Chemical Sciences: A Manual for CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test for Lectureship and JRF/Ferromagnetic resonance

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Ferromagnetic resonance, or FMR, is a spectroscopic technique to probe the magnetization of ferromagnetic materials. It is a standard tool for probing spin waves and spin dynamics. It was unknowingly discovered by V. K. Arkad'yev when he observed the absorption of UHF radiation by ferromagnetic materials in 1911. A qualitative explanation of FMR along with an explanation of the results from Arkad'yev was offered up by Ya. G. Dorfman in 1923 when he suggested that the optical transitions due to Zeeman splitting could provide a way to study ferromagnetic structure. FMR is very broadly similar to EPR, and also somewhat similar to nuclear magnetic resonance except that FMR probes the sample magnetization resulting from the magnetic moments of dipolar-coupled but unpaired electrons whereas NMR probes the magnetic moment of atomic nuclei screened by the atomic or molecular orbitals surrounding such nuclei of non-zero nuclear spin.

FMR arises from the precessional motion of the (usually quite large) magnetization \vec{B} of a ferromagnetic material in an external magnetic field H0. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the sample magnetization which causes the magnetic moments in the sample to precess. The precession frequency of the magnetization depends on the orientation of the material, the strength of the magnetic field, as well as the macroscopic magnetization of the sample; the effective precession frequency of the ferromagnet is much lower in value from the precession frequency observed for free electrons in ESR or EPR. Moreover, linewidths of absorption peaks can be greatly affected both by dipolar-narrowing and exchange-broadening (quantum) effects. Furthermore, not all absorption peaks observed in FMR are caused by the precession of the magnetic moments of electrons in the ferromagnet. Thus, the theoretical analysis of FMR spectra is far more complex than that of ESR or NMR spectra.

The basic setup for an FMR experiment is a microwave resonant cavity with an electromagnet. The resonant cavity is fixed at a frequency in the super high frequency band. A detector is placed at the end of the cavity to detect the microwaves. The magnetic sample is placed between the poles of the electromagnet and the magnetic field is swept while the resonant absorption intensity of the microwaves is detected. When the magnetization precession frequency and the resonant cavity frequency are the same, absorption increases sharply which is indicated by a decrease in the intensity at the detector.

References[edit]

  • S. V. Vonsovskii, Ferromagnetic Resonance (Pergamon: Oxford, 1966).
  • S. Chikazumi, Physics of Ferromagnetism (Oxford: New York, 1996).