Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Body Organisation/Test Yourself Answers

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1. Living organisms can be distinguished from non-living matter because they usually move and grow. They also excrete, respire, are sensitive to the environment, reproduce and feed. 2. What tissue types would you find:

a) Columnar epithelial tissue lines the intestine.
b) Keratinised stratified squamous epithelium covers the body.
c) Skeletal muscle moves bones.
d) Blood (a type of connective tissue) flows through blood vessels.
e) Nerves link the eye to the brain
f) Transitional epithelium lines the bladder

3. Name the body cavity in which the following organs are found:

a) The heart is located in the pericardial cavity (situated in the thoracic cavity).
b) The bladder is situated in the pelvic cavity
c) The stomach is situated in the abdominal cavity
d) The lungs are situated in the pleural cavity (also situated in the thoracic cavity).

4. Body systems

a) The skeletal system includes the bones and joints
b) The reproductive system includes the ovaries and testes
c) The endocrine system produces hormones.
d) The circulatory system includes the heart, blood vessels and blood.

5. Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant conditions in an animal’s body.

6. Circle which is correct:

a) The head is cranial to the neck
b) The heart is medial to the ribs
c) The elbow is proximal to the fingers
d) The spine is dorsal to the heart

7. Indicate whether or not these statements are true.

a) The stomach is cranial to the diaphragm - false. It is caudal to the diaphragm.
b) The heart lies in the pelvic cavity - false. It lies in the thoracic cavity or to be more precise in the pleural cavity.
c) The spleen is roughly the same size as the stomach and lies near it - true
d) The small intestine is proximal to the kidneys - false (remember the term proximal is only used when describing the relationship of parts of the limbs to each other). Perhaps it would be better to say that the small intestine is ventral to the kidneys.
e) The bladder is medial to the hips - true
f) The liver is cranial to the heart - false. The liver is caudal to the heart.