. Runners with an excellent recall and recognition of their own pace fare better in terms of timed performance (Kazuo, 1998). As athletes gain experience, they develop an internal clock that allows them to accurately gauge their speed and predictably run prescribed splits (Green, Sapp, Pritchett, & Bishop, 2010). Even well trained runners tend to slow their pace somewhat in the later stages of a race (Abbiss & Laursen, 2008). Starting with a more conservative pace will allow the athlete to run faster during the critical middle-to-late portions of the race, when other runners tend to tire and slow down (Muehlbauer, Schindler, & Panzer, 2010).
If a runner is struggling with the physical task of shifting his or her running pace during a race, try to focus on form as a means of changing pace. For runners between the ages of five and 12 years old, increased stride length is more closely correlated to faster times than increased stride frequency (Cox & Beller, 2011). Above a certain speed, however, frequency ultimately becomes more important than length (Dorn, Schache, & Pandy, 2012). Runners are more likely to achieve this increased stride frequency by focusing on moving the recovery leg back to active position, rather than trying to "push off" the ground with more force (Kadono, Ae, Suzuki, & Shibayama, 2011).
Physiologically, the 800 m is more similar to the 400 m dash than other middle distance races (Brandon & Boileau, 1992; Hanon & Thomas, 2011), and it requires significant anaerobic capabilities (Deason, Powers, Lawler, Ayers, & Stuart, 1991). In theory, 800 m runners often attempt to run their second lap as fast as their first, but in practice, this usually is not the case; thus, most models of this race prescribe a slightly faster first lap than second (Prendergast, 2002; Reardon, 2012). Even so, runners should be well aware of the physical demands for this event, and pace themselves accordingly.
The 1,500 m, 1,600 m, or full mile run is typically held near the conclusion of a meet. In any case, runners must find a balance during the start: It must be fast, to maximize oxygen intake at early in the race, but not too fast, as to prevent them from being able to surge at around the 1,200 m mark (Hanon, Levêque, Vivier, Thomas, 2007; Hanon, Levêque, Thomas, & Vivier, 2008). Almost inevitably, the third lap will be the slowest (Noakes, Lambert, & Hauman, 2009), but runners should be able to anticipate and plan for that portion of the race.
While experienced runners in shorter races like the 800 m almost always run their second lap slower than the first, the body's need for homeostasis during longer races will require a more thoughtful race pace (Tucker et al., 2006). Though Gosztyla, Edwards, Quinn, and Kenefick (2006) suggested that runners in races 3,000 m and above should hypothetically begin their race at a slightly faster pace than their anticipated race pace, younger athletes are likely to do this anyway, given their inexperience.
As athletes reach adolescence and males develop more rapidly, the performance gap between genders may increase (Malina et al., 2010). That said, most of the competition strategies mentioned here should apply to both male and female athletes. Indeed, a number of the cited studies in this section regard experiments specifically conducted on female runners. Perhaps the most significant difference between genders is that female runners may rely more heavily on their aerobic energy system than males during races between 1,500 and 3,000 m (Duffield, Dawson, & Goodman, 2005).
- Abbiss, C. & Laursen, P. (2008). "Describing and understanding pacing strategies during athletic competition". Sports Medicine, 38 (3): 239–252. doi:10.2165/00007256-200838030-00004. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/adis/smd/2008/00000038/00000003/art00004
- Arnett, M. S. (2002). The physiological effects of drafting in runners. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Wisconsin–La Crosse. http://minds.wisconsin.edu/bitstream/handle/1793/48634/Oarnettmary2002.PDF.
- Bailey, S. (2011). The effects of drafting distances on heart rate responses, oxygen consumption, and perceived exertion for a group of female cross-country runners. Unpublished master's thesis, State University of New York College, Cortland, NY. http://dspace.sunyconnect.suny.edu/bitstream/handle/1951/57156/Bailey%2c%20Stephanie.pdf?sequence=1.
