# Write Yourself a Scheme in 48 Hours/LaTeX

## main.tex

main.tex
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\include{chapters/ch1}
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\include{chapters/ch8}
\include{chapters/ch9}
\include{chapters/ch10}

\include{misc/conclusion}

\appendix
\chapter{Complete Parser}
\lstinputlisting[basicstyle=\small,caption={[completeparser.hs]}, numbers=left,numberstyle=\tiny,stepnumber=5,firstnumber=1]{code/ioparser.hs}
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## ./chapters/

### ch1.tex

ch1.tex
\chapter[First Steps]{First Steps: Compiling and Running}

First, you'll need to install GHC\index{GHC}. On Linux\index{Linux}, it's often pre-installed or available via apt-get or yum. It's also downloadable from \url{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/}. A binary package is probably easiest, unless you really know what you're doing. It should download and install like any other software package. This tutorial was developed on Linux, but everything should also work on Windows\index{Windows} as long as you know how to use the DOS command line.

For UNIX\index{UNIX} (or \href{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/windows/ntemacs.html}{Windows Emacs}) users, there is a pretty good \href{http://haskell.org/haskell-mode/}{Emacs mode}, including syntax highlighting and automatic indentation. Windows users can use Notepad or any other text editor: Haskell syntax is fairly Notepad-friendly, though you have to be careful with the indentation. \href{http://www.eclipse.org/}{Eclipse\index{Eclipse}} users might want to try the \href{http://eclipsefp.sourceforge.net/haskell/}{Function Programming\index{Function Programming}} plug-in. Finally, there's also a \href{http://www.haskell.org/visualhaskell/}{Haskell plugin for Visual Studio\index{Visual Studio}} using the GHC compiler.

Now, it's time for your first Haskell program. This program will read a name off the command line and then print a greeting. Create a file ending in \verb|.hs| and type the following text:

Let's go through this code. The first two lines specify that we'll be creating a module named \verb|Main|\index{Main@\texttt{Main}} that imports the \href{http://www.haskell.org/onlinereport/system.html}{\texttt{System}\index{System@\texttt{System}}} module. Every Haskell program begins with an action called \verb|main|\index{main@\texttt{main}} in a module named \verb|Main|. That module may import others, but it must be present for the compiler to generate an executable file. Haskell is case-sensitive: module names are always capitalized, declarations always uncapitalized.

The line \lstinline|main :: IO ()| is a type declaration: it says that the action \verb|main| has type \lstinline|IO ()|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}}. Type declarations in Haskell are optional: the compiler figures them out automatically, and only complains if they differ from what you've specified. In this tutorial, I specify the types of all declarations explicitly, for clarity. If you're following along at home, you may want to omit them, because it's less to change as we build our program.

The \verb|IO| type is an instance of something called a monad\index{monad}, which is a scary name for a not-so-scary concept. Basically, a monad is a way of saying there's some extra information attached to this value, which most functions don't need to worry about.'' In this example, the extra information'' is the fact that this action performs IO\index{I/O}, and the basic value is nothing, represented as \lstinline|()|. Monadic values are often called actions,'' because the easiest way to think about the \verb|IO| monad is a sequencing of actions that each might affect the outside world.

Haskell is a declarative language\index{declarative language}: instead of giving the computer a sequence of instructions to carry out, you give it a collection of definitions that tell it how to perform every function it might need. These definitions use various compositions of actions and functions. The compiler figures out an execution path that puts everything together.

To write one of these definitions, you set it up as an equation. The left hand side defines a name, and optionally one or more patterns (explained later) that will bind variables. The right hand side defines some composition of other definitions that tells the computer what to do when it encounters the name. These equations behave just like ordinary equations in algebra: you can always substitute the right hand side for the left within the text of the program, and it'll evaluate to the same value. Called \textit{referential transparency}\index{referential transparency}, this property makes it significantly easier to reason about Haskell programs than other languages.

How will we define our \verb|main|\index{main@\texttt{main}} action? We know that it must be an \verb|IO|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}} action, and that we want it to read the command line args and print some output. There are two ways to create an \verb|IO| action:

\begin{enumerate}
\item Lift an ordinary value into the \verb|IO| monad, using the \verb|return| function.
\item Combine two existing \verb|IO| actions.
\end{enumerate}

Since we want to do two things, we'll take the second approach. The built-in action \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/6.4/html/libraries/base/System.Environment.html\#v\%3AgetArgs}{\texttt{getArgs}\index{getArgs@\texttt{getArgs}}} reads the command-line arguments and stores them in a list of strings. The built-in function \verb|putStrLn|\index{putStrLn@\texttt{putStrln}} takes a string and writes it to the console.

To combine them, we use a do-block. A do-block consists of a series of lines, all lined up with the first non-whitespace character after the do. Each line can have one of two forms:

\begin{enumerate}
\item \verb|name| \lstinline|<-| \verb|action|
\item \verb|action|
\end{enumerate}

The first form takes the result of the \verb|action| and binds it to \verb|name|. For example, if the type of the action is \lstinline|IO [String]|\index{String@\texttt{String}} (an IO action returning a list of strings, as with \verb|getArgs|), then \verb|name| will be bound to the list of strings returned. The second form just executes the action, sequencing it with the previous line through the \verb|>>|\index{>>@\texttt{>>}} (pronounced bind'') operator. This operator has different semantics for each monad: in the case of the IO monad\index{IO@\texttt{IO}}, it executes the actions sequentially, performing whatever external side-effects that result. Because the semantics of this composition depends upon the particular monad used, you cannot mix actions of different monad types in the same do-block.

Of course, these actions may themselves be the result of functions or complicated expressions. In this example, we first take index 0 of the argument list (\lstinline|args !! 0|), concatenate it onto the end of the string Hello, '' (\lstinline|"Hello, " ++|), and finally pass that to \lstinline|putStrLn| for IO sequencing. \verb|Strings| are lists of characters in Haskell, so you can use any of the list functions and operators on them. A full table of the standard operators and their precedences follows:

\begin{table}[h]
\caption{Operators and their precedence}
\begin{tabular}[c]{| p{2cm} | l | l | p{5cm} |}
\hline
\textbf{\small{Operator(s)}} & \textbf{\small{Precedence}} & \textbf{\small{Associativity}} & \textbf{\small{Description}} \\ \hline

\lstinline|.|			& 9 & Right & Function composition \\ \hline
\lstinline|!!| 			& 9 & Left  & List indexing \\ \hline
\lstinline|^|, \lstinline|^^|,
\lstinline|**| 			& 8 & Right & Exponentiation (integer, fractional, and floating-point) \\ \hline
\lstinline|*|, \lstinline|/| 	& 7 & Left  & Multiplication, Division \\ \hline
\lstinline|+|, \lstinline|-| 	& 6 & Left  & Addition, Subtraction \\ \hline
\lstinline|:| 			& 5 & Right & Cons (list construction) \\ \hline
\lstinline|++| 			& 5 & Right & List Concatenation \\ \hline
\lstinline|elem|,
\lstinline|notElem| 		& 4 & Left  & List Membership \\ \hline
\lstinline|==|, \lstinline|/=|,
\lstinline|<|, \lstinline|<=|,
\lstinline|>=|, \lstinline|>|   & 4 & Left  & Equals, Not-equals, and other relation operators \\ \hline
\lstinline|&&| 			& 3 & Right & Logical And \\ \hline
\lstinline!||! 			& 2 & Right & Logical Or \\ \hline
\lstinline|>>|, \lstinline|>>=| & 1 & Left  & Monadic Bind, Monadic Bind (piping value to next function) \\ \hline
\lstinline|=<<| 		& 1 & Right & Reverse Monadic Bind (same as above, but arguments reversed) \\ \hline
\verb|$| & 0 & Right & Infix Function Application (same as \verb|f x|,but right-associative instead of left) \\ \hline \end{tabular} \end{table} To compile and run the program, try something like this: \begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol] user>> ghc -o hello_you hello.hs user>> ./hello_you Jonathan Hello, Jonathan \end{lstlisting} The \verb|-o|\index{-o@\texttt{-o}} option specifies the name of the executable you want to create, and then you just specify the name of the Haskell source file. \section{Exercises} \begin{enumerate} \item Change the program so it reads two arguments from the command line, and prints out a message using both of them. \item Change the program so it performs a simple arithmetic operation on the two arguments and prints out the result. You can use \verb|read|\index{read@\texttt{read}} to convert a string to a number, and \verb|show|\index{show@\texttt{show}} to convert a number back into a string. Play around with different operations. \item \verb|getLine|\index{getLine@\texttt{getLine}} is an \verb|IO|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}} action that reads a line from the console and returns it as a string. Change the program so it prompts for a name, reads the name, and then prints that instead of the command line value. \end{enumerate}  ### ch2.tex ch2.tex \chapter{Parsing} \chapterlinks{Parsing} \section{Writing a Simple Parser} \editsection{Parsing}{1} Now, let's try writing a very simple parser. We'll be using the \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html}{Parsec}\index{Parsec@\texttt{Parsec}} library, which comes with \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc}{GHC}\index{GHC} but may need to be downloaded separately if you're using another compiler. Start by adding this line to the import section: \codesnippet{simpleparser1}{3}{3} This makes the Parsec library functions available to us, except the spaces function, whose name conflicts with a function that we'll be defining later. Now, we'll define a parser that recognizes one of the symbols allowed in Scheme identifiers: \codesnippet{simpleparser1}{9}{10} This is another example of a monad\index{monad}: in this case, the extra information'' that is being hidden is all the info about position in the input stream, backtracking record, first and follow sets, etc. Parsec takes care of all of that for us. We need only use the Parsec library function \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#oneOf}{\texttt{oneOf}}\index{oneOf@\texttt{oneOf}}, and it'll recognize a single one of any of the characters in the string passed to it. Parsec provides a number of pre-built parsers: for example, \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#letter}{letter}\index{letter} and \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#digit}{digit}\index{digit} are library functions. And as you're about to see, you can compose primitive parsers into more sophisticated productions. Let's define a function to call our parser and handle any possible errors: \codesnippet{simpleparser1}{12}{15} As you can see from the type signature, \verb|readExpr|\index{readExpr@\texttt{readExpr}} is a function (\lstinline|->|\index{->@\texttt{->}}) from a String\index{String@\texttt{String}} to a String. We name the parameter input, and pass it, along with the symbol action we defined above and the name of the parser (lisp''), to the Parsec function \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#parse}{\texttt{parse}}\index{parse@\texttt{parse}}. \verb|parse| can return either the parsed value or an error, so we need to handle the error case. Following typical Haskell convention, Parsec returns an \verb|Either|\index{Either@\texttt{Either}} data type, using the \verb|Left|\index{Left@\texttt{Left}} constructor to indicate an error and the \verb|Right|\index{Right@\texttt{Right}} one for a normal value. We use a case...of construction to match the result of parse against these alternatives. If we get a \verb|Left| value (error), then we bind the error itself to \verb|err| and return \lstinline|"No match"| with the string representation of the error. If we get a \verb|Right| value, we bind it to \verb|val|, ignore it, and return the string \lstinline|"Found value"|. The case...of construction is an example of pattern matching, which we will see in much greater detail later on. Finally, we need to change our main function to call \verb|readExpr|\index{readExpr@\texttt{readExpr}} and print out the result: \codesnippet{simpleparser1}{5}{7} The complete code is therefore: \completecode{simpleparser1}{A simpe parsing program} To compile and run this, you need to specify -package\index{-package@\texttt{-package}} parsec\index{Parsec@\texttt{Parsec}} on the command line, or else there will be link errors. For example: \begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol] user>> ghc -package parsec -o simple_parser simpleparser1.hs user>> ./simple_parser$
Found value
user>> ./simple_parser a
No match: "lisp" (line 1, column 1):
unexpected "a"
\end{lstlisting}

\section{Whitespace}
\editsection{Parsing}{2}

Next, we'll add a series of improvements to our parser that'll let it recognize progressively more complicated expressions. The current parser chokes if there's whitespace preceding our symbol:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ./simple_parser "   %"
No match: "lisp" (line 1, column 1):
unexpected " "
\end{lstlisting}

Let's fix that, so that we ignore whitespace.

First, lets define a parser that recognizes any number of whitespace characters. Incidentally, this is why we included the \lstinline|hiding (spaces)| clause when we imported Parsec: there's already a function \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#spaces}{\texttt{spaces}}\index{spaces@\texttt{spaces}} in that library, but it doesn't quite do what we want it to. (For that matter, there's also a parser called \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#lexeme}{lexeme}\index{lexme@\texttt{lexme}} that does exactly what we want, but we'll ignore that for pedagogical purposes.)

\codesnippet{simpleparser2}{16}{17}

Just as functions can be passed to functions, so can actions. Here we pass the Parser\index{Parser@\texttt{Parser}} action \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#space}{space}\index{space@\texttt{space}} to the Parser action \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#skipMany1}{\texttt{skipMany1}}\index{skipMany1@\texttt{skipMany1}}, to get a Parser that will recognize one or more spaces.

Now, let's edit our parse function so that it uses this new parser. Changes are highlighted:

%\codesnippet{simpleparser2}{12}{14}
\begin{lstlisting}
readExpr input = case parse ;\highlightcode{(spaces >> symbol)}; "lisp" input of
Left err -> "No match: " ++ show err
Right val -> "Found value"
\end{lstlisting}

We touched briefly on the \verb|>>|\index{>>@\texttt{>>}} (bind'') operator in lesson 2, where we mentioned that it was used behind the scenes to combine the lines of a do-block. Here, we use it explicitly to combine our whitespace and symbol parsers. However, bind has completely different semantics in the Parser and IO monads. In the Parser monad, bind means Attempt to match the first parser, then attempt to match the second with the remaining input, and fail if either fails.'' In general, bind will have wildly different effects in different monads; it's intended as a general way to structure computations, and so needs to be general enough to accommodate all the different types of computations. Read the documentation for the monad to figure out precisely what it does.

\completecode{simpleparser2}{A simpe parsing program, now ignoring whitespace}

Compile and run this code. Note that since we defined \verb|spaces|\index{spaces@\texttt{spaces}} in terms of \lstinline|skipMany1|\index{skipMany1@\texttt{skipMany1}}, it will no longer recognize a plain old single character. Instead you have to precede a symbol with some whitespace. We'll see how this is useful shortly:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -o simple_parser simpleparser2.hs
user>> ./simple_parser "   %" Found value
user>> ./simple_parser %
No match: "lisp" (line 1, column 1):
unexpected "%"
expecting space
user>> ./simple_parser "   abc"
No match: "lisp" (line 1, column 4):
unexpected "a"
expecting space
\end{lstlisting}

\section{Return Values}
\editsection{Parsing}{3}

Right now, the parser doesn't do much of anything---it just tells us whether a given string can be recognized or not. Generally, we want something more out of our parsers: we want them to convert the input into a data structure that we can traverse easily. In this section, we learn how to define a data type, and how to modify our parser so that it returns this data type.

First, we need to define a data type that can hold any Lisp value:

\codesnippet{datatypeparser}{21}{26}

This is an example of an algebraic data type: it defines a set of possible values that a variable of type \verb|LispVal| can hold. Each alternative (called a constructor and separated by \lstinline!|!) contains a tag for the constructor along with the type of data that that constructor can hold. In this example, a \verb|LispVal|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}} can be:

\begin{enumerate}
\item An \verb|Atom|\index{Atom@\texttt{Atom}}, which stores a String\index{String@\texttt{String}} naming the atom
\item A \verb|List|\index{List@\texttt{List}}, which stores a list of other \verb|LispVals| (Haskell lists are denoted by brackets); also called a proper list
\item A \verb|DottedList|\index{DottedList@\texttt{DottedList}}, representing the Scheme form \lstinline|(a b . c)|; also called an improper list. This stores a list of all elements but the last, and then stores the last element as another field
\item A \verb|Number|\index{Number@\texttt{Number}}, containing a Haskell Integer
\item A \verb|String|, containing a Haskell String
\item A \verb|Bool|\index{Bool@\texttt{Bool}}, containing a Haskell boolean value
\end{enumerate}

Constructors and types have different namespaces, so you can have both a constructor named \verb|String| and a type named \verb|String|. Both types and constructor tags always begin with capital letters.

Next, let's add a few more parsing functions to create values of these types. A string is a double quote mark, followed by any number of non-quote characters, followed by a closing quote mark:

\codesnippet{datatypeparser}{28}{32}

We're back to using the do-notation instead of the \lstinline|>>|\index{>>@\texttt{>>}} operator. This is because we'll be retrieving the value of our parse (returned by \lstinline|many (noneOf "|\textcolor{string}{\texttt{\"}}\lstinline|"|\lstinline|)|)\index{many@\texttt{many}}\index{noneOf@\texttt{noneOf}} and manipulating it, interleaving some other parse operations in the meantime. In general, use \lstinline|>>| if the actions don't return a value, \lstinline|>>=|\index{>>=@\texttt{>>=}} if you'll be immediately passing that value into the next action, and do-notation otherwise.

Once we've finished the parse and have the Haskell \verb|String|\index{String@\texttt{String}} returned from many, we apply the String constructor (from our \verb|LispVal|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}} data type) to turn it into a \verb|LispVal|. Every constructor in an algebraic data type also acts like a function that turns its arguments into a value of its type. It also serves as a pattern that can be used in the left-hand side of a pattern-matching expression.

We then apply the built-in function return to lift our \verb|LispVal| into the Parser monad. Remember, each line of a do-block must have the same type, but the result of our String constructor is just a plain old \verb|LispVal|. Return lets us wrap that up in a Parser action that consumes no input but returns it as the inner value. Thus, the whole \verb|parseString|\index{parseString@\texttt{parseString}} action will have type \verb|Parser LispVal|\index{Parser@\texttt{Parser}}.

The \verb|$| operator is infix function application: it's the same as if we'd written return \lstinline|(String x)|, but \verb|$| is right-associative, letting us eliminate some parentheses. Since \verb|$| is an operator, you can do anything with it that you'd normally do to a function: pass it around, partially apply it, etc. In this respect, it functions like the Lisp function \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-9.html\#\%_sec_6.4}{apply}. Now let's move on to Scheme variables. An \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-5.html\#\%_sec_2.1}{\texttt{atom}} is a letter or symbol, followed by any number of letters, digits, or symbols: \codesnippet{datatypeparser}{34}{41} Here, we introduce another Parsec combinator, the choice operator \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#or}{\texttt{<|>}}. This tries the first parser, then if it fails, tries the second. If either succeeds, then it returns the value returned by that parser. The first parser must fail before it consumes any input: we'll see later how to implement backtracking. Once we've read the first character and the rest of the atom, we need to put them together. The \verb|let| statement defines a new variable atom. We use the list concatenation operator \lstinline|++| for this. Recall that first is just a single character, so we convert it into a singleton list by putting brackets around it. If we'd wanted to create a list containing many elements, we need only separate them by commas. Then we use a case statement to determine which \verb|LispVal| to create and return, matching against the literal strings for true and false. The otherwise alternative is a readability trick: it binds a variable named otherwise, whose value we ignore, and then always returns the value of atom Finally, we create one more parser, for numbers. This shows one more way of dealing with monadic values: \codesnippet{datatypeparser}{43}{44} It's easiest to read this backwards, since both function application (\verb|$|) and function composition (\verb|.|) associate to the right. The parsec combinator \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#many1}{many1} matches one or more of its argument, so here we're matching one or more digits. We'd like to construct a number \verb|LispVal| from the resulting string, but we have a few type mismatches. First, we use the built-in function read to convert that string into a number. Then we pass the result to \verb|Number| to get a \verb|LispVal|. The function composition operator \verb|.| creates a function that applies its right argument and then passes the result to the left argument, so we use that to combine the two function applications.

Unfortunately, the result of \lstinline|many1 digit| is actually a Parser \verb|String|, so our combined \lstinline|Number . read| still can't operate on it. We need a way to tell it to just operate on the value inside the monad, giving us back a Parser \verb|LispVal|. The standard function \verb|liftM| does exactly that, so we apply \verb|liftM| to our \lstinline|Number . read| function, and then apply the result of that to our parser.

We also have to import the Monad module up at the top of our program to get access to \verb|liftM|:

\codesnippet{datatypeparser}{2}{2}

This style of programming---relying heavily on function composition, function application, and passing functions to functions---is very common in Haskell code. It often lets you express very complicated algorithms in a single line, breaking down intermediate steps into other functions that can be combined in various ways. Unfortunately, it means that you often have to read Haskell code from right-to-left and keep careful track of the types. We'll be seeing many more examples throughout the rest of the tutorial, so hopefully you'll get pretty comfortable with it.

Let's create a parser that accepts either a string, a number, or an atom:

\codesnippet{datatypeparser}{45}{48}

And edit readExpr so it calls our new parser:

%\lstinputlisting[firstline=13,lastline=16]{code/simpleparser2.hs}
\begin{lstlisting}
readExpr input = case parse ;\highlightcode{parseExpr}; "lisp" input of
Left err -> "No match: " ++ show err
Right _ -> "Found value"
\end{lstlisting}

The complete code is therefore:

\completecode{datatypeparser}{A parser able to handle data types}

Compile and run this code, and you'll notice that it accepts any number, string, or symbol, but not other strings:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -o simple_parser datatypeparser.hs
user>> ./simple_parser "\"this is a string\""
Found value
user>> ./simple_parser 25
Found value
user>> ./simple_parser symbol
Found value
user>> ./simple_parser (symbol)
bash: syntax error near unexpected token symbol'
user>> ./simple_parser "(symbol)"
No match: "lisp" (line 1, column 1):
unexpected "("
expecting letter, "\"" or digit
\end{lstlisting}

\subsection{Exercises}

\begin{enumerate}
\item Rewrite \verb|parseNumber| using
\begin{enumerate}
\item do-notation.
\end{enumerate}
\item Our strings aren't quite \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-9.html\#\%_sec_6.3.5}{R5RS compliant}, because they don't support escaping of internal quotes within the string. Change \verb|parseString| so that \verb|\"| gives a literal quote character instead of terminating the string. You may want to replace \lstinline|noneOf "|\color{string}\verb|\"|\lstinline|"|\color{black} with a new parser action that accepts either a non-quote character or a backslash followed by a quote mark.
\item Modify the previous exercise to support \verb|\n|, \verb|\r|, \verb|\t|, \verb|\\|, and any other desired escape characters.
\item Change \verb|parseNumber| to support the \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-9.html\#\%_sec_6.2.4}{Scheme standard for different bases}. You may find the \href{http://www.haskell.org/onlinereport/numeric.html\#sect14}{\texttt{readOct} and \texttt{readHex}} functions useful.
\item Add a Character constructor to \verb|LispVal|, and create a parser for \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-9.html\#\%_sec_6.3.4}{character literals} as described in R5RS.
\item Add data types and parsers to support the \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-9.html\#\%_sec_6.2.1}{full numeric tower} of Scheme numeric types. Haskell has built-in types to represent many of these; check the Prelude. For the others, you can define compound types that represent eg. a Rational as a numerator and denominator, or a Complex as a real and imaginary part (each itself a Real number).
\end{enumerate}

\section{Recursive Parsers: Adding lists, dotted lists, and quoted datums}
\editsection{Parsing}{4}

Next, we add a few more parser actions to our interpreter. Start with the parenthesized lists that make Lisp famous:

\codesnippet{recursiveparser}{46}{47}

This works analogously to parseNumber, first parsing a series of expressions separated by whitespace (\lstinline|sepBy parseExpr spaces|) and then apply the \verb|List| constructor to it within the Parser monad. Note too that we can pass \verb|parseExpr| to \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#sepBy}{\texttt{sepBy}}, even though it's an action we wrote ourselves.

The dotted-list parser is somewhat more complex, but still uses only concepts that we're already familiar with:

\codesnippet{recursiveparser}{49}{53}

Note how we can sequence together a series of Parser actions with \lstinline|>>| and then use the whole sequence on the right hand side of a do-statement. The expression \lstinline|char '.' >> spaces| returns a \verb|Parser ()|, then combining that with \verb|parseExpr| gives a Parser \verb|LispVal|, exactly the type we need for the do-block.

Next, let's add support for the single-quote syntactic sugar of Scheme:

\codesnippet{recursiveparser}{55}{59}

Most of this is fairly familiar stuff: it reads a single quote character, reads an expression and binds it to x, and then returns \lstinline[language=lisp]|(quote x)|, to use Scheme notation. The \verb|Atom| constructor works like an ordinary function: you pass it the String you're encapsulating, and it gives you back a \verb|LispVal|. You can do anything with this \verb|LispVal| that you normally could, like put it in a list.

Finally, edit our definition of \verb|parseExpr| to include our new parsers:

%\codesnippet{recursiveparser}{62}{69}
\begin{lstlisting}
parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
;\highlightcode{<|> parseQuoted};
;\highlightcode{ <|> do char '('};
;\highlightcode{x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList};
;\highlightcode{char ')'};
;\highlightcode{ return x};
\end{lstlisting}

This illustrates one last feature of Parsec: backtracking. \verb|parseList| and \verb|parseDottedList| recognize identical strings up to the dot; this breaks the requirement that a choice alternative may not consume any input before failing. The \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#try}{\texttt{try}} combinator attempts to run the specified parser, but if it fails, it backs up to the previous state. This lets you use it in a choice alternative without interfering with the other alternative.

The complete code is therefore:

\completecode{recursiveparser}{A simpe parser, now with Lisp list, dotted list and quoted datum parsing}

Compile and run this code:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -o simple_parser recursiveparser.hs
user>> ./simple_parser "(a test)"
Found value
user>> ./simple_parser "(a (nested) test)"
Found value
user>> ./simple_parser "(a (dotted . list) test)"
Found value
user>> ./simple_parser "(a '(quoted (dotted . list)) test)"
Found value
user>> ./simple_parser "(a '(imbalanced parens)"
No match: "lisp" (line 1, column 24):
unexpected end of input
expecting space or ")"
\end{lstlisting}

Note that by referring to \verb|parseExpr| within our parsers, we can nest them arbitrarily deep. Thus, we get a full Lisp reader with only a few definitions. That's the power of recursion.

\subsection{Exercises}

\begin{enumerate}
\item Add support for the \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-7.html\#\%_sec_4.2.6}{backquote} syntactic sugar: the Scheme standard details what it should expand into (quasiquote/unquote).
\item Add support for \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-9.html\#\%_sec_6.3.6}{vectors}. The Haskell representation is up to you: GHC does have an \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Data-Array.html}{\texttt{Array}} data type, but it can be difficult to use. Strictly speaking, a vector should have constant-time indexing and updating, but destructive update in a purely functional language is difficult. You may have a better idea how to do this after the section on \verb|set!|, later in this tutorial.
\item Instead of using the try combinator, left-factor the grammar so that the common subsequence is its own parser. You should end up with a parser that matches a string of expressions, and one that matches either nothing or a dot and a single expressions. Combining the return values of these into either a \verb|List| or a \verb|DottedList| is left as a (somewhat tricky) exercise for the reader: you may want to break it out into another helper function.
\end{enumerate}


### ch3.tex

ch3.tex
\chapter{Evaluation, Part 1}

\section{Beginning the Evaluator}
\editsection{Evaluation\%2C_Part_1}{1}

Currently, we've just been printing out whether or not we recognize the given program fragment. We're about to take the first steps towards a working Scheme interpreter: assigning values to program fragments. We'll be starting with baby steps, but fairly soon you'll be progressing to doing working computations.

Let's start by telling Haskell how to print out a string representation of the various possible \verb|LispVals|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}}:

\codesnippet{evaluator1}{70}{75}

This is our first real introduction to pattern matching\index{pattern mataching}. Pattern matching is a way of destructuring an algebraic data type, selecting a code clause based on its constructor and then binding the components to variables. Any constructor can appear in a pattern; that pattern matches a value if the tag is the same as the value's tag and all subpatterns match their corresponding components. Patterns can be nested arbitrarily deep, with matching proceeding in an inside \lstinline|->|\index{->@\texttt{->}} outside, left \lstinline|->| right order. The clauses of a function definition are tried in textual order, until one of the patterns matches. If this is confusing, you'll see some examples of deeply-nested patterns when we get further into the evaluator.

For now, you only need to know that each clause of the above definition matches one of the constructors of \verb|LispVal|, and the right-hand side tells what to do for a value of that constructor.

The \verb|List|\index{List@\texttt{List}} and \verb|DottedList|\index{DottedList@\texttt{DottedList}} clauses work similarly, but we need to define a helper function \verb|unwordsList|\index{unwordsList@\texttt{unwordsList}} to convert the contained list into a string:

\codesnippet{evaluator1}{76}{77}

The \verb|unwordsList| function works like the Haskell Prelude's\index{Haskell Prelude} \verb|unwords|\index{unwords@\texttt{unwords}} function, which glues together a list of words with spaces. Since we're dealing with a list of \verb|LispVals|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}} instead of words, we define a function that first converts the \verb|LispVals| into their string representations and then applies unwords to it:

\codesnippet{evaluator1}{79}{80}

Our definition of \verb|unwordsList| doesn't include any arguments. This is an example of point-free style: writing definitions purely in terms of function composition and partial application, without regard to individual values or points.'' Instead, we define it as the composition of a couple built-in functions. First, we partially-apply \verb|map|\index{map@\texttt{map}} to \verb|showVal|\index{showVal@\texttt{showVal}}, which creates a function that takes a list of \verb|LispVals| and returns a list of their string representations. Haskell functions are curried: this means that a function of two arguments, like \verb|map|, is really a function that returns a function of one argument. As a result, if you supply only a single argument, you get back a function one argument that you can pass around, compose, and apply later. In this case, we compose it with \verb|unwords|\index{unwords@\texttt{unwords}}: \lstinline|map showVal| converts a list of \verb|LispVals| to a list of their \verb|String|\index{String@\texttt{String}} representations, and then unwords joins the result together with spaces.

We used the function \href{http://www.haskell.org/onlinereport/standard-prelude.html\#tShow}{\texttt{show}\index{show@\texttt{show}}} above. This standard Haskell function lets you convert any type that's an instance of the class \verb|Show|\index{Show@\texttt{Show}} into a string. We'd like to be able to do the same with \verb|LispVal|, so we make it into a member of the class \verb|Show|, defining its \verb|show| method as \verb|showVal|\index{showVal@\texttt{showVal}}:

\codesnippet{evaluator1}{82}{82}

Let's try things out by changing our readExpr function so it returns the string representation of the value actually parsed, instead of just \lstinline|"Found value"|:

\codesnippet{evaluator1}{13}{15}

The complete code is therefore:

\completecode{evaluator1}{A parser using pattern matching}

And compile and run...

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -o parser evaluator1.hs
user>> ./parser "(1 2 2)"
Found (1 2 2)
user>> ./parser "'(1 3 (\"this\" \"one\"))"
Found (quote (1 3 ("this" "one")))
\end{lstlisting}

\section{Beginnings of an Evaluator: Primitives}
\editsection{Evaluation\%2C_Part_1}{2}

Now, we start with the beginnings of an evaluator. The purpose of an evaluator is to map some code'' data type into some data'' data type, the result of the evaluation. In Lisp, the data types for both code and data are the same, so our evaluator will return a \verb|LispVal|. Other languages often have more complicated code structures, with a variety of syntactic forms.

Evaluating numbers, strings, booleans, and quoted lists is fairly simple: return the datum itself.

\codesnippet{evaluator2}{85}{89}

This introduces a new type of pattern. The notation \lstinline|val@(String _)| matches against any \verb|LispVal|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}} that's a string and then binds val to the whole \verb|LispVal|, and not just the contents of the \verb|String|\index{String@\texttt{String}} constructor. The result has type \verb|LispVal| instead of type \verb|String|. The underbar is the don't care'' variable, matching any value yet not binding it to a variable. It can be used in any pattern, but is most useful with \lstinline|@|-patterns (where you bind the variable to the whole pattern) and with simple constructor-tests where you're just interested in the tag of the constructor.

The last clause is our first introduction to nested patterns. The type of data contained by \verb|List|\index{List@\texttt{List}} is \verb|[LispVal]|, a list of \verb|LispVals|. We match that against the specific two-element list \lstinline|[Atom "quote", val]|, a list where the first element is the symbol \lstinline|"quote"| and the second element can be anything. Then we return that second element.

Let's integrate eval into our existing code. Start by changing \verb|readExpr|\index{readExpr@\texttt{readExpr}} back so it returns the expression instead of a string representation of the expression:

\codesnippet{evaluator2}{12}{15}

And then change our \verb|main|\index{main@\texttt{main}} function to read an expression, evaluate it, convert it to a string, and print it out. Now that we know about the \lstinline|>>=|\index{>>=@\texttt{>>=}} monad sequencing operator and the function composition operator, let's use them to make this a bit more concise:

\codesnippet{evaluator2}{6}{7}

Here, we take the result of the \verb|getArgs|\index{getArgs@\texttt{getArgs}} action (a list of \verb|strings|) and pass it into the composition of:

\begin{enumerate}
\item Take the first value (\lstinline|(!! 0)|). This notation is known as an operator section: it's telling the compiler to partially-apply the list indexing operator to 0, giving you back a function that takes the first element of whatever list it's passed.
\item Evaluate it (\verb|eval|\index{eval@\texttt{eval}})
\item Convert it to a string (\verb|show|\index{show@\texttt{show}})
\item Print it (\verb|putStrLn|\index{putStrLn@\texttt{putStrLn}})
\end{enumerate}

The complete code is therefore:

\completecode{evaluator2}{The evaluator skeleton}

Compile and run the code the normal way:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -o eval evaluator2.hs
user>> ./eval "'atom"
atom
user>> ./eval 2
2
user>> ./eval "\"a string\""
"a string"
user>> ./eval "(+ 2 2)"

Fail: eval.hs:83: Non-exhaustive patterns in function eval
\end{lstlisting}

We still can't do all that much useful with the program (witness the failed \lstinline|(+ 2 2)| call), but the basic skeleton is in place. Soon, we'll be extending it with some functions to make it useful.

\editsection{Evaluation\%2C_Part_1}{3}

Next, we'll improve our Scheme so we can use it as a simple calculator. It's still not yet a programming language'', but it's getting close.

Begin by adding a clause to \verb|eval|\index{eval@\texttt{eval}} to handle function application. Remember that all clauses of a function definition must be placed together and are evaluated in textual order, so this should go after the other \verb|eval| clauses:

\codesnippet{evaluator3}{89}{89}

This is another nested pattern, but this time we match against the cons operator \lstinline|:| instead of a literal list. Lists in Haskell are really syntactic sugar for a change of cons applications and the empty list: \lstinline|[1, 2, 3, 4] = 1:(2:(3:(4:[])))|. By pattern-matching against cons itself instead of a literal list, we're saying give me the rest of the list'' instead of give me the second element of the list.'' For example, if we passed \lstinline[language=Lisp]|(+ 2 2)| to \verb|eval|, func would be bound to \lstinline|+| and \verb|args| would be bound to \lstinline|[Number 2, Number 2]|.

The rest of the clause consists of a couple functions we've seen before and one we haven't defined yet. We have to recursively evaluate each argument, so we map eval over the args. This is what lets us write compound expressions like \lstinline|(+ 2 (- 3 1) (* 5 4))|. Then we take the resulting list of evaluated arguments, and pass it and the original function to apply:

\codesnippet{evaluator3}{91}{92}

The built-in function lookup looks up a key (its first argument) in a list of pairs. However, lookup will fail if no pair in the list contains the matching key. To express this, it returns an instance of the built-in type Maybe. We use the function maybe to specify what to do in case of either success or failure. If the function isn't found, we return a \lstinline|Bool False|\index{Bool@\texttt{Bool}} value, equivalent to \lstinline|#f| (we'll add more robust error-checking later). If it is found, we apply it to the arguments using \verb|($args)|\index{\$@\texttt{\$}}, an operator section of the function application operator. Next, we define the list of primitives that we support: \codesnippet{evaluator3}{94}{101} Look at the type of primitives. It is a list of pairs, just like lookup expects, but the values of the pairs are functions from \verb|[LispVal]|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}} to \verb|LispVal|. In Haskell, you can easily store functions in other data structures, though the functions must all have the same type. Also, the functions that we store are themselves the result of a function, \verb|numericBinop|\index{numericBinop@\texttt{numericBinop}}, which we haven't defined yet. This takes a primitive Haskell function (often an operator section) and wraps it with code to unpack an argument list, apply the function to it, and wrap the result up in our \verb|Number|\index{Number@\texttt{Number}} constructor. \codesnippet{evaluator3}{103}{113} As with R5RS Scheme\index{R5RS Scheme}, we don't limit ourselves to only two arguments. Our numeric operations can work on a list of any length, so \lstinline|(+ 2 3 4) = 2 + 3 + 4|, and \lstinline|(- 15 5 3 2) = 15 - 5 - 3 - 2|. We use the built-in function \verb|foldl1|\index{foldl@\texttt{foldl}} to do this. It essentially changes every cons operator in the list to the binary function we supply, op. Unlike R5RS Scheme, we're implementing a form of weak typing. That means that if a value can be interpreted as a number (like the string \verb|"2"|), we'll use it as one, even if it's tagged as a string. We do this by adding a couple extra clauses to \verb|unpackNum|\index{unpackNUm@\texttt{unpackNum}}. If we're unpacking a string, attempt to parse it with Haskell's built-in reads function, which returns a list of pairs of (parsed value, remaining string). For lists, we pattern-match against the one-element list and try to unpack that. Anything else falls through to the next case. If we can't parse the number, for any reason, we'll return 0 for now. We'll fix this shortly so that it signals an error. The complete code is therefore: \completecode{evaluator3}{A basic evaluator} Compile and run this the normal way. Note how we get nested expressions for free'' because we call \verb|eval|\index{eval@\texttt{eval}} on each of the arguments of a function: \begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol] user>> ghc -package parsec -o eval neweval.hs user>> ./eval "(+ 2 2)" 4 user>> ./eval "(+ 2 (-4 1))" 2 user>> ./eval "(+ 2 (- 4 1))" 5 user>> ./eval "(- (+ 4 6 3) 3 5 2)" 3 \end{lstlisting} \section{Exercises} \begin{enumerate} \item Add primitives to perform the various \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-9.html\#\%_sec_6.3}{type-testing} functions of R5RS\index{R5RS Scheme}: \verb|symbol?|\index{symbol?@\texttt{symbol?}}, \verb|string?|\index{string?@\texttt{string?}}, \verb|number?|\index{number?@\texttt{number?}}, etc. \item Change \verb|unpackNum|\index{unpackNum@\texttt{unpackNum}} so that it always returns 0 if the value is not a number, even if it's a string or list that could be parsed as a number. \item Add the \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-9.html\#\%_sec_6.3.3}{symbol-handling functions} from R5RS. A symbol is what we've been calling an \verb|Atom| in our data constructors. \end{enumerate}  ### ch4.tex ch4.tex \chapter{Error Checking and Exceptions} \chapterlinks{Error_Checking_and_Exceptions} Currently, there are a variety of places within the code where we either ignore errors or silently assign default'' values like \lstinline|\#f|\index{\#f@\texttt{\#f}} or \lstinline|0| that make no sense. Some languages - like Perl and PHP - get along fine with this approach. However, it often means that errors pass silently throughout the program until they become big problems, which means rather inconvenient debugging sessions for the programmer. We'd like to signal errors as soon as they happen and immediately break out of execution. First, we need to \lstinline|import Control.Monad.Error|\index{Error@\texttt{Error}} to get access to Haskell's built-in error functions: \codesnippet{errorcheck}{4}{4} Then, we should define a data type to represent an error: \codesnippet{errorcheck}{123}{129} This is a few more constructors than we need at the moment, but we might as well forsee all the other things that can go wrong in the interpreter later. Next, we define how to print out the various types of errors and make \verb|LispError|\index{LispError@\texttt{LispError}} an instance of \verb|Show|\index{Show@\texttt{Show}}: \codesnippet{errorcheck}{131}{141} Our next step is to make our error type into an instance of \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/mtl/Control-Monad-Error.html}{\texttt{Error}\index{Error@\texttt{Error}}}. This is necessary for it to work with GHC's built-in error handling functions. Being an instance of \verb|error| just means that it must provide functions to create an instance either from a previous error message or by itself: \codesnippet{errorcheck}{143}{145} Then we define a type to represent functions that may throw a \verb|LispError|\index{LispError@\texttt{LispError}} or return a value. Remember how \href{http://www.cs.uu.nl/~daan/download/parsec/parsec.html\#parse}{\texttt{parse}\index{parse@\texttt{parse}}} used an \verb|Either| data type to represent exceptions? We take the same approach here: \codesnippet{errorcheck}{147}{147} Type constructors are curried just like functions, and can also be partially applied. A full type would be \verb|Either LispError Integer|\index{Either@\texttt{Either}}\index{LispError@\texttt{LispError}}\index{Integer@\texttt{Integer}} or \verb|Either| \verb|LispError| \verb|LispVal|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}}, but we want to say \verb|ThrowsError LispVal|\index{ThrowsError@\texttt{ThrowsError}} and so on. We only partially apply \verb|Either| to \verb|LispError|, creating a type constructor \verb|ThrowsError| that we can use on any data type. \verb|Either| is yet another instance of a monad. In this case, the extra information'' being passed between \verb|Either| actions is whether or not an error occurred. \verb|Bind|\index{>>@\texttt{>>}} applies its function if the \verb|Either| action holds a normal value, or passes an error straight through without computation. This is how exceptions work in other languages, but because Haskell is lazily-evaluated, there's no need for a separate control-flow construct. If \verb|bind| determines that a value is already an error, the function is never called. The \verb|Either| monad also provides two other functions besides the standard monadic ones: \begin{enumerate} \item \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/6.4/html/libraries/mtl/Control.Monad.Error.html\#v\%3athrowError}{\texttt{throwError}}\index{throwError@\texttt{throwError}}, which takes an \verb|Error|\index{Error@\texttt{Error}} value and lifts it into the Left\index{Left@\texttt{Left}} (error) constructor of an \verb|Either| \item \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/6.4/html/libraries/mtl/Control.Monad.Error.html\#v\%3acatchError}{\texttt{catchError}\index{catchError@\texttt{catchError}}}, which takes an \verb|Either| action and a function that turns an error into another \verb|Either| action. If the action represents an error, it applies the function, which you can use to eg. turn the error value into a normal one via return or re-throw as a different error. \end{enumerate} In our program, we'll be converting all of our errors to their string representations and returning that as a normal value. Let's create a helper function to do that for us: \codesnippet{errorcheck}{149}{149} The result of calling \verb|trapError|\index{trapError@\texttt{trapError}} is another \verb|Either|\index{Either@\texttt{Either}} action which will always have valid \verb|(Right)|\index{Right@\texttt{Right}} data. We still need to extract that data from the \verb|Either| monad so it can passed around to other functions: \codesnippet{errorcheck}{151}{152} We purposely leave extractValue undefined for a \verb|Left|\index{Left@\texttt{Left}} constructor, because that represents a programmer error. We intend to use \verb|extractValue|\index{extractValue@\texttt{extractValue}} only after a \verb|catchError|\index{catchError@\texttt{catchError}}, so it's better to fail fast than to inject bad values into the rest of the program. Now that we have all the basic infrastructure, it's time to start using our error-handling functions. Remember how our parser had previously just return a string saying \lstinline|"No match"| on an error? Let's change it so that it wraps and throws the original \verb|ParseError|\index{ParseError@\texttt{ParseError}}: \codesnippet{errorcheck}{16}{19} Here, we first wrap the original \verb|ParseError| with the \verb|LispError|\index{LispError@\texttt{LispError}} constructor Parser, and then use the built-in function \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/mtl/Control-Monad-Error.html\#v\%3AthrowError}{\texttt{throwError}\index{throwError@\texttt{throwError}}} to return that in our \verb|ThrowsError|\index{ThrowsError@\texttt{ThrowsError}} monad. Since readExpr now returns a monadic value, we also need to wrap the other case in a return function. Next, we change the type signature of \verb|eval|\index{eval@\texttt{eval}} to return a monadic value, adjust the return values accordingly, and add a clause to throw an error if we encounter a pattern that we don't recognize: \codesnippet{errorcheck}{88}{94} Since the function application clause calls \verb|eval| (which now returns a monadic value) recursively, we need to change that clause. First, we had to change \verb|map|\index{map@\texttt{map}} to \verb|mapM|\index{mapM@\texttt{mapM}}, which maps a monadic function over a list of values, sequences the resulting actions together with \verb|bind|\index{>>@\texttt{>>}}, and then returns a list of the inner results. Inside the Error monad, this sequencing performs all computations sequentially but throws an error value if any one of them fails---giving you \verb|Right [results]|\index{Right@\texttt{Right}} on success, or \verb|Left error|\index{Left@\texttt{Left}} on failure. Then, we used the monadic \verb|bind| operation to pass the result into the partially applied \verb|apply func|, again returning an error if either operation failed. Next, we change apply itself so that it throws an error if it doesn't recognize the function: \codesnippet{errorcheck}{96}{99} We didn't add a return statement to the function application \verb|($ args)|\index{\$@\texttt{\$}}. We're about to change the type of our primitives, so that the function returned from the lookup itself returns a \verb|ThrowsError|\index{ThrowsError@\texttt{ThrowsError}} action:

\codesnippet{errorcheck}{101}{101}

And, of course, we need to change the \verb|numericBinop|\index{numericBinop@\texttt{numericBinop}} function that implements these primitives so it throws an error if there's only one argument:

\codesnippet{errorcheck}{110}{112}

We use an at-pattern to capture the single-value case because we want to include the actual value passed in for error-reporting purposes. Here, we're looking for a list of exactly one element, and we don't care what that element is. We also need to use \verb|mapM|\index{mapM@\texttt{mapM}} to sequence the results of \verb|unpackNum|\index{unpackNum@\texttt{unpackNum}}, because each individual call to \verb|unpackNum| may fail with a \verb|TypeMismatch|\index{TypeMismatch@\texttt{TypeMismatch}}:

\codesnippet{errorcheck}{114}{121}

Finally, we need to change our \verb|main|\index{main@\texttt{main}} function to use this whole big error monad. This can get a little complicated, because now we're dealing with two monads (\verb|Error|\index{Error@\texttt{Error}} and \verb|IO|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}}). As a result, we go back to do-notation, because it's nearly impossible to use point-free style when the result of one monad is nested inside another:

\codesnippet{errorcheck}{7}{11}

Here's what this new function is doing:

\begin{enumerate}
\item args is the list of command-line arguments
\item evaled is the result of:
\begin{enumerate}
\item taking first argument (\lstinline|args !! 0|)
\item passing it to eval (\lstinline|>>= eval|; the bind operation has higher precedence than function application)
\item calling show on it within the \verb|Error|\index{Error@\texttt{Error}} monad. Note also that the whole action has type \verb|IO (Either LispError String)|\index{Either@\texttt{Either}}\index{LispError@\texttt{LispError}}\index{String@\texttt{String}}, giving \verb|evaled|\index{evaled@\texttt{evaled}} type \verb|Either LispError String|. It has to be, because our \verb|trapError|\index{trapError@\texttt{trapError}} function can only convert errors to strings, and that type must match the type of normal values
\end{enumerate}
\item caught is the result of
\begin{enumerate}
\item calling \verb|trapError| on \verb|evaled|, converting errors to their string representation.
\item calling \verb|extractValue|\index{extractValue@\texttt{extractValue}} to get a \verb|String| out of this \verb|Either LispError String| action
\item printing the results through \verb|putStrLn|\index{putStrLn@\texttt{putStrLn}}
\end{enumerate}
\end{enumerate}

The complete code is therefore:

\completecode{errorcheck}{Lisp parser with basic error-checking functionality}

Compile and run the new code, and try throwing it a couple errors:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -o errorcheck errorcheck.hs
user>> ./errorcheck  "(+ 2 \"two\")"
Invalid type: expected number, found "two"
user>> ./errorcheck "(+ 2)"
Expected 2 args: found values 2
Unrecognized primitive function args: "what?"
\end{lstlisting}

Some readers have reported that you need to add a \verb|--make|\index{--make@\texttt{--make}} flag to build this example, and presumably all further listings. This tells GHC to build a complete executable, searching out all depedencies listed in the import statements. The command above works on my system, but if it fails on yours, give \verb|--make| a try.