- Bergeron, M. F. (2009). "Youth sports in the heat". Sports Medicine, 39 (7): 513–522. doi:10.2165/00007256-200939070-00001. http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00007256-200939070-00001
- Bosquet, L., Montpetit, J., Arvisais, D. & Mujika, I. (2007). "Effects of tapering on performance: A meta-analysis". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39 (8). doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e31806010e0. http://www.fftri.com/files/pdf/Effects%20of%20Tapering%20on%20Performance_0.pdf
- Brandon, L. J. (1995). "Physiological factors associated with middle distance running performance". Sports Medicine, (Auckland, New Zealand) 19 (4): 268–277. doi:10.2165/00007256-199519040-00004. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7604199
- Brandon, L. J. & Boileau, R. A. (1992). "Influence of metabolic, mechanical and physique variables on middle distance running". The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 32 (1): 1–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1405567.
- Brown, E. (2005). "Running strategy of female middle distance runners attempting the 800m and 1500m "double" at a major championship: a performance analysis and qualitative investigation". International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 5 (3): 73–88. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/uwic/ujpa/2005/00000005/00000003/art00008.
- Corvalán-Grössling, V. (1995). The physiological and perceived effects of drafting on a group of highly trained distance runners. Unpublished master's thesis, University of British Colombia, Canada. https://circle.ubc.ca/bitstream/handle/2429/4043/ubc_1995-0589.pdf.
- Cox, E. & Beller, J. M. (2011, April). Running gait stabilization in children ages 5 to 12 years. Paper presented at the 2011 AAHPERD National Convention and Exposition, San Diego, CA. http://aahperd.confex.com/aahperd/2011/preliminaryprogram/abstract_16229.htm.
- Deason, Powers, Lawler, Ayers & Stuart (1991). "Physiological correlates to 800 meter running performance". Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness, 31 (4): 499–504. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1806725.
- Dorn, T. W., Schache, A. G. & Pandy, M. G. (2012). "Muscular strategy shift in human running: Dependence of running speed on hip and ankle muscle performance". The Journal of Experimental Biology, 215 (11): 1944–1956. doi:10.1242/jeb.064527. http://jeb.biologists.org/content/215/11/1944.full
- Duffield, R., Dawson, B. & Goodman, C. (2005). "Energy system contribution to 1500-and 3000-metre track running". Journal of Sports Sciences, 23 (10): 993–1002. doi:10.1080/02640410400021963. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02640410400021963
- Green, J. M., Sapp, A. L., Pritchett, R. C. & Bishop, P. A. (2010). "Pacing accuracy in collegiate and recreational runners". European Journal of Applied Physiology, 108 (3): 567–572. doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1257-5. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00421-009-1257-5?LI=true
- Gosztyla, A. E., Edwards, D. G., Quinn, T. J. & Kenefick, R. W. (2006). "The impact of different pacing strategies on five-kilometer running time trial performance". Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20 (4): 882–886. doi:10.1519/00124278-200611000-00026. http://www.setantacollege.com/wp-content/uploads/Journal_db/THE%20IMPACT%20OF%20DIFFERENT%20PACING%20STRATEGIES%20ON%20FIVE-KILOMETER%20RUNNING%20TIME%20TRIAL%20PERFORMANCE.pdf
- Hanon, C., Levêque, J. M., Thomas, C. & Vivier, L. (2008). "Pacing Strategy and V̇o2 Kinetics during a 1500-m Race". International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29 (3): 206–211. doi:10.1055/s-2007-965109. https://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-2007-965109
- Hanon, C., Levêque, J. M., Vivier, L. & Thomas, C. (2007). "Oxygen uptake in the 1500 metres". New Studies in Athletics, 22 (1): 15–22. http://richwoodstrack.com/rhs_team_area/distance/tech_oxygen%20uptake%201500m%20pacing.pdf.