### ch5.tex

ch5.tex
\chapter{Evaluation, Part 2}

\editsection{Evaluation\%2C_Part_2}{1}

Now that we can deal with type errors, bad arguments, and so on, we'll flesh out our primitive list so that it does something more than calculate. We'll add boolean operators, conditionals, and some basic string operations.

Start by adding the following into the list of primitives:

\codesnippet{operatorparser}{109}{120}

These depend on helper functions that we haven't written yet: \verb|numBoolBinop|\index{numBoolBinop@\texttt{numBoolBinop}} and \verb|strBoolBinop|. Instead of taking a variable number of arguments and returning an integer, these both take exactly 2 arguments and return a boolean. They differ from each other only in the type of argument they expect, so let's factor the duplication into a generic \verb|boolBinop|\index{boolBinop@\texttt{boolBinop}} function that's parameteried by the \verb|unpacker|\index{unpacker@\texttt{unpacker}} function it applies to its arguments:

\codesnippet{operatorparser}{126}{131}

Because each arg may throw a type mismatch, we have to unpack them sequentially, in a do-block (for the \verb|Error|\index{Error@\texttt{Error}} monad). We then apply the operation to the two arguments and wrap the result in the \verb|Bool|\index{Bool@\texttt{Bool}} constructor. Any function can be turned into an infix operator by wrapping it in backticks (\lstinline|op|).

Also, take a look at the type signature. \verb|boolBinop|\index{boolBinop@\texttt{boolBinop}} takes two functions as its first two arguments: the first is used to unpack the arguments from \verb|LispVals|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}} to native Haskell types, and the second is the actual operation to perform. By parameterizing different parts of the behavior, you make the function more reusable.

Now we define three functions that specialize \verb|boolBinop|\index{boolBinop@\texttt{boolBinop}} with different unpackers:

\codesnippet{operatorparser}{133}{135}

We haven't told Haskell how to unpack strings from \verb|LispVals|\index{LispVals@\texttt{LispVals}} yet. This works similarly to \verb|unpackNum|\index{unpackNum@\texttt{unpackNum}}, pattern matching against the value and either returning it or throwing an error. Again, if passed a primitive value that could be interpreted as a string (such as a number or boolean), it will silently convert it to the string representation.

\codesnippet{operatorparser}{146}{150}

And we use similar code to unpack booleans:

\codesnippet{operatorparser}{152}{154}

The complete code is therefore:

\completecode{operatorparser}{A simple parser, now with several primitive operators}

Let's compile and test this to make sure it's working, before we proceed to the next feature:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -o simple_parser operatorparser.hs
user>> ./simple_parser "(< 2 3)"
#t
user>> ./simple_parser "(> 2 3)"
#f
user>> ./simple_parser "(>= 3 3)"
#t
user>> ./simple_parser "(string=? \"test\" \"test\")"
#t
user>> ./simple_parser "(string<? \"abc\" \"bba\")"
#t
\end{lstlisting}

\section{Conditionals: Pattern Matching 2}
\editsection{Evaluation\%2C_Part_2}{2}

Now, we'll proceed to adding an if-clause to our evaluator. As with standard Scheme, our evaluator considers \verb|#f| to be false and any other value to be true:

\codesnippet{conditionalparser}{93}{97}

This is another example of nested pattern-matching. Here, we're looking for a 4-element list. The first element must be the atom \verb|if|. The others can be any Scheme forms. We take the first element, evaluate, and if it's false, evaluate the alternative. Otherwise, we evaluate the consequent.

%\completecode{conditionalparser}{}

Compile and run this, and you'll be able to play around with conditionals:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -o simple_parser conditionalparser.hs
user>> ./simple_parser "(if (> 2 3) \"no\" \"yes\")"
"yes"
user>> ./simple_parser "(if (= 3 3) (+ 2 3 (- 5 1)) \"unequal\")"
9
\end{lstlisting}

\section{List Primitives: \texttt{car}\index{car@\texttt{car}}, \texttt{cdr}\index{cdr@\texttt{cdr}}, and \texttt{cons}\index{cons@\texttt{cons}}}
\editsection{Evaluation\%2C_Part_2}{3}

For good measure, lets also add in the basic list-handling primitives. Because we've chosen to represent our lists as Haskell algebraic data types instead of pairs, these are somewhat more complicated than their definitions in many Lisps. It's easiest to think of them in terms of their effect on printed S-expressions:

\begin{enumerate}
\item (car (a b c)) = a
\item (car (a)) = a
\item (car (a b . c)) = a
\item (car a) = error (not a list)
\item (car a b) = error (car takes only one argument)
\end{enumerate}

We can translate these fairly straightforwardly into pattern clauses, recalling that (\lstinline|x : xs|) divides a list into the first element and the rest:

\codesnippet{listparser}{167}{171}

Let's do the same with \verb|cdr|:

\begin{enumerate}
\item (cdr (a b c)) = (b c)
\item (cdr (a b)) = (b)
\item (cdr (a)) = NIL
\item (cdr (a b . c)) = (b . c)
\item (cdr (a . b)) = b
\item (cdr a) = error (not list)
\item (cdr a b) = error (too many args)
\end{enumerate}

We can represent the first 3 cases with a single clause. Our parser represents \lstinline|'()| as \verb|List []|, and when you pattern-match (\lstinline|x : xs|) against \verb|[x]|, \verb|xs| is bound to \lstinline|[]|. The other ones translate to separate clauses:

\codesnippet{listparser}{173}{178}

Cons is a little tricky, enough that we should go through each clause case-by-case. If you cons together anything with \verb|Nil|\index{Nil@\texttt{Nil}}, you end up with a one-item list, the \verb|Nil| serving as a terminator:

\codesnippet{listparser}{180}{181}

If you cons together anything and a list, it's like tacking that anything onto the front of the list:

\codesnippet{listparser}{182}{182}

However, if the list is a \verb|DottedList|\index{DottedList@\texttt{DottedList}}, then it should stay a \verb|DottedList|, taking into account the improper tail:

\codesnippet{listparser}{183}{183}

If you cons together two non-lists, or put a list in front, you get a \verb|DottedList|. This is because such a cons cell isn't terminated by the normal \verb|Nil|\index{Nil@\texttt{Nil}} that most lists are.

\codesnippet{listparser}{184}{184}

Finally, attempting to cons together more or less than 2 arguments is an error:

\codesnippet{listparser}{185}{185}

Our last step is to implement \verb|eqv?|\index{eqv?@\texttt{eqv?}}. Scheme offers 3 levels of equivalence predicates: \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-9.html\#\%_sec_6.1}{\texttt{eq?}\index{eq?@\texttt{eq?}}, \texttt{eqv?}, and \texttt{equal?}\index{equal?@\texttt{equal?}}}. For our purposes, \verb|eq?| and \verb|eqv?| are basically the same: they recognize two items as the same if they print the same, and are fairly slow. So we can write one function for both of them and register it under \verb|eq?| and \verb|eqv?|.

\codesnippet{listparser}{187}{199}

Most of these clauses are self-explanatory, the exception being the one for two \verb|Lists|\index{List@\texttt{List}}. This, after checking to make sure the lists are the same length, zips the two lists of pairs, runs \verb|eqvPair|\index{eqvPair@\texttt{eqvPair}} on them to test if each corresponding pair is equal, and then uses the function and to return false if any of the resulting values is false. \verb|eqvPair| is an example of a local definition: it is defined using the \verb|where|\index{where@\texttt{where}} keyword, just like a normal function, but is available only within that particular clause of \verb|eqv|\index{eqv@\texttt{eqv}}.

The complete code is therefore:

\completecode{listparser}{A parser able to handle lists}

Compile and run to try out the new list functions:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -o eqv listparser.hs
user>> ./eqv "(car '(2 3 4))"
2
user>> ./eqv "(cdr '(2 3 4))"
(3 4)
user>> ./eqv "(car (cdr (cons 2 '(3 4))))"
3
\end{lstlisting}

\section{\texttt{Equal?} and Weak Typing: Heterogenous Lists}
\editsection{Evaluation\%2C_Part_2}{4}

Since we introduced weak typing above, we'd also like to introduce an \verb|equal?|\index{equal?@\texttt{equal?}} function that ignores differences in the type tags and only tests if two values can be interpreted the same. For example, \lstinline|(eqv? 2 "2") = #f|, yet we'd like \lstinline|(equal? 2 "2") = #t|. Basically, we want to try all of our unpack functions, and if any of them result in Haskell values that are equal, return true.

The obvious way to approach this is to store the unpacking functions in a list and use \verb|mapM|\index{mapM@\texttt{mapM}} to execute them in turn. Unfortunately, this doesn't work, because standard Haskell only lets you put objects in a list if they're the same type. The various unpacker functions return different types, so you can't store them in the same list.

We'll get around this by using a GHC extension---Existential Types---that lets us create a heterogenous list, subject to typeclass constraints. Extensions are fairly common in the Haskell world: they're basically necessary to create any reasonably large program, and they're often compatible between implementations (existential types work in both Hugs and GHC and are a candidate for standardization).

The first thing we need to do is define a data type that can hold any function from a \verb|LispVal|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}} \lstinline|->| \verb|something|, provided that that something'' supports equality:

\codesnippet{equalparser}{201}{201}

This is like any normal algebraic datatype, except for the type constraint. It says, For any type that is an instance of \verb|Eq|\index{Eq@\texttt{Eq}}, you can define an \verb|Unpacker|\index{Unpacker@\texttt{Unpacker}} that takes a function from \verb|LispVal|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}} to that type, and may throw an error.'' We'll have to wrap our functions with the \verb|AnyUnpacker| constructor, but then we can create a list of \verb|Unpackers| that does just what we want it.

Rather than jump straight to the \verb|equal?|\index{equal?@\texttt{equal?}} function, let's first define a helper function that takes an \verb|Unpacker| and then determines if two \verb|LispVals| are equal when it unpacks them:

\codesnippet{equalparser}{203}{208}

After pattern-matching to retrieve the actual function, we enter a do-block for the \verb|ThrowsError|\index{ThrowsError@\texttt{ThrowsError}} monad. This retrieves the Haskell values of the two \verb|LispVals|, and then tests whether they're equal. If there is an error anywhere within the two unpackers, it returns false, using the const function because \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/mtl/Control-Monad-Error.html}{\texttt{catchError}\index{catchError@\texttt{catchError}}} expects a function to apply to the error value.

Finally, we can define \verb|equal?|\index{equal?@\texttt{equal?}} in terms of these helpers:

\codesnippet{equalparser}{210}{216}

\sloppy
The first action makes a heterogenous list of \lstinline|[unpackNum,| \lstinline|unpackStr,| \lstinline|unpackBool]|, and then maps the partially-applied \lstinline|(unpackEquals arg1 arg2)| over it. This gives a list of \verb|Bools|\index{Bool@\texttt{Bool}}, so we use the Prelude function or to return true if any single one of them is true.
\fussy

The second action tests the two arguments with \verb|eqv?|\index{eqv?@\texttt{eqv?}}. Since we want \verb|equal?|\index{equal?@\texttt{equal?}} to be looser than \verb|eqv?|, it should return true whenever \verb|eqv?| does so. This also lets us avoid handling cases like the list or dotted-list (though this introduces a bug; see exercise \#2 in this section).

Finally, \verb|equal?| ors both of these values together and wraps the result in the \verb|Bool|\index{Bool@\texttt{Bool}} constructor, returning a \verb|LispVal|. The \lstinline|let (Bool x) = eqvEquals in x| is a quick way of extracting a value from an algebraic type: it pattern matches \verb|Bool x| against the \verb|eqvEquals|\index{eqvEquals@\texttt{eqvEquals}} value, and then returns x. The result of a let-expression is the expression following the keyword \verb|in|\index{in@\texttt{in}}.

To use these functions, insert them into our primitives list:

\codesnippet{equalparser}{126}{131}
\begin{lstlisting}[language=lisp]
("car", car),
("cdr", cdr),
("cons", cons),
("eq?", eqv),
("eqv?", eqv),
("equal?", equal)
\end{lstlisting}

\completecode{equalparser}{A parser able to compare values of different types}

To compile this code, you need to enable GHC extensions with \verb|-fglasgow-exts|\index{-fglasgow-exts@\texttt{-fglasgow-exts}}:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -fglasgow-exts -o parser equalparser.hs
user>> ./simple_parser "(cdr '(a simple test))"
(simple test)
user>> ./simple_parser "(car (cdr '(a simple test)))"
simple
user>> ./simple_parser "(car '((this is) a test))"
(this is)
user>> ./simple_parser "(cons '(this is) 'test)"
((this is) . test)
user>> ./simple_parser "(cons '(this is) '())"
((this is))
user>> ./simple_parser "(eqv? 1 3)" #f
user>> ./simple_parser "(eqv? 3 3)"
#t
user>> ./simple_parser "(eqv? 'atom 'atom)"
#t
\end{lstlisting}

\section{Exercises}

\begin{enumerate}
\item Instead of treating any non-false value as true, change the definition of \verb|if|\index{if@\texttt{if}} so that the predicate accepts only \verb|Bool|\index{Bool@\texttt{Bool}} values and throws an error on any others.
\item \verb|equal?|\index{equal?@\texttt{equal?}} has a bug in that a list of values is compared using eqv? instead of \verb|equal?|. For example, \verb|(equal? '(1 "2") '(1 2)) = #f|, while you'd expect it to be true. Change \verb|equal?| so that it continues to ignore types as it recurses into list structures. You can either do this explicitly, following the example in eqv?, or factor the list clause into a separate helper function that is parameterized by the equality testing function.
\item Implement \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-7.html\#\%_idx_106}{\texttt{cond}\index{cond@\texttt{cond}}} and \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-7.html\#\%_idx_114}{\texttt{case}\index{case@\texttt{case}}} expressions.
\item Add the rest of the \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-9.html\#\%_sec_6.3.5}{string functions}. You don't yet know enough to do \verb|string-set!|; this is difficult to implement in Haskell, but you'll have enough information after the next two sections.
\end{enumerate}


### ch6.tex

ch6.tex
\chapter[Building a REPL]{Building a REPL: Basic I/O}

So far, we've been content to evaluate single expressions from the command line, printing the result and exiting afterwards. This is fine for a calculator, but isn't what most people think of as programming.'' We'd like to be able to define new functions and variables, and refer to them later. But before we can do this, we need to build a system that can execute multiple statements without exiting the program.

Instead of executing a whole program at once, we're going to build a read-eval-print loop. This reads in expressions from the console one at a time and executes them interactively, printing the result after each expression. Later expressions can reference variables set by earlier ones (or will be able to, after the next section), letting you build up libraries of functions.

First, we need to import some additional \href{http://www.haskell.org/onlinereport/io.html}{IO functions}. Add the following to the top of the program:

\codesnippet{replparser}{6}{6}

We have to hide the try function (used in the \verb|IO|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}} module for exception handling) because we use Parsec's \verb|try|\index{try@\texttt{try}} function.

Next, we define a couple helper functions to simplify some of our IO tasks. We'll want a function that prints out a string and immediately flushes the stream; otherwise, output might sit in output buffers and the user will never see prompts or results.

\codesnippet{replparser}{251}{252}

Then, we create a function that prints out a prompt and reads in a line of input:

\codesnippet{replparser}{254}{255}

Pull the code to parse and evaluate a string and trap the errors out of main into its own function:

\codesnippet{replparser}{257}{258}

And write a function that evaluates a string and prints the result:

\codesnippet{replparser}{260}{261}

Now it's time to tie it all together. We want to read input, perform a function, and print the output, all in an infinite loop. The built-in function \verb|interact|\index{interact@\texttt{interact}} almost does what we want, but doesn't loop. If we used the combination sequence \verb|. repeat| \verb|. interact|\index{repeat@\texttt{repeat}}, we'd get an infinite loop, but we wouldn't be able to break out of it. So we need to roll our own loop:

\codesnippet{replparser}{263}{268}

The underscore after the name is a typical naming convention in Haskell for monadic functions that repeat but do not return a value. \verb|until_| takes a predicate that signals when to stop, an action to perform before the test, and a function-returning-an-action to do to the input. Each of the latter two is generalized over any monad, not just \verb|IO|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}}. That's why we write their types using the type variable \verb|m|, and include the type constraint \lstinline|Monad m =>|\index{MOnad@\texttt{Monad}}\index{=>@\texttt{=>}}.

Note also that we can write recursive actions just as we write recursive functions.

Now that we have all the machinery in place, we can write our REPL easily:

\codesnippet{replparser}{270}{271}

And change our main function so it either executes a single expression, or enters the REPL and continues evaluating expressions until we type \lstinline|"quit"|:

\codesnippet{replparser}{8}{13}

The complete code is therefore:

\completecode{replparser}{A parser implementing the REPL method}

Compile and run the program, and try it out:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -fglasgow-exts -o lisp realparser.hs
user>> ./lisp
Lisp>>> (+ 2 3)
5
Lisp>>> (cons this '())
Unrecognized special form: this
Lisp>>> (cons 2 3)
(2 . 3)
Lisp>>> (cons 'this '())
(this)
Lisp>>> quit
user>>
\end{lstlisting}


### ch7.tex

ch7.tex
\chapter[Adding Variables and Assignment]{Adding Variables and Assignment: Mutable State in Haskell}

Finally, we get to the good stuff: variables. A variable lets us save the result of an expression and refer to it later. In Scheme, a variable can also be reset to new values, so that its value changes as the program executes. This presents a complication for Haskell, because the execution model is built upon functions that return values, but never change them.

Nevertheless, there are several ways to simulate state in Haskell, all involving monads. The simplest is probably the \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/mtl/Control-Monad-State.html}{\texttt{State}\index{State@\texttt{State}} monad}, which lets you hide arbitrary state within the monad and pass it around behind the scenes. You specify the state type as a parameter to the monad (eg. if a function returns an integer but modifies a list of string pairs, it would have type \lstinline|State| \lstinline|[(String, String)]|\index{String@\texttt{String}} \lstinline|Integer|\index{Integer@\texttt{Integer}}), and access it via the get and put functions, usually within a do-block. You'd specify the initial state via the \verb|runState|\index{runState@\texttt{runState}} \verb|myStateAction|\index{myStateAction@\texttt{myStateAction}} \verb|initialList|\index{initialList@\texttt{initialList}}, which returns a pair containing the return value and the final state.

Unfortunately, the \verb|state| monad doesn't work well for us, because the type of data we need to store is fairly complex. For a simple top-level environment, we could get away with \lstinline|[(String, LispVal)]|\index{String@\texttt{String}}\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}}, storing mappings from variable names to values. However, when we start dealing with function calls, these mappings become a stack of nested environments, arbitrarily deep. And when we add closures, environments might get saved in an arbitrary \verb|Function| value, and passed around throughout the program. In fact, they might be saved in a variable and passed out of the \verb|runState| monad entirely, something we're not allowed to do.

Instead, we use a feature called state threads, letting Haskell manage the aggregate state for us. This lets us treat mutable variables as we would in any other programming language, using functions to get or set variables. There are two flavors of state threads: the \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Control-Monad-ST.html}{\texttt{ST}\index{ST@\texttt{ST}} monad} creates a stateful computation that can be executed as a unit, without the state escaping to the rest of the program. The \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/Data-IORef.html}{\texttt{IORef} module} lets you use stateful variables within the \verb|IO|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}} monad. Since our state has to be interleaved with IO anyway (it persists between lines in the REPL, and we will eventually have IO functions within the language itself), we'll be using \verb|IORefs|\index{IORefs@\texttt{IORefs}}.

We can start out by importing \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/6.4/html/libraries/base/Data.IORef.html}{\texttt{Data.IORef}} and defining a type for our environments:

\codesnippet{variableparser}{5}{5}

\codesnippet{variableparser}{282}{282}

This declares an \verb|Env|\index{Env@\texttt{Env}} as an \verb|IORef|\index{IORef@\texttt{IORef}} holding a list that maps \verb|Strings|\index{String@\texttt{String}} to mutable \verb|LispVals|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}}. We need \verb|IORef|s for both the list itself and for individual values because there are two ways that the program can mutate the environment. It might use \verb|set!| to change the value of an individual variable, a change visible to any function that shares that environment (Scheme allows nested scopes, so a variable in an outer scope is visible to all inner scopes). Or it might use define to add a new variable, which should be visible on all subsequent statements.

Since \verb|IORef|s can only be used within the \verb|IO|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}} monad, we'll want a helper action to create an empty environment. We can't just use the empty list \lstinline|[]| because all accesses to IORefs must be sequenced, and so the type of our null environment is \verb|IO Env| instead of just plain \verb|Env|:

\codesnippet{variableparser}{284}{285}

From here, things get a bit more complicated, because we'll be simultaneously dealing with two monads. Remember, we also need an \verb|Error|\index{Error@\texttt{Error}} monad to handle things like unbound variables. The parts that need IO functionality and the parts that may throw exceptions are interleaved, so we can't just catch all the exceptions and return only normal values to the \verb|IO| monad.

Haskell provides a mechanism known as monad transformers that lets you combine the functionality of multiple monads. We'll be using one of these---\href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/6.4/html/libraries/mtl/Control.Monad.Error.html\#t\%3aErrorT}{\texttt{ErrorT}}---which lets us layer error-handling functionality on top of the \verb|IO|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}} monad. Our first step is create a type synonym for our combined monad:

\codesnippet{variableparser}{287}{287}

Like \verb|IOThrows|\index{IOThrows@\texttt{IOThrows}}, \verb|IOThrowsError|\index{IOThrowsError@\texttt{IOThrowsError}} is really a type constructor: we've left off the last argument, the return type of the function. However, \verb|ErrorT|\index{ErrorT@\texttt{ErrorT}} takes one more argument than plain old \verb|Either|\index{Either@\texttt{Either}}: we have to specify the type of monad that we're layering our error-handling functionality over. We've created a monad that may contain \verb|IO| actions that throw a \verb|LispError|\index{LispError@\texttt{LispError}}.

We have a mix of \verb|IOThrows| and \verb|IOThrowsError| functions, but actions of different types cannot be contained within the same do-block, even if they provide essentially the same functionality. Haskell already provides a mechanism---\href{http://www.nomaware.com/monads/html/transformers.html\#lifting}{lifting\index{lifting}}---to bring values of the lower type (\verb|IO|) into the combined monad. Unfortunately, there's no similar support to bring a value of the untransformed upper type into the combined monad, so we need to write it ourselves:

\codesnippet{variableparser}{289}{291}

We'll also want a helper function to run the whole top-level \verb|IOThrowsError| action, returning an \verb|IO| action. We can't escape from the \verb|IO|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}} monad, because a function that performs IO has an effect on the outside world, and you don't want that in a lazily-evaluated pure function. But you can run the error computation and catch the errors.

\codesnippet{variableparser}{293}{294}

This uses our previously-defined \verb|trapError|\index{trapError@\texttt{trapError}} function to take any error values and convert them to their string representations, then runs the whole computation via \verb|runErrorT|\index{runErrorT@\texttt{runErrorT}}. The result is passed into \verb|extractValue|\index{extractValue@\texttt{extractValue}} and returned as a value in the \verb|IO| monad.

\codesnippet{variableparser}{296}{297}

This first extracts the actual environment value from its \verb|IORef|\index{IORef@\texttt{IORef}} via \verb|readIORef|\index{readIORef@\texttt{readIORef}}. Then we pass it to lookup to search for the particular variable we're interested in. lookup returns a \verb|Maybe| value, so we return \verb|False| if that value was \verb|Nothing| and \verb|True| otherwise (we need to use the const function because maybe expects a function to perform on the result and not just a value). Finally, we use return to lift that value into the \verb|IO|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}} monad. Since we're just interested in a true/false value, we don't need to deal with the actual \verb|IORef| that lookup returns.

Next, we'll want to define a function to retrieve the current value of a variable:

\codesnippet{variableparser}{299}{303}

Now we create a function to set values:

\codesnippet{variableparser}{305}{310}

Again, we first read the environment out of its \verb|IORef|\index{IORef@\texttt{IORef}} and run a lookup on it. This time, however, we want to change the variable instead of just reading it. The \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/6.4/html/libraries/base/Data.IORef.html\#v\%3awriteIORef}{\texttt{writeIORef}} action provides a means for this, but takes its arguments in the wrong order (\verb|ref| \lstinline|->| \verb|value| instead of \verb|value| \lstinline|->| \verb|ref|). So we use the built-in function \verb|flip|\index{flip@\texttt{flip}} to switch the arguments of \verb|writeIORef|\index{writeIORef@\texttt{writeIORef}} around, and then pass it the value. Finally, we return the value we just set, for convenience.

We'll want a function to handle the special behavior of \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-8.html\#\%_sec_5.2}{\texttt{define}}, which sets a variable if already bound or creates a new one if not. Since we've already defined a function to set values, we can use it in the former case:

\codesnippet{variableparser}{312}{321}

It's the latter case that's interesting, where the variable is unbound. We create an IO action (via do-notation) that creates a new \verb|IORef|\index{IORef@\texttt{IORef}} to hold the new variable, reads the current value of the environment, then writes a new list back to that variable consisting of the new \verb|(key, variable)| pair added to the front of the list. Then we lift that whole do-block into the \verb|IOThrowsError|\index{IOThrowsError@\texttt{IOThrowsError}} monad with \verb|liftIO|\index{liftIO@\texttt{liftIO}}.

There's one more useful environment function: being able to bind a whole bunch of variables at once, like what would happen at function invocation. We might as well build that functionality now, though we won't be using it until the next section:

\codesnippet{variableparser}{323}{327}

This is perhaps more complicated than the other functions, since it uses a monadic pipeline (rather than do-notation) and a pair of helper functions to do the work. It's best to start with the helper functions. \verb|addBinding|\index{addBinding@\texttt{addBinding}} takes a variable name and value, creates an \verb|IORef| to hold the new variable , and then returns the \verb|(name, value)| pair. \verb|extendEnv|\index{extendEnv@\texttt{extendEnv}} calls \verb|addBinding| on each member of \verb|bindings|\index{bindings@\texttt{bindings}} (\verb|mapM|\index{mapM@\texttt{mapM}}) to create a list of \verb|(String, IORef LispVal)| pairs, and then appends the current environment to the end of that \lstinline|(++ env)|. Finally, the whole function wires these functions up in a pipeline, starting by reading the existing environment out of its \verb|IORef|, then passing the result to \verb|extendEnv|, then returning a new \verb|IORef|\index{IORef@\texttt{IORef}} with the extended environment.

Now that we have all our environment functions, we need to start using them in the evaluator. Since Haskell has no global variables, we'll have to thread the environment through the evaluator as a parameter. While we're at it, we might as well add the \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-7.html\#\%_sec_4.1.6}{\texttt{set!}} and \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-8.html\#\%_sec_5.2}{\texttt{define}\index{define@\texttt{define}}} special forms.

\codesnippet{variableparser}{91}{107}

Since a single environment gets threaded through a whole interactive session, we need to change a few of our IO functions to take an environment.

\codesnippet{variableparser}{263}{267}

We need the \verb|runIOThrows|\index{runIOThrows@\texttt{runIOThrows}} in \verb|evalString|\index{evalString@\texttt{evalString}} because the type of the monad has changed from \verb|ThrowsError|\index{ThrowsError@\texttt{ThrowsError}} to \verb|IOThrowsError|\index{IOThrowsError@\texttt{IOThrowsError}}. Similarly, we need a \verb|liftThrows|\index{liftThrows@\texttt{liftThrows}} to bring \verb|readExpr|\index{readExpr@\texttt{readExpr}} into the \verb|IOThrowsError| monad.

Next, we initialize the environment with a null variable before starting the program:

\codesnippet{variableparser}{276}{280}

\sloppy
We've created an additional helper function \verb|runOne|\index{runOne@\texttt{runOne}} to handle the single-expression case, since it's now somewhat more involved than just running \verb|eval| \verb|And|\verb|Print|. The changes to \verb|runRepl| are a bit more subtle: notice how we added a function composition operator before \verb|evalAndPrint|. That's because \verb|evalAndPrint|\index{evalAndPrint@\texttt{evalAndPrint}} now takes an additional \verb|Env|\index{Env@\texttt{Env}} parameter, fed from \verb|nullEnv|\index{nullEnv@\texttt{nullEnv}}. The function composition tells \verb|until_| that instead of taking plain old \verb|evalAndPrint| as an action, it ought to apply it first to whatever's coming down the monadic pipeline, in this case the result of \verb|nullEnv|. Thus, the actual function that gets applied to each line of input is \lstinline|(evalAndPrint env)|, just as we want it.
\fussy

Finally, we need to change our main function to call \verb|runOne| instead of evaluating \verb|evalAndPrint| directly:

\codesnippet{variableparser}{9}{14}

The complete code is therefore:

\completecode{variableparser}{A parser able to handle variables}

And we can compile and test our program:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -o lisp variableparser.hs
user>># ./lisp
Lisp>>> (define x 3)
3
Lisp>>> (+ x 2)
5
Lisp>>> (+ y 2)
Getting an unbound variable: y
Lisp>>> (define y 5)
5
Lisp>>> (+ x (- y 2))
6
Lisp>>> (define str "A string")
"A string"
Lisp>>> (< str "The string")
Invalid type: expected number, found "A string"
Lisp>>> (string<? str "The string")
#t
\end{lstlisting}


### ch8.tex

ch8.tex
\chapter[Defining Scheme Functions]{Defining Scheme Functions: Closures and Environments}

Now that we can define variables, we might as well extend it to functions. After this section, you'll be able to define your own functions within Scheme and use them from other functions. Our implementation is nearly finished.

Let's start by defining new \verb|LispVal|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}} constructors:

\codesnippet{functionparser}{33}{35}

We've added a separate constructor for primitives, because we'd like to be able to store \lstinline|+|\index{+@\texttt{+}}, \verb|eqv?|\index{eqv?@\texttt{eqv?}}, etc. in variables and pass them to functions. The \verb|PrimitiveFunc|\index{PrimitiveFunc@\texttt{PrimitiveFunc}} constructor stores a function that takes a list of arguments to a \verb|ThrowsError LispVal|\index{ThrowsError@\texttt{ThrowsError}}, the same type that is stored in our primitive list.

We also want a constructor to store user-defined functions. We store 4 pieces of information:

\begin{enumerate}
\item the names of the parameters, as they're bound in the function body
\item whether the function accepts a variable-length list of arguments, and if so, the variable name it's bound to
\item the function body, as a list of expressions
\item the environment that the function was created in
\end{enumerate}

This is an example of a \href{http://www.haskell.org/hawiki/UsingRecords}{record\index{record}} type. Records are somewhat clumsy in Haskell, so we're only using them for demonstration purposes. However, they can be invaluable in large-scale programming.

Next, we'll want to edit our show function to include the new types:

\codesnippet{functionparser}{88}{93}

Instead of showing the full function, we just print out the word \lstinline|"<primitive>"| for primitives and the header info for user-defined functions. This is an example of pattern-matching for records: as with normal algebraic types, a pattern looks exactly like a constructor call. Field names come first and the variables they'll be bound to come afterwards.

Next, we need to change apply. Instead of being passed the name of a function, it'll be passed a \verb|LispVal|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}} representing the actual function. For primitives, that makes the code simpler: we need only read the function out of the value and apply it.

\codesnippet{functionparser}{131}{132}

The interesting code happens when we're faced with a user defined function. Records let you pattern match on both the field name (as shown above) or the field position, so we'll use the latter form:

\codesnippet{functionparser}{133}{142}

The very first thing this function does is check the length of the parameter list against the expected number of arguments. It throws an error if they don't match. We define a local function num to enhance readability and make the program a bit shorter.

Assuming the call is valid, we do the bulk of the call in monadic pipeline that binds the arguments to a new environment and executes the statements in the body. The first thing we do is zip the list of parameter names and the list of (already-evaluated) argument values together into a list of pairs. Then, we take that and the function's closure (not the current environment---this is what gives us lexical scoping) and use them to create a new environment to evaluate the function in. The result is of type \verb|IO|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}}, while the function as a whole is \verb|IOThrowsError|\index{IOThrowsError@\texttt{IOThrowsError}}, so we need to \verb|liftIO|\index{liftIO@\texttt{liftIO}} it into the combined monad.

Now it's time to bind the remaining arguments to the \verb|varArgs|\index{varArgs@\texttt{varArgs}} variable, using the local function bindVarArgs. If the function doesn't take \verb|varArgs| (the Nothing clause), then we just return the existing environment. Otherwise, we create a singleton list that has the variable name as the key and the remaining args as the value, and pass that to bindVars. We define the local variable remainingArgs for readability, using the built-in function drop to ignore all the arguments that have already been bound to variables.

The final stage is to evaluate the body in this new environment. We use the local function \verb|evalBody|\index{evalBody@\texttt{evalBody}} for this, which maps the monadic function eval env over every statement in the body, and then returns the value of the last statement.

Since we're now storing primitives as regular values in variables, we have to bind them when the program starts up:

\codesnippet{functionparser}{320}{322}

\sloppy
This takes the initial null environment, makes a bunch of name/value pairs consisting of \verb|PrimitiveFunc|\index{PrimitiveFunc@\texttt{PrimitiveFunc}} wrappers, and then binds the new pairs into the new environment. We also want to change \verb|runOne|\index{runOne@\texttt{runOne}} and \verb|runRepl|\index{runRepl@\texttt{runRepl}} to \verb|primitive| \verb|Bindings|\index{primitiveBindings@\texttt{primitiveBindings}} instead:
\fussy

\codesnippet{functionparser}{309}{313}

Finally, we need to change the evaluator to support \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-7.html\#\%_sec_4.1.4}{lambda} and function \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-8.html\#\%_sec_5.2}{define}. We'll start by creating a few helper functions to make it a little easier to create function objects in the \verb|IOThrowsError|\index{IOThrowsError@\texttt{IOThrowsError}} monad:

\codesnippet{functionparser}{367}{369}

Here, \verb|makeNormalFunc|\index{makeNormalFunc@\texttt{makeNormalFunc}} and \verb|makeVarArgs|\index{makeVarArgs@\texttt{makeVarArgs}} should just be considered specializations of \verb|makeFunc|\index{makeFunc@\texttt{makeFunc}} with the first argument set appropriately for normal functions vs. variable args. This is a good example of how to use first-class functions to simplify code.

Now, we can use them to add our extra \verb|eval|\index{eval@\texttt{eval}} clauses. They should be inserted after the define-variable clause and before the function-application one:

\codesnippet{functionparser}{115}{128}

As you can see, they just use pattern matching to destructure the form and then call the appropriate function helper. In \verb|define|\index{define@\texttt{define}}'s case, we also feed the output into \verb|defineVar|\index{defineVar@\texttt{defineVar}} to bind a variable in the local environment. We also need to change the function application clause to remove the \verb|liftThrows|\index{liftThrows@\texttt{liftThrows}} function, since apply now works in the \verb|IOThrowsError|\index{IOThrowsError@\texttt{IOThrowsError}} monad.

The complete code is therefore:

\completecode{functionparser}{A parser able to handle functions}

We can now compile and run our program, and use it to write real programs!

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ghc -package parsec -fglasgow-exts -o lisp functionparser.hs
user>> ./lisp
Lisp>>> (define (f x y) (+ x y))
(lambda ("x" "y") ...)
Lisp>>> (f 1 2)
3
Lisp>>> (f 1 2 3)
Expected 2 args: found values 1 2 3
Lisp>>> (f 1)
Expected 2 args: found values 1
Lisp>>> (define (factorial x) (if (= x 1) 1 (* x (factorial (- x 1)))))
(lambda ("x") ...)
Lisp>>> (factorial 10)
3628800
Lisp>>> (define (counter inc) (lambda (x) (set! inc (+ x inc)) inc))
(lambda ("inc") ...)
Lisp>>> (define my-count (counter 5))
(lambda ("x") ...)
Lisp>>> (my-count 3)
8
Lisp>>> (my-count 6)
14
Lisp>>> (my-count 5)
19
\end{lstlisting}


### ch9.tex

ch9.tex
\chapter[Creating IO Primitives]{Creating IO Primitives: File I/O}

Our Scheme can't really communicate with the outside world yet, so it would be nice if we could give it some IO functions. Also, it gets really tedious typing in functions every time we start the interpreter, so it would be nice to load files of code and execute them.

The first thing we'll need is a new constructor for \verb|LispVals|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}}. \verb|PrimitiveFuncs|\index{PrimitiveFunc@\texttt{PrimitiveFunc}} have a specific type signature that doesn't include the \verb|IO| monad, so they can't perform any IO. We want a dedicated constructor for primitive functions that perform IO:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{35}{35}

While we're at it, let's also define a constructor for the Scheme data type of a \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-9.html\#\%_sec_6.6.1}{\texttt{port}\index{port@\texttt{port}}}. Most of our IO functions will take one of these to read from or write to:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{33}{33}

A \href{http://www.haskell.org/onlinereport/io.html\#sect21}{\texttt{Handle}\index{Handle@\texttt{Handle}}} is basically the Haskell notion of a port: it's an opaque data type, returned from \verb|openFile|\index{openFile@\texttt{openFile}} and similar \verb|IO| actions, that you can read and write to.

For completeness, we ought to provide showVal methods for the new data types:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{90}{91}

This'll let the REPL function show values properly and not crash when you use a function that returns a port.

We also need to update apply, so that it can handle IOFuncs:
\codesnippet{ioparser}{138}{138}

We'll need to make some minor changes to our parser to support \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-9.html\#\%_sec_6.6.4}{\texttt{load}\index{load@\texttt{load}}}. Since Scheme files usually contain several definitions, we need to add a parser that will support several expressions, separated by whitespace. And it also needs to handle errors. We can re-use much of the existing infrastructure by factoring our basic \verb|readExpr|\index{readExpr@\texttt{readExpr}} so that it takes the actual parser as a parameter:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{16}{22}

Next, we'll want a new list of IO primitives, structured just like the existing primitive list:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{378}{387}

The only difference here is in the type signature. Unfortunately, we can't use the existing primitive list because lists cannot contain elements of different types. We also need to change the definition of \verb|primitiveBindings|\index{primitiveBindings@\texttt{primitiveBindings}} to add our new primitives:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{327}{330}

We've generalized \verb|makeFunc|\index{makeFunc@\texttt{makeFunc}} to take a constructor argument, and now call it on the list of \verb|ioPrimitives|\index{ioPrimitives@\texttt{ioPrimitives}} in addition to the plain old primitives.

Now we start defining the actual functions. \verb|applyProc|\index{applyProc@\texttt{applyProc}} is a very thin wrapper around apply, responsible for destructuring the argument list into the form apply expects:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{389}{391}

makePort wraps the Haskell function \verb|openFile|\index{openFile@\texttt{openFile}}, converting it to the right type and wrapping its return value in the \verb|Port|\index{Port@\texttt{Port}} constructor. It's intended to be partially-applied to the \verb|IOMode|\index{IOMode@\texttt{IOMode}}, \verb|ReadMode|\index{ReadMode@\texttt{ReadMode}} for open-input-file and \verb|WriteMode|\index{WriteMode@\texttt{WriteMode}} for open-output-file:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{393}{394}

\verb|closePort|\index{closePort@\texttt{closePort}} also wraps the equivalent Haskell procedure, this time \verb|hClose|\index{hClose@\texttt{hClose}}:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{396}{398}

\verb|readProc|\index{readProc@\texttt{readProc}} (named to avoid a name conflict with the built-in read) wraps the Haskell \verb|hGetLine|\index{hGetLine@\texttt{hGetLine}} and then sends the result to \verb|parseExpr|\index{parseExpr@\texttt{parseExpr}}, to be turned into a \verb|LispVal|\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}} suitable for Scheme:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{400}{402}

Notice how \verb|hGetLine| is of type \verb|IO String|\index{IO@\texttt{IO}}\index{String@\texttt{String}} yet \verb|readExpr| is of type \verb|String| \verb|-> ThrowsError LispVal|\index{ThrowsError@\texttt{ThrowsError}}\index{LispVal@\texttt{LispVal}}, so they both need to be converted (with \verb|liftIO|\index{liftIO@\texttt{liftIO}} and \verb|liftThrows|\index{liftThrows@\texttt{liftThrows}}, respectively) to the \verb|IOThrowsError|\index{IOThrowsError@\texttt{IOThrowsError}} monad. Only then can they be piped together with the monadic bind operator. \verb|writeProc|\index{writeProc@\texttt{writeProc}} converts a \verb|LispVal| to a string and then writes it out on the specified port:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{404}{406}

We don't have to explicitly call \verb|show|\index{show@\texttt{show}} on the object we're printing, because \verb|hPrint|\index{hPrint@\texttt{hPrint}} takes a value of type \verb|Show a|. It's calling show for us automatically. This is why we bothered making \verb|LispVal| an instance of \verb|Show|\index{Show@\texttt{Show}}; otherwise, we wouldn't be able to use this automatic conversion and would have to call \verb|showVal|\index{showVal@\texttt{showVal}} ourselves. Many other Haskell functions also take instances of \verb|Show|, so if we'd extended this with other IO primitives, it could save us significant labor.

\codesnippet{ioparser}{408}{409}

\codesnippet{ioparser}{411}{412}

\codesnippet{ioparser}{414}{415}

Implementing the actual Scheme \verb|load|\index{load@\texttt{load}} function is a little tricky, because \verb|load| can introduce bindings into the local environment. Apply, however, doesn't take an environment argument, and so there's no way for a primitive function (or any function) to do this. We get around this by implementing load as a special form:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{129}{130}

Finally, we might as well change our \verb|runOne|\index{runOne@\texttt{runOne}} function so that instead of evaluating a single expression from the command line, it takes the name of a file to execute and runs that as a program. Additional command-line arguments will get bound into a list \lstinline|args| within the Scheme program:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{313}{317}

That's a little involved, so let's go through it step-by-step. The first line takes the original primitive bindings, passes that into \verb|bindVars|\index{bindVars@\texttt{bindVars}}, and then adds a variable named \lstinline|args| that's bound to a \verb|List|\index{List@\texttt{List}} containing \verb|String|\index{String@\texttt{String}} versions of all but the first argument. (The first argument is the filename to execute.) Then, it creates a Scheme form \lstinline|(load "arg1")|, just as if the user had typed it in, and evaluates it. The result is transformed to a string (remember, we have to do this before catching errors, because the error handler converts them to strings and the types must match) and then we run the whole \verb|IOThrowsError|\index{IOThrowsError@\texttt{IOThrowsError}} action. Then we print the result on \verb|STDERR|\index{STDERR@\texttt{STDERR}}. (Traditional UNIX conventions hold that \verb|STDOUT|\index{STDOUT@\texttt{STDOUT}} should be used only or program output, with any error messages going to \verb|STDERR|. In this case, we'll also be printing the return value of the last statement in the program, which generally has no meaning to anything.)

Then we change main so it uses our new \verb|runOne|\index{runOne@\texttt{runOne}} function. Since we no longer need a third clause to handle the wrong number of command-line arguments, we can simplify it to an if statement:

\codesnippet{ioparser}{9}{11}


### ch10.tex

ch10.tex
\chapter[Towards a Standard Library]{Towards a Standard Library: Fold and Unfold}

\lstset{numbers=none}

Our Scheme is almost complete now, but it's still rather hard to use. At the very least, we'd like a library of standard list-manipulation functions that we can use to perform some common computations.

Rather than using a typical Scheme implementation, defining each list function in terms of a recursion on lists, we'll implement two primitive recursion operators (\verb|fold|\index{fold@\texttt{fold}} and \verb|unfold|\index{unfold@\texttt{unfold}}) and then define our whole library based on those. This style is used by the \href{http://www.haskell.org/onlinereport/standard-prelude.html}{Haskell Prelude}: it gives you more concise definitions, less room for error, and good practice using fold to capture iteration.

We'll start by defining a few obvious helper functions. \verb|not|\index{not@\texttt{not}} and \verb|null|\index{null@\texttt{null}} are defined exactly as you'd expect it, using if statements:

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (not x)
(if x
#f
#t))

(define (null? obj)
(if (eqv? obj '())
#t
#f))
\end{lstlisting}

We can use the \verb|varArgs|\index{varArgs@\texttt{varArgs}} feature to define list, which just returns a list of its arguments:

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (list . objs)
objs)
\end{lstlisting}

We also want an \verb|id|\index{id@\texttt{id}} function, which just returns its argument unchanged. This may seem completely useless---if you already have a value, why do you need a function to return it? However, several of our algorithms expect a function that tells us what to do with a given value. By defining \verb|id|, we let those higher-order functions work even if we don't want to do anything with the value.

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (id obj)
obj)
\end{lstlisting}

Similarly, it'd be nice to have a \verb|flip|\index{flip@\texttt{flip}} function, in case we want to pass in a function that takes its arguments in the wrong order:

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (flip func)
(lambda (arg1 arg2)
(func arg2 arg1)))
\end{lstlisting}

Finally, we add \verb|curry|\index{curry@\texttt{curry}} and \verb|compose|\index{compose@\texttt{compose}}, which work like their Haskell equivalents (partial-application and the dot operator, respectively).

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (curry func arg1)
(lambda (arg)
(apply func (cons arg1 arg))))

(define (compose f g)
(lambda (arg)
(f (apply g arg))))
\end{lstlisting}

We might as well define some simple library functions that appear in the Scheme standard:

\begin{lstlisting}
(define zero?
(curry = 0))

(define positive?
(curry < 0))

(define negative?
(curry > 0))

(define (odd? num)
(= (mod num 2) 1))

(define (even? num)
(= (mod num 2) 0))
\end{lstlisting}

These are basically done just as you'd expect them. Note the usage of curry to define \verb|zero?|\index{zero?@\texttt{zero?}}, \verb|positive?|\index{positive?@\texttt{positive?}} and \verb|negative?|\index{negative?@\texttt{negative?}}. We bind the variable \verb|zero?| to the function returned by \verb|curry|\index{curry@\texttt{curry}}, giving us an unary function that returns true if its argument is equal to zero.

Next, we want to define a \verb|fold|\index{fold@\texttt{fold}} function that captures the basic pattern of recursion over a list. The best way to think about \verb|fold| is to picture a list in terms of its infix constructors: \lstinline|[1, 2, 3, 4] = 1:2:3:4:[]| in Haskell or \lstinline|(1 . (2 . (3 . (4 . NIL))))| in Scheme. A \verb|fold| function replaces every constructor with a binary operation, and replaces \verb|NIL|\index{NIL@\texttt{NIL}} with the accumulator. So, for example, \lstinline|(fold + 0 '(1 2 3 4)) = (1 + (2 + (3 + (4 + 0))))|.

With that definition, we can write our \verb|fold|\index{fold@\texttt{fold}} function. Start with a right-associative version to mimic the above examples:

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (foldr func end lst)
(if (null? lst)
end
(func (car lst) (foldr func end (cdr lst)))))
\end{lstlisting}

The structure of this function mimics our definition almost exactly. If the list is null, replace it with the end value. If not, apply the function to the car of the list and to the result of folding this function and end value down the rest of the list. Since the right-hand operand is folded up first, you end up with a right-associative \verb|fold|.

We also want a left-associative version. For most associative operations like \lstinline|+|\index{+@\texttt{+}} and \lstinline|*|\index{*@\texttt{*}}, the two of them are completely equivalent. However, there is at least one important binary operation that is not associative: \verb|cons|\index{cons@\texttt{cons}}. For all our list manipulation functions, then, we'll need to deliberately choose between left- and right-associative \verb|folds|\index{folds@\texttt{folds}}.