- Hanon, C. & Thomas, C. (2011). "Effects of optimal pacing strategies for 400-, 800-, and 1500-m races on the V̇o2 response". Journal of Sports Sciences, 29 (9): 905–912. doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.562232. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02640414.2011.562232
- Hill, D. (1999). "Energy system contributions in middle-distance running events". Journal of Sports Sciences, 17 (6): 477–483. doi:10.1080/026404199365786. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/026404199365786
- Hollings, S. C., Hopkins, W. G. & Hume, P. A. (2012). "Environmental and venue-related factors affecting the performance of elite male track athletes". European Journal of Sport Science, 12 (3): 201–206. doi:10.1080/17461391.2011.552640. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2011.552640
- Hopkins, W. G. & Hewson, D. J. (2001). "Variability of competitive performance of distance runners". Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33 (9): 1588–1592. doi:10.1097/00005768-200109000-00023. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11528349
- Houmard, J. A., Costill, D. L., Mitchell, J. B., Park, S. H., Hickner, R. C. & Roemmich, J. N. (1990). "Reduced training maintains performance in distance runners". International Journal of Sports Medicine, 11 (1): 46–52. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1024761. https://www.thieme-connect.com/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-2007-1024761
- Jones & Whipp (2002). "Bioenergetic constraints on tactical decision making in middle distance running". British Journal of Sports Medicine, 36 (2): 102–104. doi:10.1136/bjsm.36.2.102. http://bjsportmed.com/content/36/2/102.full
- Kadono, H., Ae, M., Suzuki, Y. & Shibayama, K. (2011). Vilas-Boas, Machado; Kim et al.. eds. "Effects of fatigue on the leg kinetics in all-out 600 m running". Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports,. Biomechanics in Sports (Porto, Portugal): 519-522. https://ojs.ub.uni-konstanz.de/cpa/article/download/4887/4530.
- Kazuo, T. (1998). "Cognitive strategies and recall of pace by long-distance runners". Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86 (3): 763–770. doi:10.2466/pms.19184.108.40.2063. http://www.amsciepub.com/doi/abs/10.2466/pms.19220.127.116.113
- Malina, R., Sławinska, T., Ignasiak, Z., Rożek, K., Kochan, K., Domaradzki, J. & Fugiel, J. (2010). "Sex differences in growth and performance of track and field athletes 11–15 years". Journal of Human Kinetics, 24 (1): 79–85. doi:10.2478/v10078-010-0023-4. http://www.degruyter.com/dg/viewarticle.fullcontentlink:pdfeventlink/$002fj$002fhukin.2010.24.issue--1$002fv10078-010-0023-4$002fv10078-010-0023-4.xml?t:ac=j$002fhukin.2010.24.issue--1$002fv10078-010-0023-4$002fv10078-010-0023-4.xml
- Morton, R. H. (2009). "A new modelling approach demonstrating the inability to make up for lost time in endurance running events". IMA Journal of Management Mathematics, 20 (2): 109–120. doi:10.1093/imaman/dpn022. http://imaman.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/2/109.short
- Muehlbauer, T., Schindler, C. & Panzer, S. (2010). "Pacing and performance in competitive middle-distance speed skating". Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81 (1): 1–6. doi:10.5641/027013610X13352775119439. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/aahperd/rqes/2010/00000081/00000001/art00001
- Mujika, I. (2010). "Intense training: The key to optimal performance before and during the taper". Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20 (Supplement issue 2): 24–31. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01189.x. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01189.x/abstract
- Mujika, I. & Padilla, S. (2003). "Scientific bases for precompetition tapering strategies". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35 (7): 1182–1187. doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000074448.73931.11. http://www.bodymechanics.info/files/1_multipart_xF8FF_2_Tapering_Review_by_Mujika_and_Padilla.pdf
- Noakes, T. D., Lambert, M. I. & Hauman, R. (2009). "Which lap is the slowest? An analysis of 32 world mile record performances". British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43 (10): 760–764. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2008.046763. http://bjsportmed.com/content/43/10/760.abstract
- Prendergast, Kevin (2002). "Optimum Speed distribution in 800 m and training implications". Modern Athlete and Coach, 40 (1): 3–8. http://atfcaviccoaches.org.au/wpblog/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/800_pace_distrbn_kp.pdf.
- Pitcher, A. (2009). "Optimal strategies for a two-runner model of middle-distance running". SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 70 (4): 1032–1046. doi:10.1137/090749384. http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/090749384
- Reardon, J. (2012). Optimal pacing for running 400 m and 800 m track races. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison. http://arxiv.org/pdf/1204.0313.pdf.
- Thiel, C., Foster, C., Banzer, W. & De Koning, J. (2012). "Pacing in Olympic track races: Competitive tactics versus best performance strategy". Journal of Sports Sciences, 30 (11): 1107–1115. doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.701759. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02640414.2012.701759
- Tucker, R., Lambert, M. I. & Noakes, T. D. (2006). "An analysis of pacing strategies during men's world-record performances in track athletics". International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 1 (3): 233–245. http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19116437.