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (foldl func accum lst)
(if (null? lst)
accum
(foldl func (func accum (car lst)) (cdr lst))))
\end{lstlisting}

This begins the same way as the right-associative version, with the test for null that returns the accumulator. This time, however, we apply the function to the accumulator and first element of the list, instead of applying it to the first element and the result of folding the list. This means that we process the beginning first, giving us left-associativity. Once we reach the end of the list, \lstinline|'()|, we then return the result that we've been progressively building up.

Note that func takes its arguments in the opposite order from \verb|foldr|\index{foldr@\texttt{foldr}}. In \verb|foldr|, the accumulator represents the rightmost value to tack onto the end of the list, after you've finished recursing down it. In \verb|foldl|\index{foldl@\texttt{foldl}}, it represents the completed calculation for the leftmost part of the list. In order to preserve our intuitions about commutativity of operators, it should therefore be the left argument of our operation in \verb|foldl|, but the right argument in \verb|foldr|.

Once we've got our basic \verb|folds|\index{fold@\texttt{fold}}, we can define a couple convenience names to match typical Scheme usage:

\begin{lstlisting}
(define fold foldl)
(define reduce fold)
\end{lstlisting}

These are just new variables bound to the existing functions: they don't define new functions. Most Schemes call \verb|fold|\index{fold@\texttt{fold}} \verb|\textit{reduce}|\index{reduce@\texttt{reduce}} or plain old \verb|fold|, and don't make the distinction between \verb|foldl|\index{foldl@\texttt{foldl}} and \verb|foldr|\index{foldr@\texttt{foldr}}. We define it to be \verb|foldl|, which happens to be tail-recursive and hence runs more efficiently than \verb|foldr| (it doesn't have to recurse all the way down to the end of the list before it starts building up the computation). Not all operations are associative, however; we'll see some cases later where we have to use \verb|foldr| to get the right result.

Next, we want to define a function that is the opposite of \verb|fold|. Given an unary function, an initial value, and a unary predicate, it continues applying the function to the last value until the predicate is true, building up a list as it goes along. This is essentially what generators are in Python or Icon:

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (lstlisting func init pred)
(if (pred init)
(cons init '())
(cons init (unfold func (func init) pred))))
\end{lstlisting}

As usual, our function structure basically matches the definition. If the predicate is true, then we cons a \lstinline|'()| onto the last value, terminating the list. Otherwise, cons the result of unfolding the next value \lstinline|(func init)| onto the current value.

In academic functional programming literature, folds are often called catamorphisms\index{catamorphism}, unfolds are often called anamorphisms, and the combinations of the two are often called hylomorphisms. They're interesting because any for-each loop can be represented as a catamorphism. To convert from a loop to a \verb|foldl|\index{foldl@\texttt{foldl}}, package up all mutable variables in the loop into a data structure (records work well for this, but you can also use an algebraic data type or a list). The initial state becomes the accumulator; the loop body becomes a function with the loop variables as its first argument and the iteration variable as its second; and the list becomes, well, the list. The result of the fold function is the new state of all the mutable variables.

Similarly, every for-loop (without early exits) can be represented as a hylomorphism\index{hypermorphism}. The initialization, termination, and step conditions of a for-loop define an anamorphism that builds up a list of values for the iteration variable to take. Then, you can treat that as a for-each loop and use a catamorphism to break it down into whatever state you wish to modify.

Let's go through a couple examples. We'll start with typical \verb|sum|\index{sum@\texttt{sum}}, \verb|product|\index{product@\texttt{product}}, \verb|and|\index{and@\texttt{and}}, \verb|or|\index{or@\texttt{or}} functions:

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (sum . lst)
(fold + 0 lst))

(define (product . lst)
(fold * 1 lst))

(define (and . lst)
(fold && #t lst))

(define (or . lst)
(fold || #f lst))
\end{lstlisting}

These all follow from the definitions:

\begin{lstlisting}
(sum 1 2 3 4) = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 0 = (fold + 0 '(1 . (2 . (3 . (4 . NIL)))))
(product 1 2 3 4) = 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 * 1 = (fold * 1 '(1 . (2 . (3 . (4 . NIL)))))
(and #t #t #f) = #t && #t && #f && #t = (fold && #t '(#t . (#t . (#f . NIL))))
(or #t #t #f) = #t || #t || #f || #f = (fold || #f '(#t . (#t . (#f . NIL)))
\end{lstlisting}

Since all of these operators are associative, it doesn't matter whether we use \verb|foldr|\index{foldr@\texttt{foldr}} or \verb|foldl|\index{foldl@\texttt{foldl}}. We replace the cons constructor with the operator, and the \verb|nil|\index{nil@\texttt{nil}} constructor with the identity element for that operator.

Next, let's try some more complicated operators. \verb|max|\index{max@\texttt{max}} and \verb|min|\index{min@\texttt{min}} find the maximum and minimum of their arguments, respectively:

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (max first . num-list)
(fold (lambda (old new)
(if (> old new) old new))
first
num-list))

(define (min first . num-list)
(fold (lambda (old new)
(if (< old new) old new))
first
num-list))
\end{lstlisting}

It's not immediately obvious what operation to fold over the list, because none of the built-ins quite qualify. Instead, think back to fold as a representation of a foreach loop. The accumulator represents any state we've maintained over previous iterations of the loop, so we'll want it to be the maximum value we've found so far. That gives us our initialization value: we want to start off with the leftmost variable in the list (since we're doing a \verb|foldl|\index{foldl@\texttt{foldl}}). Now recall that the result of the operation becomes the new accumulator at each step, and we've got our function. If the previous value is greater, keep it. If the new value is greater, or they're equal, return the new value. Reverse the operation for min.

How about length? We know that we can find the length of a list by counting down it, but how do we translate that into a \verb|fold|\index{fold@\texttt{fold}}?

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (length lst)
(fold (lambda (x y)
(+ x 1))
0
lst))
\end{lstlisting}

Again, think in terms of its definition as a loop. The accumulator starts off at 0 and gets incremented by 1 with each iteration. That gives us both our initialization value---0---and our function---\lstinline|(lambda (x y) (+ x 1))|. Another way to look at this is The length of a list is 1 + the length of the sublist to its left.''

Let's try something a bit trickier: \verb|reverse|\index{reverse@\texttt{reverse}}.

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (reverse lst)
(fold (flip cons) '() lst))
\end{lstlisting}

The function here is fairly obvious: if you want to reverse two cons cells, you can just flip cons so it takes its arguments in the opposite order. However, there's a bit of subtlety at work. Ordinary lists are right associative: \lstinline|(1 2 3 4) = (1 . (2 . (3 . (4 . NIL))))|. If you want to reverse this, you need your fold to be left associative: \lstinline|(reverse '(1 2 3 4)) = (4 . (3 . (2 . (1 . NIL))))|. Try it with a \verb|foldr|\index{foldr@\texttt{foldr}} instead of a \verb|foldl|\index{foldl@\texttt{foldl}} and see what you get.

There's a whole family of member and assoc functions, all of which can be represented with folds. The particular lambda expression is fairly complicated though, so let's factor it out:

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (mem-helper pred op)
(lambda (acc next)
(if (and (not acc)
(pred (op next)))
next
acc)))

(define (memq obj lst)
(fold (mem-helper (curry eq? obj) id) #f lst))

(define (memv obj lst)
(fold (mem-helper (curry eqv? obj) id) #f lst))

(define (member obj lst)
(fold (mem-helper (curry equal? obj) id) #f lst))

(define (assq obj alist)
(fold (mem-helper (curry eq? obj) car) #f alist))

(define (assv obj alist)
(fold (mem-helper (curry eqv? obj) car) #f alist))

(define (assoc obj alist)
(fold (mem-helper (curry equal? obj) car) #f alist))
\end{lstlisting}

The helper function is parameterized by the predicate to use and the operation to apply to the result if found. Its accumulator represents the first value found so far: it starts out with \verb|#f|\index{\#f@\texttt{\#f}} and takes on the first value that satisfies its predicate. We avoid finding subsequent values by testing for a non-\verb|#f|\index{\#f@\texttt{\#f}} value and returning the existing accumulator if it's already set. We also provide an operation that will be applied to the next value each time the predicate tests: this lets us customize \verb|mem-helper|\index{mem-helper@\texttt{mem-helper}} to check the value itself (for \verb|member|\index{member@\texttt{member}}) or only the key of the value (for \verb|assoc|\index{assoc@\texttt{assoc}}).

The rest of the functions are just various combinations of \verb|eq?|\index{eq?@\texttt{eq?}}/\verb|eqv?|\index{eqv?@\texttt{eqv?}}/\verb|equal?|\index{equal?@\texttt{equal?}} and \verb|id|\index{id@\texttt{id}}/\verb|car|\index{car@\texttt{car}}, folded over the list with an initial value of \verb|#f|.

Next, let's define the functions \verb|map|\index{map@\texttt{map}} and \verb|filter|\index{filter@\texttt{filter}}. Map applies a function to every element of a list, returning a new list with the transformed values:

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (map func lst)
(foldr (lambda (x y)
(cons (func x) y))
'()
lst))
\end{lstlisting}

Remember that \verb|foldr|\index{foldr@\texttt{foldr}}'s function takes its arguments in the opposite order as \verb|fold|\index{fold@\texttt{fold}}, with the current value on the left. \verb|map|\index{map@\texttt{map}}'s lambda applies the function to the current value, then conses it with the rest of the mapped list, represented by the right-hand argument. It's essentially replacing every infix \verb|cons|\index{cons@\texttt{cons}} constructor with one that conses, but also applies the function to its left-side argument.

\verb|filter|\index{filter@\texttt{filter}} keeps only the elements of a list that satisfy a predicate, dropping all others:

\begin{lstlisting}
(define (filter pred lst)
(foldr (lambda (x y)
(if (pred x)
(cons x y)
y))
'()
lst))
\end{lstlisting}

This works by testing the current value against the predicate. If it's true, replacing \verb|cons|\index{cons@\texttt{cons}} with \verb|cons|, i.e. don't do anything. If it's false, drop the \verb|cons| and just return the rest of the list. This eliminates all the elements that don't satisfy the predicate, consing up a new list that includes only the ones that do.

The complete standard library is therefore:

\lstinputlisting[captionpos=t,basicstyle=\scriptsize,frame=lines,caption={[stdlib.scm]Standard library (stdlib.scm)}, numbers=left,numberstyle=\tiny,stepnumber=5,firstnumber=1]{code/stdlib.scm}

We can use the standard library by starting up our Lisp interpreter and typing \lstinline|(load "stdlib.scm")|:

\begin{lstlisting}[language=shell,numbers=none,nolol]
user>> ./lisp
(lambda ("pred" . lst) ...)
Lisp>>> (map (curry + 2) '(1 2 3 4))
(3 4 5 6)
Lisp>>> (filter even? '(1 2 3 4))
(2 4)
Lisp>>> quit
\end{lstlisting}

There are many other useful functions that could go into the standard library, including \verb|list-tail|\index{list-tail@\texttt{list-tail}}, \verb|list-ref|\index{list-ref@\texttt{list-ref}}, \verb|append|\index{append@\texttt{append}}, and various string-manipulation functions. Try implementing them as folds. Remember, the key to successful fold-programming is thinking only in terms of what happens on each iteration. Fold captures the pattern of recursion down a list, and recursive problems are best solved by working one step at a time.


## ./appendices/

\chapter{Answers to Exercises}

\section{Section 2.3}

\subsection{Exercise 1}

\subsubsection{Part 1}

\begin{lstlisting}
parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = do x <- many1 digit
(return . Number . read) x
\end{lstlisting}

\subsubsection{Part 2}

In order to anwer this question, you need to do a bit of detective work! It is helpful to read up on do notation. Using the information there, we can mechanically transform the above answer into the following.

\begin{lstlisting}
parseNumber = many1 digit >>= \x -> (return . Number . read) x
\end{lstlisting}

This can be cleaned up into the following:

\begin{lstlisting}
parseNumber = many1 digit >>= return . Number . read
\end{lstlisting}

\subsection{Exercise 2}

We need to create a new parser action that accepts a backslash followed by either another backslash or a doublequote. This action needs to return only the second character.

\begin{lstlisting}
escapedChars :: Parser String
escapedChars = do char '\\' -- a backslash
x <- oneOf "\\\"" -- either backslash or doublequote
return [x] -- make this character into a string
\end{lstlisting}

Once that is done, we need to make some changes to parseString.

\begin{lstlisting}
parseString :: Parser LispVal
parseString = do char '"'
x <- many $many1 (noneOf "\"\\") <|> escapedChars char '"' return$ String (concat x)
\end{lstlisting}

\subsection{Exercise 3}

\begin{lstlisting}
escapedChars :: Parser String
escapedChars = do char '\\'
x <- oneOf "\\\"ntr"
case x of
'\\' -> do return [x]
'"' -> do return [x]
't' -> do return "\t"
'n' -> do return "\n"
'r' -> do return "\r"
\end{lstlisting}

\subsection{Exercise 4}

First, it is necessary to change the definition of symbol.

\begin{lstlisting}
symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<;\color{green}=;>?@^_~" \end{lstlisting} This means that it is no longer possible to begin an atom with the hash character. This necessitates a different way of parsing \verb|#t| and \verb|#f|. \begin{lstlisting} parseBool :: Parser LispVal parseBool = do string "#" x <- oneOf "tf" return$ case x of
't' -> Bool True
'f' -> Bool False
\end{lstlisting}

This in turn requires us to make changes to parseExpr.

\begin{lstlisting}
parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
<|> parseBool
\end{lstlisting}

\verb|parseNumber| need to be changed to the following.

\begin{lstlisting}
parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = do num <- parseDigital1 <|> parseDigital2 <|>
parseHex <|> parseOct <|> parseBin
return $num \end{lstlisting} And the following new functions need to be added. \begin{lstlisting} parseDigital1 :: Parser LispVal parseDigital1 = do x <- many1 digit (return . Number . read) x \end{lstlisting} \begin{lstlisting} parseDigital2 :: Parser LispVal parseDigital2 = do try$ string "#d"
x <- many1 digit
(return . Number . read) x
\end{lstlisting}

\begin{lstlisting}
parseHex :: Parser LispVal
parseHex = do try $string "#x" x <- many1 hexDigit return$ Number (hex2dig x)
\end{lstlisting}

\begin{lstlisting}
parseOct :: Parser LispVal
parseOct = do try $string "#o" x <- many1 octDigit return$ Number (oct2dig x)
\end{lstlisting}

\begin{lstlisting}
parseBin :: Parser LispVal
parseBin = do try $string "#b" x <- many1 (oneOf "10") return$ Number (bin2dig x)
\end{lstlisting}

\begin{lstlisting}
oct2dig x = fst $readOct x !! 0 hex2dig x = fst$ readHex x !! 0
bin2dig  = bin2dig' 0
bin2dig' digint "" = digint
bin2dig' digint (x:xs) = let old = 2 * digint + (if x == '0' then 0 else 1) in bin2dig' old xs
\end{lstlisting}

\subsection{Exercise 5}

\begin{lstlisting}
data LispVal = Atom String
| List [LispVal]
| DottedList [LispVal] LispVal
| Number Integer
| String String
| Bool Bool
| Character Char
\end{lstlisting}

\begin{lstlisting}
parseChar :: Parser LispVal
parseChar = do try $string "#\\" x <- parseCharName <|> anyChar return$ Character x
\end{lstlisting}

\begin{lstlisting}
parseCharName = do x <- try (string "space" <|> string "newline")
case x of
"space" -> do return ' '
"newline" -> do return '\n'
\end{lstlisting}

Note that this does not actually conform to the standard; as it stands, \verb|space| and \verb|newline| must be entirely lowercase; the standard states that they should be case insensitive.

\begin{lstlisting}
parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> try parseNumber -- we need the 'try' because
<|> try parseBool -- these can all start with the hash char
<|> try parseChar
\end{lstlisting}


### documentinfo.tex

documentinfo.tex
\chapter[Document Information]{Document Information \& History}

\section{History}

This book was originally written by \href{http://halogen.note.amherst.edu/~jdtang/}{Jonathan Tang} and made available on \href{http://halogen.note.amherst.edu/~jdtang/scheme_in_48/tutorial/overview.html}{his website}. It was imported into the \href{http://wikibooks.org}{Wikibooks} project on 2006-07-08 by \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Kowey}{Kowey} and developed on the project by the contributors listed in Appendix \ref{sec:authors}, page \pageref{sec:authors}. For convenience, this PDF was created for download from the project. The latest Wikibooks version may be found at \url{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours}.

\section{PDF Information \& History}

This PDF was complied from \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours/LaTeX}{\LaTeX} on 2007-07-15, based on the 2007-07-06 \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours}{Wikibooks version} of the book. The latest version of the PDF may be found at \url{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Image:Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours.pdf}.

\section{Document Formats}
\begin{enumerate}
\item PDF: \url{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Image:Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours.pdf}
\item Printer-friendly PDF: \url{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Image:Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours_printable version.pdf}
\item \LaTeX: \url{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours/LaTeX}
\item MediaWiki markup: \url{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours}
\item HTML: \url{http://halogen.note.amherst.edu/~jdtang/scheme_in_48/tutorial/overview.html} (original version)
\end{enumerate}

\section{Authors}
\label{sec:authors}

\subsection{Orignal Version}
\begin{enumerate}
\item \href{http://halogen.note.amherst.edu/~jdtang/}{Jonathan Tang}
\end{enumerate}

\subsection{Wikibooks Changes}
\begin{itemize}
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Hagindaz}{Hagindaz} (\href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/Hagindaz}{list of contributions})
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Infinoid}{Infinoid} (\href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/Infinoid}{list of contributions})
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Inhuman14}{Inhuman14} (\href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/Inhuman14}{list of contributions})
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Jguk}{Jguk} (\href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/Jguk}{list of contributions})
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Jkarres}{Jkarres} (\href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/Jkarres}{list of contributions})
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Kowey}{Kowey} (\href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/Kowey}{list of contributions})
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Sjf}{Sjf} (\href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/Sjf}{list of contributions})
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Whiteknight}{Whiteknight} (\href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/Whiteknight}{list of contributions})
\item Anonymous Wikibooks contributors
\end{itemize}


### gfdl.tex

gfdl.tex
\chapter{GNU Free Documentation License}

% From Dragontamer's Ada Programming gfdl file

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\item[E.]

\item[F.]
giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
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\item[G.]
Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
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Include an unaltered copy of this License.

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Preserve the section Entitled History'', Preserve its Title, and add
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\item[K.]
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Delete any section Entitled Endorsements''.  Such a section
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\item[N.]
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\end{itemize}

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
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The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
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\begin{center}
{\Large\bf 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS\par}
\end{center}

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
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Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
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In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled History''
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\begin{center}
{\Large\bf 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS\par}

\end{center}

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
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\begin{center}
{\Large\bf 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS\par}

\end{center}

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\begin{center}
{\Large\bf 8. TRANSLATION\par}

\end{center}

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
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of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a disagreement between
the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

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its Title (section~1) will typically require changing the actual
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\begin{center}
{\Large\bf 9. TERMINATION\par}

\end{center}

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other attempt to
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\begin{center}
{\Large\bf 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE\par}

\end{center}

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of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
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Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
License or any later version'' applies to it, you have the option of
following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
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number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

\begin{center}

\end{center}

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
license notices just after the title page:

\bigskip
\begin{quote}
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU
\end{quote}
\bigskip

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
replace the with \dots\ Texts.'' line with this:

\bigskip
\begin{quote}
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
\end{quote}
\bigskip

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
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recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
to permit their use in free software.


## ./misc/

### conclusion.tex

conclusion.tex
\chapter*{Conclusion \& Further Resources}

You now have a working Scheme interpreter that implements a large chunk of the standard, including functions, lambdas, lexical scoping, symbols, strings, integers, list manipulation, and assignment. You can use it interactively, with a REPL, or in batch mode, running script files. You can write libraries of Scheme functions and either include them in programs or load them into the interactive interpreter. With a little text processing via awk or sed, you can format the output of UNIX\index{UNIX} commands as parenthesized Lisp lists, read them into a Scheme program, and use this interpreter for shell scripting.

There're still a number of features you could add to this interpreter. Hygienic macros let you perform transformations on the source code before it's executed. They're a very convenient feature for adding new language features, and several standard parts of Scheme (such as let-bindings\index{let-binding} and additional control flow features) are defined in terms of them. \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML/r5rs-Z-H-7.html\#\%_sec_4.3}{Section 4.3} of R5RS\index{R5RS Scheme} defines the macro system's syntax and semantics, and there is a \href{http://library.readscheme.org/page3.html}{whole collection} of papers on implementation. Basically, you'd want to intersperse a function between readExpr and eval that takes a form and a macro environment, looks for transformer keywords, and then transforms them according to the rules of the pattern language, rewriting variables as necessarily.

Continuations are a way of capturing "the rest of the computation", saving it, and perhaps executing it more than once. Using them, you can implement just about every control flow feature in every major programming language. The easiest way to implement continuations is to transform the program into \href{http://library.readscheme.org/page6.html}{continuation-passing style}\index{continuation-passing style}, so that \verb|eval|\index{eval@\texttt{eval}} takes an additional continuation argument and calls it, instead of returning a result. This parameter gets threaded through all recursive calls to eval, but only is only manipulated when evaluating a call to call-with-current-continuation.

Dynamic-wind could be implemented by keeping a stack of functions to execute when leaving the current continuation and storing (inside the continuation data type) a stack of functions to execute when resuming the continuation.

If you're just interested in learning more Haskell, there are a large number of libraries that may help:

\begin{itemize}
\item For databases: \href{http://haskelldb.sourceforge.net/}{HaskellDB}\index{HaskellDB}, a library that wraps SQL\index{SQL} as a set of Haskell functions, giving you all the type-safety of the language when querying the database
\item For GUI programming: \href{http://www.md.chalmers.se/Cs/Research/Functional/Fudgets/}{Fudgets}\index{Fudgets} and \href{http://wxhaskell.sourceforge.net/}{wxHaskell}\index{wxHaskell}. wxHaskell is more of a conventional MVC GUI library, while Fudgets includes a lot of new research about how to represent GUIs in functional programming languages
\item For concurrency: \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/6.4/html/libraries/stm/Control.Concurrent.STM.html}{Software Transactional Memory}\index{Software Transactional Memory}, described in the paper \href{http://research.microsoft.com/~simonpj/papers/stm/stm.pdf}{\textit{Composable Memory Transactions}\index{Composable Memory Transactions@\textit{Composable Memory Transactions}}}
\item For networking: GHC's\index{GHC} \href{http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/6.4/html/libraries/network/Network.html}{Networking libraries}
\end{itemize}

This should give you a starting point for further investigations into the language. Happy hacking!

\markboth{CONCLUSION}{}


### overview.tex

overview.tex
\chapter*{Overview}

\marginpar{
\begin{itemize}
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours\#Overview}{live version}
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Talk:Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours}{discussion}
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours\&action=edit\&section=1}{edit}
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours\&action=edit\&section=new}{comment}
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours\&action=edit\&section=new}{report an error}
\end{itemize}
}

Most Haskell tutorials on the web seem to take a language-reference-manual approach to teaching. They show you the syntax of the language, a few language constructs, and then have you construct a few simple functions at the interactive prompt. The hard stuff'' of how to write a functioning, useful program is left to the end, or sometimes omitted entirely.

This tutorial takes a different tack. You'll start off with command-line arguments and parsing, and progress to writing a fully-functional Scheme interpreter that implements a good-sized subset of \href{http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/HTML}{R5RS Scheme}\index{R5RS Scheme}. Along the way, you'll learn Haskell's I/O, mutable state, dynamic typing, error handling, and parsing features. By the time you finish, you should be fairly fluent in both Haskell and Scheme.

There're two main audiences targetted by this tutorial:

\begin{enumerate}
\item People who don't know any programming language, but have a strong quantitative background and are familiar with computers
\end{enumerate}

The second group will likely find this challenging, as I gloss over several Scheme and general programming concepts to stay focused on the Haskell. A good textbook like \textit{\href{http://mitpress.mit.edu/sicp/full-text/book/book.html}{Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs\index{Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs@\textit{Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs}}}} or \textit{\href{http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/matthias/BTLS/}{The Little Schemer\index{The Little Schemer@\textit{The Little Schemer}}}} may help a lot here.

Users of a procedural or object-oriented language like C\index{C}, Java\index{Java}, or Python\index{Python} should beware, however: You'll have to forget most of what you already know about programming. Haskell is completely different from those languages, and requires a different way of thinking about programming. It's best to go into this tutorial with a blank slate and try not to compare Haskell to imperative languages\index{imperative languages}, because many concepts in them (classes, functions, 'return'\index{return@\texttt{return}}) have a significantly different meaning in Haskell.

Since each lesson builds on the code written for the previous one, it's probably best to go through the lessons in order.



### style.sty

style.sty
\usepackage{listings} 		% for code segments
\usepackage{color} 		% for links and code highlighting
\usepackage{makeidx} 		% for index of functions, programs, and other proper nouns
\usepackage{graphicx}		% for titlepage logo

\setcounter{secnumdepth}{0} 	% number chapters

\makeindex

\newcommand{\chapterlinks}[1]{ % create links to the chapters's Wikibooks page and talk in the margin
\marginpar{
\begin{itemize}
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours/#1}{live version}
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Talk:Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours/#1}{discussion}
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours/#1\&action=edit}{edit}
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours/#1\&action=edit\&section=new}{comment}
\item \href{http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours/#1\&action=edit\&section=new}{report an error}
\end{itemize}
}
}

\newcommand{\editsection}[2]{ % create [edit section] link in the margin: \editsection{sub_page_name}{sectionnumber}
\marginpar{
\href{http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Write_Yourself_a_Scheme_in_48_Hours/#1\&action=edit&section=#2}{\texttt{[edit section]}}
}
}

% settings for links and PDF document info
\definecolor{urlcolor}{rgb}{0.27,0.51,0.71}	% web links are light blue
\hypersetup{pdftitle={Write Yourself a Scheme in 48 Hours},
pdfauthor={Wikibooks contributors},
pdfsubject=Programming,
%
urlcolor=urlcolor,
}

% color definitions for code highlighting - also used manually in document (in for example parseString)
\definecolor{comment}{rgb}{1,0.55,0}
\definecolor{string}{rgb}{0.00,0.55,0.55}
\definecolor{identifier}{rgb}{0.10,0.10,0.44}
\definecolor{keyword}{rgb}{0.55,0,0}

% general code listing format
% inline operators, code snippets, and references to code use \lstinline
% inline function names and keywords use \verb
% inline general programming terms like list, boolean, funtion, etc use neither
%
numbers=left,
numberstyle=\tiny,
stepnumber=1,
numberblanklines=true,
%
identifierstyle=\color{identifier},
basicstyle=\small,
keywordstyle=\color{keyword}\bfseries,
stringstyle=\color{string}\ttfamily,
%
showstringspaces=false,
breaklines=true,
%
morekeywords=define,
escapechar=; % manually format segments between semicolons (see for example parseString)
}

\newcommand{\completecode}[2] % format for complete code listings: \completecode{filename}{description}
{\lstinputlisting[captionpos=t,
caption={[#1.hs]#2 (#1.hs)}, % filename.hs appears in the list of listings (after toc)
% description (filane.hs) appears as a caption
basicstyle=\scriptsize,
frame=lines,
%
numbers=left,
numberstyle=\tiny,
stepnumber=5,
firstnumber=1]
{code/#1.hs}
}

\newcommand{\codesnippet}[3] % format for short snippets of code: \codesnippet{filename}{first line number}{last line number}
{\lstinputlisting[firstline=#2,
lastline=#3,
nolol=true,		% don't add snippets to the list of listings
numberfirstline=true]
{code/#1.hs}
}

\lstdefinelanguage{shell}{ % format shell commands
morekeywords={user,ghc,Lisp},
morestring=[b]"
}

\newcommand{\highlightcode}[1]{\underline{\textbf{\texttt{#1}}}} % highlight code mentioned in text, used in ch2


alternate style.sty for printer-friendly PDF
\usepackage{listings} 		% for code segments
\usepackage{color} 		% for links and code highlighting
\usepackage{makeidx} 		% for index of functions, programs, and other proper nouns
\usepackage{graphicx}		% for titlepage logo

\setcounter{secnumdepth}{0} 	% number chapters

\makeindex

\renewcommand{\href}[2]{#2\footnote{\url{#1}}}

\newcommand{\editsection}[2]{}

% settings for links and PDF document info
\hypersetup{pdftitle={Write Yourself a Scheme in 48 Hours},
pdfauthor={Wikibooks contributors},
pdfsubject=Programming,
%
}

% color definitions for code highlighting - also used manually in document (in for example parseString)
\definecolor{comment}{gray}{0}
\definecolor{string}{gray}{0}
\definecolor{identifier}{gray}{0}
\definecolor{keyword}{gray}{0}

% general code listing format
% inline operators, code snippets, and references to code use \lstinline
% inline function names and keywords use \verb
% inline general programming terms like list, boolean, funtion, etc use neither
%
frame=leftline,
%
basicstyle=\small,
%
showstringspaces=false,
breaklines=true,
%
morekeywords=define,
escapechar=; % manually format segments between semicolons (see for example parseString)
}

\newcommand{\completecode}[2]{}

\newcommand{\codesnippet}[3] % format for short snippets of code: \codesnippet{filename}{first line number}{last line number}
{\lstinputlisting[firstline=#2,
lastline=#3]
{code/#1.hs}
}

\lstdefinelanguage{shell}{ % format shell commands
morekeywords={user,ghc,Lisp},
morestring=[b]"
}

\newcommand{\highlightcode}[1]{\underline{\textbf{\texttt{#1}}}} % highlight code mentioned in text, used in ch2


### titlepage.tex

titlepage.tex
\begin{titlepage}
\begin{minipage}{365pt}
\begin{center}
\begin{Huge}Write Yourself a Scheme in 48 Hours\end{Huge}

\rule[5pt]{365pt}{0.5mm}

\begin{LARGE}An Introduction to Haskell through Example\end{LARGE}

\bigskip
\begin{large}\textit{by Wikibooks contributors}\end{large}

\bigskip
\begin{large}\textit{originally by Jonathan Tang}\end{large}
\end{center}

\begin{minipage}{0.4\textwidth}
\begin{flushleft}
\includegraphics[width=120pt]{./misc/logo}
\end{flushleft}
\end{minipage}
\begin{minipage}{0.6\textwidth}
\begin{flushleft}
\textit{{\large Created on Wikibooks,}\\
{\large the open content textbooks collection.}}
\end{flushleft}
\end{minipage}
\end{minipage}
\end{titlepage}

\thispagestyle{empty}
\indent
\vfill

\noindent

\bigskip
\noindent
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License''.


## ./code/

### conditionalparser.hs

conditionalparser.hs
module Main where

import System.Environment
import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces)

main :: IO ()
main = do
args <- getArgs
evaled <- return $liftM show$ readExpr (args !! 0) >>= eval
putStrLn $extractValue$ trapError evaled

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#" readExpr :: String -> ThrowsError LispVal readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of Left err -> throwError$ Parser err
Right val -> return val

spaces :: Parser ()
spaces = skipMany1 space

data LispVal = Atom String
| List [LispVal]
| DottedList [LispVal] LispVal
| Number Integer
| String String
| Bool Bool

parseString :: Parser LispVal
parseString = do char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
x <- many (noneOf "\"")
char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
return $String x parseAtom :: Parser LispVal parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol) let atom = [first] ++ rest return$ case atom of
"#t" -> Bool True
"#f" -> Bool False
otherwise -> Atom atom

parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = liftM (Number . read) $many1 digit parseList :: Parser LispVal parseList = liftM List$ sepBy parseExpr spaces

parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal
parseDottedList = do
tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr
return $DottedList head tail parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal parseQuoted = do char '\'' x <- parseExpr return$ List [Atom "quote", x]

parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
<|> parseQuoted
<|> do char '('
x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList
char ')'
return x

showVal :: LispVal -> String
showVal (String contents) = "\"" ++ contents ++ "\""
showVal (Atom name) = name
showVal (Number contents) = show contents
showVal (Bool True) = "#t"
showVal (Bool False) = "#f"
showVal (List contents) = "(" ++ unwordsList contents ++ ")"
showVal (DottedList head tail) = "(" ++ unwordsList head ++ " . " ++ showVal tail ++ ")"

unwordsList :: [LispVal] -> String
unwordsList = unwords . map showVal

instance Show LispVal where show = showVal

eval :: LispVal -> ThrowsError LispVal
eval val@(String _) = return val
eval val@(Number _) = return val
eval val@(Bool _) = return val
eval (List [Atom "quote", val]) = return val
eval (List [Atom "if", pred, conseq, alt]) =
do result <- eval pred
case result of
Bool False -> eval alt
otherwise -> eval conseq
eval (List (Atom func : args)) = mapM eval args >>= apply func
eval badForm = throwError $BadSpecialForm "Unrecognized special form" badForm apply :: String -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal apply func args = maybe (throwError$ NotFunction "Unrecognized primitive function args" func)
($args) (lookup func primitives) primitives :: [(String, [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal)] primitives = [("+", numericBinop (+)), ("-", numericBinop (-)), ("*", numericBinop (*)), ("/", numericBinop div), ("mod", numericBinop mod), ("quotient", numericBinop quot), ("remainder", numericBinop rem), ("=", numBoolBinop (==)), ("<", numBoolBinop (<)), (">", numBoolBinop (>)), ("/=", numBoolBinop (/=)), (">=", numBoolBinop (>=)), ("<=", numBoolBinop (<=)), ("&&", boolBoolBinop (&&)), ("||", boolBoolBinop (||)), ("string=?", strBoolBinop (==)), ("string?", strBoolBinop (>)), ("string<=?", strBoolBinop (<=)), ("string>=?", strBoolBinop (>=))] numericBinop :: (Integer -> Integer -> Integer) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal numericBinop op singleVal@[_] = throwError$ NumArgs 2 singleVal
numericBinop op params = mapM unpackNum params >>= return . Number . foldl1 op

boolBinop :: (LispVal -> ThrowsError a) -> (a -> a -> Bool) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
boolBinop unpacker op args = if length args /= 2
then throwError $NumArgs 2 args else do left <- unpacker$ args !! 0
right <- unpacker $args !! 1 return$ Bool $left op right numBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackNum strBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackStr boolBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackBool unpackNum :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Integer unpackNum (Number n) = return n unpackNum (String n) = let parsed = reads n in if null parsed then throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" $String n else return$ fst $parsed !! 0 unpackNum (List [n]) = unpackNum n unpackNum notNum = throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" notNum

unpackStr :: LispVal -> ThrowsError String
unpackStr (String s) = return s
unpackStr (Number s) = return $show s unpackStr (Bool s) = return$ show s
unpackStr notString = throwError $TypeMismatch "string" notString unpackBool :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Bool unpackBool (Bool b) = return b unpackBool notBool = throwError$ TypeMismatch "boolean" notBool

data LispError = NumArgs Integer [LispVal]
| TypeMismatch String LispVal
| Parser ParseError
| NotFunction String String
| UnboundVar String String
| Default String

showError :: LispError -> String
showError (UnboundVar message varname) = message ++ ": " ++ varname
showError (BadSpecialForm message form) = message ++ ": " ++ show form
showError (NotFunction message func) = message ++ ": " ++ show func
showError (NumArgs expected found) = "Expected " ++ show expected
++ " args: found values " ++ unwordsList found
showError (TypeMismatch expected found) = "Invalid type: expected " ++ expected
++ ", found " ++ show found
showError (Parser parseErr) = "Parse error at " ++ show parseErr

instance Show LispError where show = showError

instance Error LispError where
noMsg = Default "An error has occurred"
strMsg = Default

type ThrowsError = Either LispError

trapError action = catchError action (return . show)

extractValue :: ThrowsError a -> a
extractValue (Right val) = val



### datatypeparser.hs

datatypeparser.hs
module Main where

import System.Environment
import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces)

main :: IO ()
main = do args <- getArgs

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#" readExpr :: String -> String readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of Left err -> "No match: " ++ show err Right val -> "Found value" spaces :: Parser () spaces = skipMany1 space data LispVal = Atom String | List [LispVal] | DottedList [LispVal] LispVal | Number Integer | String String | Bool Bool parseString :: Parser LispVal parseString = do char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}}; x <- many (noneOf "\"") char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}}; return$ String x

parseAtom :: Parser LispVal
parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol
rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol)
let atom = [first] ++ rest
return $case atom of "#t" -> Bool True "#f" -> Bool False otherwise -> Atom atom parseNumber :: Parser LispVal parseNumber = liftM (Number . read)$ many1 digit

parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber



### equalparser.hs

equalparser.hs
module Main where

import System.Environment
import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces)

main :: IO ()
main = do
args <- getArgs
evaled <- return $liftM show$ readExpr (args !! 0) >>= eval
putStrLn $extractValue$ trapError evaled

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#" readExpr :: String -> ThrowsError LispVal readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of Left err -> throwError$ Parser err
Right val -> return val

spaces :: Parser ()
spaces = skipMany1 space

data LispVal = Atom String
| List [LispVal]
| DottedList [LispVal] LispVal
| Number Integer
| String String
| Bool Bool

parseString :: Parser LispVal
parseString = do char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
x <- many (noneOf "\"")
char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
return $String x parseAtom :: Parser LispVal parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol) let atom = [first] ++ rest return$ case atom of
"#t" -> Bool True
"#f" -> Bool False
otherwise -> Atom atom

parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = liftM (Number . read) $many1 digit parseList :: Parser LispVal parseList = liftM List$ sepBy parseExpr spaces

parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal
parseDottedList = do
tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr
return $DottedList head tail parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal parseQuoted = do char '\'' x <- parseExpr return$ List [Atom "quote", x]

parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
<|> parseQuoted
<|> do char '('
x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList
char ')'
return x

showVal :: LispVal -> String
showVal (String contents) = "\"" ++ contents ++ "\""
showVal (Atom name) = name
showVal (Number contents) = show contents
showVal (Bool True) = "#t"
showVal (Bool False) = "#f"
showVal (List contents) = "(" ++ unwordsList contents ++ ")"
showVal (DottedList head tail) = "(" ++ unwordsList head ++ " . " ++ showVal tail ++ ")"

unwordsList :: [LispVal] -> String
unwordsList = unwords . map showVal

instance Show LispVal where show = showVal

eval :: LispVal -> ThrowsError LispVal
eval val@(String _) = return val
eval val@(Number _) = return val
eval val@(Bool _) = return val
eval (List [Atom "quote", val]) = return val
eval (List [Atom "if", pred, conseq, alt]) =
do result <- eval pred
case result of
Bool False -> eval alt
otherwise -> eval conseq
eval (List (Atom func : args)) = mapM eval args >>= apply func
eval badForm = throwError $BadSpecialForm "Unrecognized special form" badForm apply :: String -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal apply func args = maybe (throwError$ NotFunction "Unrecognized primitive function args" func)
($args) (lookup func primitives) primitives :: [(String, [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal)] primitives = [("+", numericBinop (+)), ("-", numericBinop (-)), ("*", numericBinop (*)), ("/", numericBinop div), ("mod", numericBinop mod), ("quotient", numericBinop quot), ("remainder", numericBinop rem), ("=", numBoolBinop (==)), ("<", numBoolBinop (<)), (">", numBoolBinop (>)), ("/=", numBoolBinop (/=)), (">=", numBoolBinop (>=)), ("<=", numBoolBinop (<=)), ("&&", boolBoolBinop (&&)), ("||", boolBoolBinop (||)), ("string=?", strBoolBinop (==)), ("string?", strBoolBinop (>)), ("string<=?", strBoolBinop (<=)), ("string>=?", strBoolBinop (>=)), ("car", car), ("cdr", cdr), ("cons", cons), ("eq?", eqv), ("eqv?", eqv), ("equal?", equal)] numericBinop :: (Integer -> Integer -> Integer) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal numericBinop op singleVal@[_] = throwError$ NumArgs 2 singleVal
numericBinop op params = mapM unpackNum params >>= return . Number . foldl1 op

boolBinop :: (LispVal -> ThrowsError a) -> (a -> a -> Bool) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
boolBinop unpacker op args = if length args /= 2
then throwError $NumArgs 2 args else do left <- unpacker$ args !! 0
right <- unpacker $args !! 1 return$ Bool $left op right numBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackNum strBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackStr boolBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackBool unpackNum :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Integer unpackNum (Number n) = return n unpackNum (String n) = let parsed = reads n in if null parsed then throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" $String n else return$ fst $parsed !! 0 unpackNum (List [n]) = unpackNum n unpackNum notNum = throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" notNum

unpackStr :: LispVal -> ThrowsError String
unpackStr (String s) = return s
unpackStr (Number s) = return $show s unpackStr (Bool s) = return$ show s
unpackStr notString = throwError $TypeMismatch "string" notString unpackBool :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Bool unpackBool (Bool b) = return b unpackBool notBool = throwError$ TypeMismatch "boolean" notBool

car :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
car [List (x : xs)] = return x
car [DottedList (x : xs) _] = return x
car [badArg] = throwError $TypeMismatch "pair" badArg car badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 1 badArgList

cdr :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
cdr [List (x : xs)] = return $List xs cdr [DottedList (_ : xs) x] = return$ DottedList xs x
cdr [DottedList [xs] x] = return x
cdr [badArg] = throwError $TypeMismatch "pair" badArg cdr badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 1 badArgList

cons :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
cons [x1, List []] = return $List [x1] cons [x, List xs] = return$ List $[x] ++ xs cons [x, DottedList xs xlast] = return$ DottedList ([x] ++ xs) xlast
cons [x1, x2] = return $DottedList [x1] x2 cons badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

eqv :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
eqv [(Bool arg1), (Bool arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(Number arg1), (Number arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(String arg1), (String arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(Atom arg1), (Atom arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(DottedList xs x), (DottedList ys y)] = eqv [List $xs ++ [x], List$ ys ++ [y]]
eqv [(List arg1), (List arg2)] = return $Bool$ (length arg1 == length arg2) &&
(and $map eqvPair$ zip arg1 arg2)
where eqvPair (x1, x2) = case eqv [x1, x2] of
Left err -> False
Right (Bool val) -> val
eqv [_, _] = return $Bool False eqv badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

data Unpacker = forall a. Eq a => AnyUnpacker (LispVal -> ThrowsError a)

unpackEquals :: LispVal -> LispVal -> Unpacker -> ThrowsError Bool
unpackEquals arg1 arg2 (AnyUnpacker unpacker) =
do unpacked1 <- unpacker arg1
unpacked2 <- unpacker arg2
return $unpacked1 == unpacked2 catchError (const$ return False)

equal :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
equal [arg1, arg2] = do
primitiveEquals <- liftM or $mapM (unpackEquals arg1 arg2) [AnyUnpacker unpackNum, AnyUnpacker unpackStr, AnyUnpacker unpackBool] eqvEquals <- eqv [arg1, arg2] return$ Bool $(primitiveEquals || let (Bool x) = eqvEquals in x) equal badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

data LispError = NumArgs Integer [LispVal]
| TypeMismatch String LispVal
| Parser ParseError
| NotFunction String String
| UnboundVar String String
| Default String

showError :: LispError -> String
showError (UnboundVar message varname) = message ++ ": " ++ varname
showError (BadSpecialForm message form) = message ++ ": " ++ show form
showError (NotFunction message func) = message ++ ": " ++ show func
showError (NumArgs expected found) = "Expected " ++ show expected
++ " args: found values " ++ unwordsList found
showError (TypeMismatch expected found) = "Invalid type: expected " ++ expected
++ ", found " ++ show found
showError (Parser parseErr) = "Parse error at " ++ show parseErr

instance Show LispError where show = showError

instance Error LispError where
noMsg = Default "An error has occurred"
strMsg = Default

type ThrowsError = Either LispError

trapError action = catchError action (return . show)

extractValue :: ThrowsError a -> a
extractValue (Right val) = val



### errorcheck.hs

errorcheck.hs
module Main where

import System.Environment
import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces)

main :: IO ()
main = do
args <- getArgs
evaled <- return $liftM show$ readExpr (args !! 0) >>= eval
putStrLn $extractValue$ trapError evaled

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#" readExpr :: String -> ThrowsError LispVal readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of Left err -> throwError$ Parser err
Right val -> return val

spaces :: Parser ()
spaces = skipMany1 space

data LispVal = Atom String
| List [LispVal]
| DottedList [LispVal] LispVal
| Number Integer
| String String
| Bool Bool

parseString :: Parser LispVal
parseString = do char '"'
x <- many (noneOf "\"")
char '"'
return $String x parseAtom :: Parser LispVal parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol) let atom = [first] ++ rest return$ case atom of
"#t" -> Bool True
"#f" -> Bool False
otherwise -> Atom atom

parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = liftM (Number . read) $many1 digit parseList :: Parser LispVal parseList = liftM List$ sepBy parseExpr spaces

parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal
parseDottedList = do
tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr
return $DottedList head tail parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal parseQuoted = do char '\'' x <- parseExpr return$ List [Atom "quote", x]

parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
<|> parseQuoted
<|> do char '('
x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList
char ')'
return x

showVal :: LispVal -> String
showVal (String contents) = "\"" ++ contents ++ "\""
showVal (Atom name) = name
showVal (Number contents) = show contents
showVal (Bool True) = "#t"
showVal (Bool False) = "#f"
showVal (List contents) = "(" ++ unwordsList contents ++ ")"
showVal (DottedList head tail) = "(" ++ unwordsList head ++ " . " ++ showVal tail ++ ")"

unwordsList :: [LispVal] -> String
unwordsList = unwords . map showVal

instance Show LispVal where show = showVal

eval :: LispVal -> ThrowsError LispVal
eval val@(String _) = return val
eval val@(Number _) = return val
eval val@(Bool _) = return val
eval (List [Atom "quote", val]) = return val
eval (List (Atom func : args)) = mapM eval args >>= apply func
eval badForm = throwError $BadSpecialForm "Unrecognized special form" badForm apply :: String -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal apply func args = maybe (throwError$ NotFunction "Unrecognized primitive function args" func)
($args) (lookup func primitives) primitives :: [(String, [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal)] primitives = [("+", numericBinop (+)), ("-", numericBinop (-)), ("*", numericBinop (*)), ("/", numericBinop div), ("mod", numericBinop mod), ("quotient", numericBinop quot), ("remainder", numericBinop rem)] numericBinop :: (Integer -> Integer -> Integer) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal numericBinop op singleVal@[_] = throwError$ NumArgs 2 singleVal
numericBinop op params = mapM unpackNum params >>= return . Number . foldl1 op

unpackNum :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Integer
unpackNum (Number n) = return n
unpackNum (String n) = let parsed = reads n in
if null parsed
then throwError $TypeMismatch "number"$ String n
else return $fst$ parsed !! 0
unpackNum (List [n]) = unpackNum n
unpackNum notNum = throwError $TypeMismatch "number" notNum data LispError = NumArgs Integer [LispVal] | TypeMismatch String LispVal | Parser ParseError | BadSpecialForm String LispVal | NotFunction String String | UnboundVar String String | Default String showError :: LispError -> String showError (UnboundVar message varname) = message ++ ": " ++ varname showError (BadSpecialForm message form) = message ++ ": " ++ show form showError (NotFunction message func) = message ++ ": " ++ show func showError (NumArgs expected found) = "Expected " ++ show expected ++ " args: found values " ++ unwordsList found showError (TypeMismatch expected found) = "Invalid type: expected " ++ expected ++ ", found " ++ show found showError (Parser parseErr) = "Parse error at " ++ show parseErr instance Show LispError where show = showError instance Error LispError where noMsg = Default "An error has occurred" strMsg = Default type ThrowsError = Either LispError trapError action = catchError action (return . show) extractValue :: ThrowsError a -> a extractValue (Right val) = val  ### evaluator1.hs evaluator1.hs module Main where import Control.Monad import System.Environment import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces) main :: IO () main = do args <- getArgs putStrLn (readExpr (args !! 0)) symbol :: Parser Char symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#"

readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of
Left err -> "No match: " ++ show err
Right val -> "Found " ++ show val

spaces :: Parser ()
spaces = skipMany1 space

data LispVal = Atom String
| List [LispVal]
| DottedList [LispVal] LispVal
| Number Integer
| String String
| Bool Bool

parseString :: Parser LispVal
parseString = do char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
x <- many (noneOf "\"")
char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
return $String x parseAtom :: Parser LispVal parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol) let atom = [first] ++ rest return$ case atom of
"#t" -> Bool True
"#f" -> Bool False
otherwise -> Atom atom

parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = liftM (Number . read) $many1 digit parseList :: Parser LispVal parseList = liftM List$ sepBy parseExpr spaces

parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal
parseDottedList = do
tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr
return $DottedList head tail parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal parseQuoted = do char '\'' x <- parseExpr return$ List [Atom "quote", x]

parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
<|> parseQuoted
<|> do char '('
x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList
char ')'
return x

showVal :: LispVal -> String
showVal (String contents) = "\"" ++ contents ++ "\""
showVal (Atom name) = name
showVal (Number contents) = show contents
showVal (Bool True) = "#t"
showVal (Bool False) = "#f"
showVal (List contents) = "(" ++ unwordsList contents ++ ")"
showVal (DottedList head tail) = "(" ++ unwordsList head ++ " . " ++ showVal tail ++ ")"

unwordsList :: [LispVal] -> String
unwordsList = unwords . map showVal

instance Show LispVal where show = showVal



### evaluator2.hs

evaluator2.hs
module Main where

import System.Environment
import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces)

main :: IO ()
main = getArgs >>= putStrLn . show . eval . readExpr . (!! 0)

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#" readExpr :: String -> LispVal readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of Left err -> String$ "No match: " ++ show err
Right val -> val

spaces :: Parser ()
spaces = skipMany1 space

data LispVal = Atom String
| List [LispVal]
| DottedList [LispVal] LispVal
| Number Integer
| String String
| Bool Bool

parseString :: Parser LispVal
parseString = do char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
x <- many (noneOf "\"")
char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
return $String x parseAtom :: Parser LispVal parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol) let atom = [first] ++ rest return$ case atom of
"#t" -> Bool True
"#f" -> Bool False
otherwise -> Atom atom

parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = liftM (Number . read) $many1 digit parseList :: Parser LispVal parseList = liftM List$ sepBy parseExpr spaces

parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal
parseDottedList = do
tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr
return $DottedList head tail parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal parseQuoted = do char '\'' x <- parseExpr return$ List [Atom "quote", x]

parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
<|> parseQuoted
<|> do char '('
x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList
char ')'
return x

showVal :: LispVal -> String
showVal (String contents) = "\"" ++ contents ++ "\""
showVal (Atom name) = name
showVal (Number contents) = show contents
showVal (Bool True) = "#t"
showVal (Bool False) = "#f"
showVal (List contents) = "(" ++ unwordsList contents ++ ")"
showVal (DottedList head tail) = "(" ++ unwordsList head ++ " . " ++ showVal tail ++ ")"

unwordsList :: [LispVal] -> String
unwordsList = unwords . map showVal

instance Show LispVal where show = showVal

eval :: LispVal -> LispVal
eval val@(String _) = val
eval val@(Number _) = val
eval val@(Bool _) = val
eval (List [Atom "quote", val]) = val



### evaluator3.hs

evaluator3.hs
module Main where

import System.Environment
import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces)

main :: IO ()
main = getArgs >>= putStrLn . show . eval . readExpr . (!! 0)

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~" readExpr :: String -> LispVal readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of Left err -> String$ "No match: " ++ show err
Right val -> val

spaces :: Parser ()
spaces = skipMany1 space

data LispVal = Atom String
| List [LispVal]
| DottedList [LispVal] LispVal
| Number Integer
| String String
| Bool Bool

parseString :: Parser LispVal
parseString = do char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
x <- many (noneOf "\"")
char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
return $String x parseAtom :: Parser LispVal parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol) let atom = [first] ++ rest return$ case atom of
"#t" -> Bool True
"#f" -> Bool False
otherwise -> Atom atom

parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = liftM (Number . read) $many1 digit parseList :: Parser LispVal parseList = liftM List$ sepBy parseExpr spaces

parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal
parseDottedList = do
tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr
return $DottedList head tail parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal parseQuoted = do char '\'' x <- parseExpr return$ List [Atom "quote", x]

parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
<|> parseQuoted
<|> do char '('
x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList
char ')'
return x

showVal :: LispVal -> String
showVal (String contents) = "\"" ++ contents ++ "\""
showVal (Atom name) = name
showVal (Number contents) = show contents
showVal (Bool True) = "#t"
showVal (Bool False) = "#f"
showVal (List contents) = "(" ++ unwordsList contents ++ ")"
showVal (DottedList head tail) = "(" ++ unwordsList head ++ " . " ++ showVal tail ++ ")"

unwordsList :: [LispVal] -> String
unwordsList = unwords . map showVal

instance Show LispVal where show = showVal

eval :: LispVal -> LispVal
eval val@(String _) = val
eval val@(Number _) = val
eval val@(Bool _) = val
eval (List [Atom "quote", val]) = val
eval (List (Atom func : args)) = apply func $map eval args apply :: String -> [LispVal] -> LispVal apply func args = maybe (Bool False) ($ args) $lookup func primitives primitives :: [(String, [LispVal] -> LispVal)] primitives = [("+", numericBinop (+)), ("-", numericBinop (-)), ("*", numericBinop (*)), ("/", numericBinop div), ("mod", numericBinop mod), ("quotient", numericBinop quot), ("remainder", numericBinop rem)] numericBinop :: (Integer -> Integer -> Integer) -> [LispVal] -> LispVal numericBinop op params = Number$ foldl1 op $map unpackNum params unpackNum :: LispVal -> Integer unpackNum (Number n) = n unpackNum (String n) = let parsed = reads n in if null parsed then 0 else fst$ parsed !! 0
unpackNum (List [n]) = unpackNum n
unpackNum _ = 0



### functionparser.hs

functionparser.hs
module Main where

import System.Environment
import Data.IORef
import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces)
import System.IO hiding (try)

main :: IO ()
main = do args <- getArgs
case length args of
0 -> runRepl
1 -> runOne $args !! 0 otherwise -> putStrLn "Program takes only 0 or 1 argument" symbol :: Parser Char symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=>?@^_~#"

readExpr :: String -> ThrowsError LispVal
readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of
Left err -> throwError $Parser err Right val -> return val spaces :: Parser () spaces = skipMany1 space data LispVal = Atom String | List [LispVal] | DottedList [LispVal] LispVal | Number Integer | String String | Bool Bool | PrimitiveFunc ([LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal) | Func {params :: [String], vararg :: (Maybe String), body :: [LispVal], closure :: Env} parseString :: Parser LispVal parseString = do char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}}; x <- many (noneOf "\"") char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}}; return$ String x

parseAtom :: Parser LispVal
parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol
rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol)
let atom = [first] ++ rest
return $case atom of "#t" -> Bool True "#f" -> Bool False otherwise -> Atom atom parseNumber :: Parser LispVal parseNumber = liftM (Number . read)$ many1 digit

parseList :: Parser LispVal
parseList = liftM List $sepBy parseExpr spaces parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal parseDottedList = do head <- endBy parseExpr spaces tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr return$ DottedList head tail

parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal
parseQuoted = do
char '\''
x <- parseExpr
return $List [Atom "quote", x] parseExpr :: Parser LispVal parseExpr = parseAtom <|> parseString <|> parseNumber <|> parseQuoted <|> do char '(' x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList char ')' return x showVal :: LispVal -> String showVal (String contents) = "\"" ++ contents ++ "\"" showVal (Atom name) = name showVal (Number contents) = show contents showVal (Bool True) = "#t" showVal (Bool False) = "#f" showVal (List contents) = "(" ++ unwordsList contents ++ ")" showVal (DottedList head tail) = "(" ++ unwordsList head ++ " . " ++ showVal tail ++ ")" showVal (PrimitiveFunc _) = "<primitive>" showVal (Func {params = args, vararg = varargs, body = body, closure = env}) = "(lambda (" ++ unwords (map show args) ++ (case varargs of Nothing -> "" Just arg -> " . " ++ arg) ++ ") ...)" unwordsList :: [LispVal] -> String unwordsList = unwords . map showVal instance Show LispVal where show = showVal eval :: Env -> LispVal -> IOThrowsError LispVal eval env val@(String _) = return val eval env val@(Number _) = return val eval env val@(Bool _) = return val eval env (Atom id) = getVar env id eval env (List [Atom "quote", val]) = return val eval env (List [Atom "if", pred, conseq, alt]) = do result <- eval env pred case result of Bool False -> eval env alt otherwise -> eval env conseq eval env (List [Atom "set!", Atom var, form]) = eval env form >>= setVar env var eval env (List [Atom "define", Atom var, form]) = eval env form >>= defineVar env var eval env (List (Atom "define" : List (Atom var : params) : body)) = makeNormalFunc env params body >>= defineVar env var eval env (List (Atom "define" : DottedList (Atom var : params) varargs : body)) = makeVarargs varargs env params body >>= defineVar env var eval env (List (Atom "lambda" : List params : body)) = makeNormalFunc env params body eval env (List (Atom "lambda" : DottedList params varargs : body)) = makeVarargs varargs env params body eval env (List (Atom "lambda" : varargs@(Atom _) : body)) = makeVarargs varargs env [] body eval env (List (function : args)) = do func <- eval env function argVals <- mapM (eval env) args apply func argVals eval env badForm = throwError$ BadSpecialForm "Unrecognized special form" badForm

apply :: LispVal -> [LispVal] -> IOThrowsError LispVal
apply (PrimitiveFunc func) args = liftThrows $func args apply (Func params varargs body closure) args = if num params /= num args && varargs == Nothing then throwError$ NumArgs (num params) args
else (liftIO $bindVars closure$ zip params args) >>= bindVarArgs varargs >>= evalBody
where remainingArgs = drop (length params) args
num = toInteger . length
evalBody env = liftM last $mapM (eval env) body bindVarArgs arg env = case arg of Just argName -> liftIO$ bindVars env [(argName, List $remainingArgs)] Nothing -> return env primitives :: [(String, [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal)] primitives = [("+", numericBinop (+)), ("-", numericBinop (-)), ("*", numericBinop (*)), ("/", numericBinop div), ("mod", numericBinop mod), ("quotient", numericBinop quot), ("remainder", numericBinop rem), ("=", numBoolBinop (==)), ("<", numBoolBinop (<)), (">", numBoolBinop (>)), ("/=", numBoolBinop (/=)), (">=", numBoolBinop (>=)), ("<=", numBoolBinop (<=)), ("&&", boolBoolBinop (&&)), ("||", boolBoolBinop (||)), ("string=?", strBoolBinop (==)), ("string?", strBoolBinop (>)), ("string<=?", strBoolBinop (<=)), ("string>=?", strBoolBinop (>=)), ("car", car), ("cdr", cdr), ("cons", cons), ("eq?", eqv), ("eqv?", eqv), ("equal?", equal)] numericBinop :: (Integer -> Integer -> Integer) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal numericBinop op singleVal@[_] = throwError$ NumArgs 2 singleVal
numericBinop op params = mapM unpackNum params >>= return . Number . foldl1 op

boolBinop :: (LispVal -> ThrowsError a) -> (a -> a -> Bool) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
boolBinop unpacker op args = if length args /= 2
then throwError $NumArgs 2 args else do left <- unpacker$ args !! 0
right <- unpacker $args !! 1 return$ Bool $left op right numBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackNum strBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackStr boolBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackBool unpackNum :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Integer unpackNum (Number n) = return n unpackNum (String n) = let parsed = reads n in if null parsed then throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" $String n else return$ fst $parsed !! 0 unpackNum (List [n]) = unpackNum n unpackNum notNum = throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" notNum

unpackStr :: LispVal -> ThrowsError String
unpackStr (String s) = return s
unpackStr (Number s) = return $show s unpackStr (Bool s) = return$ show s
unpackStr notString = throwError $TypeMismatch "string" notString unpackBool :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Bool unpackBool (Bool b) = return b unpackBool notBool = throwError$ TypeMismatch "boolean" notBool

car :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
car [List (x : xs)] = return x
car [DottedList (x : xs) _] = return x
car [badArg] = throwError $TypeMismatch "pair" badArg car badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 1 badArgList

cdr :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
cdr [List (x : xs)] = return $List xs cdr [DottedList (_ : xs) x] = return$ DottedList xs x
cdr [DottedList [xs] x] = return x
cdr [badArg] = throwError $TypeMismatch "pair" badArg cdr badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 1 badArgList

cons :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
cons [x1, List []] = return $List [x1] cons [x, List xs] = return$ List $[x] ++ xs cons [x, DottedList xs xlast] = return$ DottedList ([x] ++ xs) xlast
cons [x1, x2] = return $DottedList [x1] x2 cons badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

eqv :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
eqv [(Bool arg1), (Bool arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(Number arg1), (Number arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(String arg1), (String arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(Atom arg1), (Atom arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(DottedList xs x), (DottedList ys y)] = eqv [List $xs ++ [x], List$ ys ++ [y]]
eqv [(List arg1), (List arg2)] = return $Bool$ (length arg1 == length arg2) &&
(and $map eqvPair$ zip arg1 arg2)
where eqvPair (x1, x2) = case eqv [x1, x2] of
Left err -> False
Right (Bool val) -> val
eqv [_, _] = return $Bool False eqv badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

data Unpacker = forall a. Eq a => AnyUnpacker (LispVal -> ThrowsError a)

unpackEquals :: LispVal -> LispVal -> Unpacker -> ThrowsError Bool
unpackEquals arg1 arg2 (AnyUnpacker unpacker) =
do unpacked1 <- unpacker arg1
unpacked2 <- unpacker arg2
return $unpacked1 == unpacked2 catchError (const$ return False)

equal :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
equal [arg1, arg2] = do
primitiveEquals <- liftM or $mapM (unpackEquals arg1 arg2) [AnyUnpacker unpackNum, AnyUnpacker unpackStr, AnyUnpacker unpackBool] eqvEquals <- eqv [arg1, arg2] return$ Bool $(primitiveEquals || let (Bool x) = eqvEquals in x) equal badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

data LispError = NumArgs Integer [LispVal]
| TypeMismatch String LispVal
| Parser ParseError
| NotFunction String String
| UnboundVar String String
| Default String

showError :: LispError -> String
showError (UnboundVar message varname) = message ++ ": " ++ varname
showError (BadSpecialForm message form) = message ++ ": " ++ show form
showError (NotFunction message func) = message ++ ": " ++ show func
showError (NumArgs expected found) = "Expected " ++ show expected
++ " args: found values " ++ unwordsList found
showError (TypeMismatch expected found) = "Invalid type: expected " ++ expected
++ ", found " ++ show found
showError (Parser parseErr) = "Parse error at " ++ show parseErr

instance Show LispError where show = showError

instance Error LispError where
noMsg = Default "An error has occurred"
strMsg = Default

type ThrowsError = Either LispError

trapError action = catchError action (return . show)

extractValue :: ThrowsError a -> a
extractValue (Right val) = val

flushStr :: String -> IO ()
flushStr str = putStr str >> hFlush stdout

readPrompt :: String -> IO String
readPrompt prompt = flushStr prompt >> getLine

evalAndPrint :: Env -> String -> IO ()
evalAndPrint env expr =  evalString env expr >>= putStrLn

evalString :: Env -> String -> IO String
evalString env expr = runIOThrows $liftM show$ (liftThrows $readExpr expr) >>= eval env until_ :: Monad m => (a -> Bool) -> m a -> (a -> m ()) -> m () until_ pred prompt action = do result <- prompt if pred result then return () else action result >> until_ pred prompt action runOne :: String -> IO () runOne expr = primitiveBindings >>= flip evalAndPrint expr runRepl :: IO () runRepl = primitiveBindings >>= until_ (== "quit") (readPrompt "Lisp>>> ") . evalAndPrint type Env = IORef [(String, IORef LispVal)] nullEnv :: IO Env nullEnv = newIORef [] primitiveBindings :: IO Env primitiveBindings = nullEnv >>= (flip bindVars$ map makePrimitiveFunc primitives)
where makePrimitiveFunc (var, func) = (var, PrimitiveFunc func)

type IOThrowsError = ErrorT LispError IO

liftThrows :: ThrowsError a -> IOThrowsError a
liftThrows (Left err) = throwError err
liftThrows (Right val) = return val

runIOThrows :: IOThrowsError String -> IO String
runIOThrows action = runErrorT (trapError action) >>= return . extractValue

isBound :: Env -> String -> IO Bool
isBound envRef var = readIORef envRef >>= return . maybe False (const True) . lookup var

getVar :: Env -> String -> IOThrowsError LispVal
getVar envRef var  =  do env <- liftIO $readIORef envRef maybe (throwError$ UnboundVar "Getting an unbound variable" var)
(lookup var env)

setVar :: Env -> String -> LispVal -> IOThrowsError LispVal
setVar envRef var value = do env <- liftIO $readIORef envRef maybe (throwError$ UnboundVar "Setting an unbound variable" var)
(liftIO . (flip writeIORef value))
(lookup var env)
return value

defineVar :: Env -> String -> LispVal -> IOThrowsError LispVal
defineVar envRef var value = do
alreadyDefined <- liftIO $isBound envRef var if alreadyDefined then setVar envRef var value >> return value else liftIO$ do
valueRef <- newIORef value
writeIORef envRef ((var, valueRef) : env)
return value

bindVars :: Env -> [(String, LispVal)] -> IO Env
bindVars envRef bindings = readIORef envRef >>= extendEnv bindings >>= newIORef
where extendEnv bindings env = liftM (++ env) (mapM addBinding bindings)
addBinding (var, value) = do ref <- newIORef value
return (var, ref)

makeFunc varargs env params body = return $Func (map showVal params) varargs body env makeNormalFunc = makeFunc Nothing makeVarargs = makeFunc . Just . showVal  ### hello.hs hello.hs module Main where import System.Environment main :: IO () main = do args <- getArgs putStrLn ("Hello, " ++ args !! 0)  ### ioparser.hs ioparser.hs module Main where import Control.Monad import System.Environment import Control.Monad.Error import Data.IORef import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces) import System.IO hiding (try) main :: IO () main = do args <- getArgs if null args then runRepl else runOne$ args

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#" readOrThrow :: Parser a -> String -> ThrowsError a readOrThrow parser input = case parse parser "lisp" input of Left err -> throwError$ Parser err
Right val -> return val

spaces :: Parser ()
spaces = skipMany1 space

data LispVal = Atom String
| List [LispVal]
| DottedList [LispVal] LispVal
| Number Integer
| String String
| Bool Bool
| Port Handle
| PrimitiveFunc ([LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal)
| IOFunc ([LispVal] -> IOThrowsError LispVal)
| Func {params :: [String], vararg :: (Maybe String),
body :: [LispVal], closure :: Env}

parseString :: Parser LispVal
parseString = do char '"'
x <- many (noneOf "\"")
char '"';
return $String x parseAtom :: Parser LispVal parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol) let atom = [first] ++ rest return$ case atom of
"#t" -> Bool True
"#f" -> Bool False
otherwise -> Atom atom

parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = liftM (Number . read) $many1 digit parseList :: Parser LispVal parseList = liftM List$ sepBy parseExpr spaces

parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal
parseDottedList = do
tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr
return $DottedList head tail parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal parseQuoted = do char '\'' x <- parseExpr return$ List [Atom "quote", x]

parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
<|> parseQuoted
<|> do char '('
x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList
char ')'
return x

showVal :: LispVal -> String
showVal (String contents) = "\"" ++ contents ++ "\""
showVal (Atom name) = name
showVal (Number contents) = show contents
showVal (Bool True) = "#t"
showVal (Bool False) = "#f"
showVal (List contents) = "(" ++ unwordsList contents ++ ")"
showVal (DottedList head tail) = "(" ++ unwordsList head ++ " . " ++ showVal tail ++ ")"
showVal (Port _) = "<IO port>"
showVal (IOFunc _) = "<IO primitive>"
showVal (PrimitiveFunc _) = "<primitive>"
showVal (Func {params = args, vararg = varargs, body = body, closure = env}) =
"(lambda (" ++ unwords (map show args) ++
(case varargs of
Nothing -> ""
Just arg -> " . " ++ arg) ++ ") ...)"

unwordsList :: [LispVal] -> String
unwordsList = unwords . map showVal

instance Show LispVal where show = showVal

eval :: Env -> LispVal -> IOThrowsError LispVal
eval env val@(String _) = return val
eval env val@(Number _) = return val
eval env val@(Bool _) = return val
eval env (Atom id) = getVar env id
eval env (List [Atom "quote", val]) = return val
eval env (List [Atom "if", pred, conseq, alt]) =
do result <- eval env pred
case result of
Bool False -> eval env alt
otherwise -> eval env conseq
eval env (List [Atom "set!", Atom var, form]) =
eval env form >>= setVar env var
eval env (List [Atom "define", Atom var, form]) =
eval env form >>= defineVar env var
eval env (List (Atom "define" : List (Atom var : params) : body)) =
makeNormalFunc env params body >>= defineVar env var
eval env (List (Atom "define" : DottedList (Atom var : params) varargs : body)) =
makeVarargs varargs env params body >>= defineVar env var
eval env (List (Atom "lambda" : List params : body)) =
makeNormalFunc env params body
eval env (List (Atom "lambda" : DottedList params varargs : body)) =
makeVarargs varargs env params body
eval env (List (Atom "lambda" : varargs@(Atom _) : body)) =
makeVarargs varargs env [] body
eval env (List [Atom "load", String filename]) =
load filename >>= liftM last . mapM (eval env)
eval env (List (function : args)) = do
func <- eval env function
argVals <- mapM (eval env) args
apply func argVals
eval env badForm = throwError $BadSpecialForm "Unrecognized special form" badForm apply :: LispVal -> [LispVal] -> IOThrowsError LispVal apply (PrimitiveFunc func) args = liftThrows$ func args
apply (IOFunc func) args = func args
apply (Func params varargs body closure) args =
if num params /= num args && varargs == Nothing
then throwError $NumArgs (num params) args else (liftIO$ bindVars closure $zip params args) >>= bindVarArgs varargs >>= evalBody where remainingArgs = drop (length params) args num = toInteger . length evalBody env = liftM last$ mapM (eval env) body
bindVarArgs arg env = case arg of
Just argName -> liftIO $bindVars env [(argName, List$ remainingArgs)]
Nothing -> return env

primitives :: [(String, [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal)]
primitives = [("+", numericBinop (+)),
("-", numericBinop (-)),
("*", numericBinop (*)),
("/", numericBinop div),
("mod", numericBinop mod),
("quotient", numericBinop quot),
("remainder", numericBinop rem),
("=", numBoolBinop (==)),
("<", numBoolBinop (<)),
(">", numBoolBinop (>)),
("/=", numBoolBinop (/=)),
(">=", numBoolBinop (>=)),
("<=", numBoolBinop (<=)),
("&&", boolBoolBinop (&&)),
("||", boolBoolBinop (||)),
("string=?", strBoolBinop (==)),
("string?", strBoolBinop (>)),
("string<=?", strBoolBinop (<=)),
("string>=?", strBoolBinop (>=)),
("car", car),
("cdr", cdr),
("cons", cons),
("eq?", eqv),
("eqv?", eqv),
("equal?", equal)]

numericBinop :: (Integer -> Integer -> Integer) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
numericBinop op singleVal@[_] = throwError $NumArgs 2 singleVal numericBinop op params = mapM unpackNum params >>= return . Number . foldl1 op boolBinop :: (LispVal -> ThrowsError a) -> (a -> a -> Bool) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal boolBinop unpacker op args = if length args /= 2 then throwError$ NumArgs 2 args
else do left <- unpacker $args !! 0 right <- unpacker$ args !! 1
return $Bool$ left op right

numBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackNum
strBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackStr
boolBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackBool

unpackNum :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Integer
unpackNum (Number n) = return n
unpackNum (String n) = let parsed = reads n in
if null parsed
then throwError $TypeMismatch "number"$ String n
else return $fst$ parsed !! 0
unpackNum (List [n]) = unpackNum n
unpackNum notNum = throwError $TypeMismatch "number" notNum unpackStr :: LispVal -> ThrowsError String unpackStr (String s) = return s unpackStr (Number s) = return$ show s
unpackStr (Bool s) = return $show s unpackStr notString = throwError$ TypeMismatch "string" notString

unpackBool :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Bool
unpackBool (Bool b) = return b
unpackBool notBool = throwError $TypeMismatch "boolean" notBool car :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal car [List (x : xs)] = return x car [DottedList (x : xs) _] = return x car [badArg] = throwError$ TypeMismatch "pair" badArg
car badArgList = throwError $NumArgs 1 badArgList cdr :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal cdr [List (x : xs)] = return$ List xs
cdr [DottedList (_ : y: xs) x] = return $DottedList (y:xs) x cdr [DottedList [xs] x] = return x cdr [badArg] = throwError$ TypeMismatch "pair" badArg
cdr badArgList = throwError $NumArgs 1 badArgList cons :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal cons [x1, List []] = return$ List [x1]
cons [x, List xs] = return $List$ [x] ++ xs
cons [x, DottedList xs xlast] = return $DottedList ([x] ++ xs) xlast cons [x1, x2] = return$ DottedList [x1] x2
cons badArgList = throwError $NumArgs 2 badArgList eqv :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal eqv [(Bool arg1), (Bool arg2)] = return$ Bool $arg1 == arg2 eqv [(Number arg1), (Number arg2)] = return$ Bool $arg1 == arg2 eqv [(String arg1), (String arg2)] = return$ Bool $arg1 == arg2 eqv [(Atom arg1), (Atom arg2)] = return$ Bool $arg1 == arg2 eqv [(DottedList xs x), (DottedList ys y)] = eqv [List$ xs ++ [x], List $ys ++ [y]] eqv [(List arg1), (List arg2)] = return$ Bool $(length arg1 == length arg2) && (and$ map eqvPair $zip arg1 arg2) where eqvPair (x1, x2) = case eqv [x1, x2] of Left err -> False Right (Bool val) -> val eqv [_, _] = return$ Bool False
eqv badArgList = throwError $NumArgs 2 badArgList data Unpacker = forall a. Eq a => AnyUnpacker (LispVal -> ThrowsError a) unpackEquals :: LispVal -> LispVal -> Unpacker -> ThrowsError Bool unpackEquals arg1 arg2 (AnyUnpacker unpacker) = do unpacked1 <- unpacker arg1 unpacked2 <- unpacker arg2 return$ unpacked1 == unpacked2
catchError (const $return False) equal :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal equal [arg1, arg2] = do primitiveEquals <- liftM or$ mapM (unpackEquals arg1 arg2)
[AnyUnpacker unpackNum, AnyUnpacker unpackStr, AnyUnpacker unpackBool]
eqvEquals <- eqv [arg1, arg2]
return $Bool$ (primitiveEquals || let (Bool x) = eqvEquals in x)
equal badArgList = throwError $NumArgs 2 badArgList data LispError = NumArgs Integer [LispVal] | TypeMismatch String LispVal | Parser ParseError | BadSpecialForm String LispVal | NotFunction String String | UnboundVar String String | Default String showError :: LispError -> String showError (UnboundVar message varname) = message ++ ": " ++ varname showError (BadSpecialForm message form) = message ++ ": " ++ show form showError (NotFunction message func) = message ++ ": " ++ show func showError (NumArgs expected found) = "Expected " ++ show expected ++ " args: found values " ++ unwordsList found showError (TypeMismatch expected found) = "Invalid type: expected " ++ expected ++ ", found " ++ show found showError (Parser parseErr) = "Parse error at " ++ show parseErr instance Show LispError where show = showError instance Error LispError where noMsg = Default "An error has occurred" strMsg = Default type ThrowsError = Either LispError trapError action = catchError action (return . show) extractValue :: ThrowsError a -> a extractValue (Right val) = val flushStr :: String -> IO () flushStr str = putStr str >> hFlush stdout readPrompt :: String -> IO String readPrompt prompt = flushStr prompt >> getLine evalAndPrint :: Env -> String -> IO () evalAndPrint env expr = evalString env expr >>= putStrLn evalString :: Env -> String -> IO String evalString env expr = runIOThrows$ liftM show $(liftThrows$ readExpr expr) >>= eval env

until_ :: Monad m => (a -> Bool) -> m a -> (a -> m ()) -> m ()
until_ pred prompt action = do
result <- prompt
if pred result
then return ()
else action result >> until_ pred prompt action

runOne :: [String] -> IO ()
runOne args = do
env <- primitiveBindings >>= flip bindVars [("args", List $map String$ drop 1 args)]
(runIOThrows $liftM show$ eval env (List [Atom "load", String (args !! 0)]))
>>= hPutStrLn stderr

runRepl :: IO ()
runRepl = primitiveBindings >>= until_ (== "quit") (readPrompt "Lisp>>> ") . evalAndPrint

type Env = IORef [(String, IORef LispVal)]

nullEnv :: IO Env
nullEnv = newIORef []

primitiveBindings :: IO Env
primitiveBindings = nullEnv >>= (flip bindVars $map (makeFunc IOFunc) ioPrimitives ++ map (makeFunc PrimitiveFunc) primitives) where makeFunc constructor (var, func) = (var, constructor func) type IOThrowsError = ErrorT LispError IO liftThrows :: ThrowsError a -> IOThrowsError a liftThrows (Left err) = throwError err liftThrows (Right val) = return val runIOThrows :: IOThrowsError String -> IO String runIOThrows action = runErrorT (trapError action) >>= return . extractValue isBound :: Env -> String -> IO Bool isBound envRef var = readIORef envRef >>= return . maybe False (const True) . lookup var getVar :: Env -> String -> IOThrowsError LispVal getVar envRef var = do env <- liftIO$ readIORef envRef
maybe (throwError $UnboundVar "Getting an unbound variable" var) (liftIO . readIORef) (lookup var env) setVar :: Env -> String -> LispVal -> IOThrowsError LispVal setVar envRef var value = do env <- liftIO$ readIORef envRef
maybe (throwError $UnboundVar "Setting an unbound variable" var) (liftIO . (flip writeIORef value)) (lookup var env) return value defineVar :: Env -> String -> LispVal -> IOThrowsError LispVal defineVar envRef var value = do alreadyDefined <- liftIO$ isBound envRef var
then setVar envRef var value >> return value
else liftIO $do valueRef <- newIORef value env <- readIORef envRef writeIORef envRef ((var, valueRef) : env) return value bindVars :: Env -> [(String, LispVal)] -> IO Env bindVars envRef bindings = readIORef envRef >>= extendEnv bindings >>= newIORef where extendEnv bindings env = liftM (++ env) (mapM addBinding bindings) addBinding (var, value) = do ref <- newIORef value return (var, ref) makeFunc varargs env params body = return$ Func (map showVal params) varargs body env
makeNormalFunc = makeFunc Nothing
makeVarargs = makeFunc . Just . showVal

ioPrimitives :: [(String, [LispVal] -> IOThrowsError LispVal)]
ioPrimitives = [("apply", applyProc),
("open-output-file", makePort WriteMode),
("close-input-port", closePort),
("close-output-port", closePort),
("write", writeProc),

applyProc :: [LispVal] -> IOThrowsError LispVal
applyProc [func, List args] = apply func args
applyProc (func : args) = apply func args

makePort :: IOMode -> [LispVal] -> IOThrowsError LispVal
makePort mode [String filename] = liftM Port $liftIO$ openFile filename mode

closePort :: [LispVal] -> IOThrowsError LispVal
closePort [Port port] = liftIO $hClose port >> (return$ Bool True)
closePort _ = return $Bool False readProc :: [LispVal] -> IOThrowsError LispVal readProc [] = readProc [Port stdin] readProc [Port port] = (liftIO$ hGetLine port) >>= liftThrows . readExpr

writeProc :: [LispVal] -> IOThrowsError LispVal
writeProc [obj] = writeProc [obj, Port stdout]
writeProc [obj, Port port] = liftIO $hPrint port obj >> (return$ Bool True)

readContents :: [LispVal] -> IOThrowsError LispVal
readContents [String filename] = liftM String $liftIO$ readFile filename

load :: String -> IOThrowsError [LispVal]
load filename = (liftIO $readFile filename) >>= liftThrows . readExprList readAll :: [LispVal] -> IOThrowsError LispVal readAll [String filename] = liftM List$ load filename



### listparser.hs

listparser.hs
module Main where

import System.Environment
import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces)

main :: IO ()
main = do
args <- getArgs
evaled <- return $liftM show$ readExpr (args !! 0) >>= eval
putStrLn $extractValue$ trapError evaled

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#" readExpr :: String -> ThrowsError LispVal readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of Left err -> throwError$ Parser err
Right val -> return val

spaces :: Parser ()
spaces = skipMany1 space

data LispVal = Atom String
| List [LispVal]
| DottedList [LispVal] LispVal
| Number Integer
| String String
| Bool Bool

parseString :: Parser LispVal
parseString = do char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
x <- many (noneOf "\"")
char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
return $String x parseAtom :: Parser LispVal parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol) let atom = [first] ++ rest return$ case atom of
"#t" -> Bool True
"#f" -> Bool False
otherwise -> Atom atom

parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = liftM (Number . read) $many1 digit parseList :: Parser LispVal parseList = liftM List$ sepBy parseExpr spaces

parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal
parseDottedList = do
tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr
return $DottedList head tail parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal parseQuoted = do char '\'' x <- parseExpr return$ List [Atom "quote", x]

parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
<|> parseQuoted
<|> do char '('
x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList
char ')'
return x

showVal :: LispVal -> String
showVal (String contents) = "\"" ++ contents ++ "\""
showVal (Atom name) = name
showVal (Number contents) = show contents
showVal (Bool True) = "#t"
showVal (Bool False) = "#f"
showVal (List contents) = "(" ++ unwordsList contents ++ ")"
showVal (DottedList head tail) = "(" ++ unwordsList head ++ " . " ++ showVal tail ++ ")"

unwordsList :: [LispVal] -> String
unwordsList = unwords . map showVal

instance Show LispVal where show = showVal

eval :: LispVal -> ThrowsError LispVal
eval val@(String _) = return val
eval val@(Number _) = return val
eval val@(Bool _) = return val
eval (List [Atom "quote", val]) = return val
eval (List [Atom "if", pred, conseq, alt]) =
do result <- eval pred
case result of
Bool False -> eval alt
otherwise -> eval conseq
eval (List (Atom func : args)) = mapM eval args >>= apply func
eval badForm = throwError $BadSpecialForm "Unrecognized special form" badForm apply :: String -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal apply func args = maybe (throwError$ NotFunction "Unrecognized primitive function args" func)
($args) (lookup func primitives) primitives :: [(String, [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal)] primitives = [("+", numericBinop (+)), ("-", numericBinop (-)), ("*", numericBinop (*)), ("/", numericBinop div), ("mod", numericBinop mod), ("quotient", numericBinop quot), ("remainder", numericBinop rem), ("=", numBoolBinop (==)), ("<", numBoolBinop (<)), (">", numBoolBinop (>)), ("/=", numBoolBinop (/=)), (">=", numBoolBinop (>=)), ("<=", numBoolBinop (<=)), ("&&", boolBoolBinop (&&)), ("||", boolBoolBinop (||)), ("string=?", strBoolBinop (==)), ("string?", strBoolBinop (>)), ("string<=?", strBoolBinop (<=)), ("string>=?", strBoolBinop (>=)), ("car", car), ("cdr", cdr), ("cons", cons), ("eq?", eqv), ("eqv?", eqv)] numericBinop :: (Integer -> Integer -> Integer) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal numericBinop op singleVal@[_] = throwError$ NumArgs 2 singleVal
numericBinop op params = mapM unpackNum params >>= return . Number . foldl1 op

boolBinop :: (LispVal -> ThrowsError a) -> (a -> a -> Bool) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
boolBinop unpacker op args = if length args /= 2
then throwError $NumArgs 2 args else do left <- unpacker$ args !! 0
right <- unpacker $args !! 1 return$ Bool $left op right numBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackNum strBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackStr boolBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackBool unpackNum :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Integer unpackNum (Number n) = return n unpackNum (String n) = let parsed = reads n in if null parsed then throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" $String n else return$ fst $parsed !! 0 unpackNum (List [n]) = unpackNum n unpackNum notNum = throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" notNum

unpackStr :: LispVal -> ThrowsError String
unpackStr (String s) = return s
unpackStr (Number s) = return $show s unpackStr (Bool s) = return$ show s
unpackStr notString = throwError $TypeMismatch "string" notString unpackBool :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Bool unpackBool (Bool b) = return b unpackBool notBool = throwError$ TypeMismatch "boolean" notBool

car :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
car [List (x : xs)] = return x
car [DottedList (x : xs) _] = return x
car [badArg] = throwError $TypeMismatch "pair" badArg car badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 1 badArgList

cdr :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
cdr [List (x : xs)] = return $List xs cdr [DottedList (_ : xs) x] = return$ DottedList xs x
cdr [DottedList [xs] x] = return x
cdr [badArg] = throwError $TypeMismatch "pair" badArg cdr badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 1 badArgList

cons :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
cons [x1, List []] = return $List [x1] cons [x, List xs] = return$ List $[x] ++ xs cons [x, DottedList xs xlast] = return$ DottedList ([x] ++ xs) xlast
cons [x1, x2] = return $DottedList [x1] x2 cons badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

eqv :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
eqv [(Bool arg1), (Bool arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(Number arg1), (Number arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(String arg1), (String arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(Atom arg1), (Atom arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(DottedList xs x), (DottedList ys y)] = eqv [List $xs ++ [x], List$ ys ++ [y]]
eqv [(List arg1), (List arg2)] = return $Bool$ (length arg1 == length arg2) &&
(and $map eqvPair$ zip arg1 arg2)
where eqvPair (x1, x2) = case eqv [x1, x2] of
Left err -> False
Right (Bool val) -> val
eqv [_, _] = return $Bool False eqv badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

data LispError = NumArgs Integer [LispVal]
| TypeMismatch String LispVal
| Parser ParseError
| NotFunction String String
| UnboundVar String String
| Default String

showError :: LispError -> String
showError (UnboundVar message varname) = message ++ ": " ++ varname
showError (BadSpecialForm message form) = message ++ ": " ++ show form
showError (NotFunction message func) = message ++ ": " ++ show func
showError (NumArgs expected found) = "Expected " ++ show expected
++ " args: found values " ++ unwordsList found
showError (TypeMismatch expected found) = "Invalid type: expected " ++ expected
++ ", found " ++ show found
showError (Parser parseErr) = "Parse error at " ++ show parseErr

instance Show LispError where show = showError

instance Error LispError where
noMsg = Default "An error has occurred"
strMsg = Default

type ThrowsError = Either LispError

trapError action = catchError action (return . show)

extractValue :: ThrowsError a -> a
extractValue (Right val) = val



### operatorparser.hs

operatorparser.hs
module Main where

import System.Environment
import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces)

main :: IO ()
main = do
args <- getArgs
evaled <- return $liftM show$ readExpr (args !! 0) >>= eval
putStrLn $extractValue$ trapError evaled

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#" readExpr :: String -> ThrowsError LispVal readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of Left err -> throwError$ Parser err
Right val -> return val

spaces :: Parser ()
spaces = skipMany1 space

data LispVal = Atom String
| List [LispVal]
| DottedList [LispVal] LispVal
| Number Integer
| String String
| Bool Bool

parseString :: Parser LispVal
parseString = do char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
x <- many (noneOf "\"")
char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
return $String x parseAtom :: Parser LispVal parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol) let atom = [first] ++ rest return$ case atom of
"#t" -> Bool True
"#f" -> Bool False
otherwise -> Atom atom

parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = liftM (Number . read) $many1 digit parseList :: Parser LispVal parseList = liftM List$ sepBy parseExpr spaces

parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal
parseDottedList = do
tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr
return $DottedList head tail parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal parseQuoted = do char '\'' x <- parseExpr return$ List [Atom "quote", x]

parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
<|> parseQuoted
<|> do char '('
x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList
char ')'
return x

showVal :: LispVal -> String
showVal (String contents) = "\"" ++ contents ++ "\""
showVal (Atom name) = name
showVal (Number contents) = show contents
showVal (Bool True) = "#t"
showVal (Bool False) = "#f"
showVal (List contents) = "(" ++ unwordsList contents ++ ")"
showVal (DottedList head tail) = "(" ++ unwordsList head ++ " . " ++ showVal tail ++ ")"

unwordsList :: [LispVal] -> String
unwordsList = unwords . map showVal

instance Show LispVal where show = showVal

eval :: LispVal -> ThrowsError LispVal
eval val@(String _) = return val
eval val@(Number _) = return val
eval val@(Bool _) = return val
eval (List [Atom "quote", val]) = return val
eval (List (Atom func : args)) = mapM eval args >>= apply func
eval badForm = throwError $BadSpecialForm "Unrecognized special form" badForm apply :: String -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal apply func args = maybe (throwError$ NotFunction "Unrecognized primitive function args" func)
($args) (lookup func primitives) primitives :: [(String, [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal)] primitives = [("+", numericBinop (+)), ("-", numericBinop (-)), ("*", numericBinop (*)), ("/", numericBinop div), ("mod", numericBinop mod), ("quotient", numericBinop quot), ("remainder", numericBinop rem), ("=", numBoolBinop (==)), ("<", numBoolBinop (<)), (">", numBoolBinop (>)), ("/=", numBoolBinop (/=)), (">=", numBoolBinop (>=)), ("<=", numBoolBinop (<=)), ("&&", boolBoolBinop (&&)), ("||", boolBoolBinop (||)), ("string=?", strBoolBinop (==)), ("string?", strBoolBinop (>)), ("string<=?", strBoolBinop (<=)), ("string>=?", strBoolBinop (>=))] numericBinop :: (Integer -> Integer -> Integer) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal numericBinop op singleVal@[_] = throwError$ NumArgs 2 singleVal
numericBinop op params = mapM unpackNum params >>= return . Number . foldl1 op

boolBinop :: (LispVal -> ThrowsError a) -> (a -> a -> Bool) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
boolBinop unpacker op args = if length args /= 2
then throwError $NumArgs 2 args else do left <- unpacker$ args !! 0
right <- unpacker $args !! 1 return$ Bool $left op right numBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackNum strBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackStr boolBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackBool unpackNum :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Integer unpackNum (Number n) = return n unpackNum (String n) = let parsed = reads n in if null parsed then throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" $String n else return$ fst $parsed !! 0 unpackNum (List [n]) = unpackNum n unpackNum notNum = throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" notNum

unpackStr :: LispVal -> ThrowsError String
unpackStr (String s) = return s
unpackStr (Number s) = return $show s unpackStr (Bool s) = return$ show s
unpackStr notString = throwError $TypeMismatch "string" notString unpackBool :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Bool unpackBool (Bool b) = return b unpackBool notBool = throwError$ TypeMismatch "boolean" notBool

data LispError = NumArgs Integer [LispVal]
| TypeMismatch String LispVal
| Parser ParseError
| NotFunction String String
| UnboundVar String String
| Default String

showError :: LispError -> String
showError (UnboundVar message varname) = message ++ ": " ++ varname
showError (BadSpecialForm message form) = message ++ ": " ++ show form
showError (NotFunction message func) = message ++ ": " ++ show func
showError (NumArgs expected found) = "Expected " ++ show expected
++ " args: found values " ++ unwordsList found
showError (TypeMismatch expected found) = "Invalid type: expected " ++ expected
++ ", found " ++ show found
showError (Parser parseErr) = "Parse error at " ++ show parseErr

instance Show LispError where show = showError

instance Error LispError where
noMsg = Default "An error has occurred"
strMsg = Default

type ThrowsError = Either LispError

trapError action = catchError action (return . show)

extractValue :: ThrowsError a -> a
extractValue (Right val) = val



### recursiveparser.hs

recursiveparser.hs
module Main where

import System.Environment
import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces)

main :: IO ()
main = do args <- getArgs

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#" readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of Left err -> "No match: " ++ show err Right val -> "Found val" spaces :: Parser () spaces = skipMany1 space data LispVal = Atom String | List [LispVal] | DottedList [LispVal] LispVal | Number Integer | String String | Bool Bool parseString :: Parser LispVal parseString = do char '"' x <- many ( noneOf "\"" ) char '"' return$ String x

parseAtom :: Parser LispVal
parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol
rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol)
let atom = [first] ++ rest
return $case atom of "#t" -> Bool True "#f" -> Bool False otherwise -> Atom atom parseNumber :: Parser LispVal parseNumber = liftM (Number . read)$ many1 digit

parseList :: Parser LispVal
parseList = liftM List $sepBy parseExpr spaces parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal parseDottedList = do head <- endBy parseExpr spaces tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr return$ DottedList head tail

parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal
parseQuoted = do
char '\''
x <- parseExpr
return $List [Atom "quote", x] parseExpr :: Parser LispVal parseExpr = parseAtom <|> parseString <|> parseNumber <|> parseQuoted <|> do char '(' x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList char ')' return x  ### replparser.hs replparser.hs module Main where import Control.Monad import System.Environment import Control.Monad.Error import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces) import IO hiding (try) main :: IO () main = do args <- getArgs case length args of 0 -> runRepl 1 -> evalAndPrint$ args !! 0
otherwise -> putStrLn "Program takes only 0 or 1 argument"

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#" readExpr :: String -> ThrowsError LispVal readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of Left err -> throwError$ Parser err
Right val -> return val

spaces :: Parser ()
spaces = skipMany1 space

data LispVal = Atom String
| List [LispVal]
| DottedList [LispVal] LispVal
| Number Integer
| String String
| Bool Bool

parseString :: Parser LispVal
parseString = do char '"'
x <- many ( noneOf "\"" )
char '"'
return $String x parseAtom :: Parser LispVal parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol) let atom = [first] ++ rest return$ case atom of
"#t" -> Bool True
"#f" -> Bool False
otherwise -> Atom atom

parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = liftM (Number . read) $many1 digit parseList :: Parser LispVal parseList = liftM List$ sepBy parseExpr spaces

parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal
parseDottedList = do
tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr
return $DottedList head tail parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal parseQuoted = do char '\'' x <- parseExpr return$ List [Atom "quote", x]

parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
<|> parseQuoted
<|> do char '('
x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList
char ')'
return x

showVal :: LispVal -> String
showVal (String contents) = "\"" ++ contents ++ "\""
showVal (Atom name) = name
showVal (Number contents) = show contents
showVal (Bool True) = "#t"
showVal (Bool False) = "#f"
showVal (List contents) = "(" ++ unwordsList contents ++ ")"
showVal (DottedList head tail) = "(" ++ unwordsList head ++ " . " ++ showVal tail ++ ")"

unwordsList :: [LispVal] -> String
unwordsList = unwords . map showVal

instance Show LispVal where show = showVal

eval :: LispVal -> ThrowsError LispVal
eval val@(String _) = return val
eval val@(Number _) = return val
eval val@(Bool _) = return val
eval (List [Atom "quote", val]) = return val
eval (List [Atom "if", pred, conseq, alt]) =
do result <- eval pred
case result of
Bool False -> eval alt
otherwise -> eval conseq
eval (List (Atom func : args)) = mapM eval args >>= apply func
eval badForm = throwError $BadSpecialForm "Unrecognized special form" badForm apply :: String -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal apply func args = maybe (throwError$ NotFunction "Unrecognized primitive function args" func)
($args) (lookup func primitives) primitives :: [(String, [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal)] primitives = [("+", numericBinop (+)), ("-", numericBinop (-)), ("*", numericBinop (*)), ("/", numericBinop div), ("mod", numericBinop mod), ("quotient", numericBinop quot), ("remainder", numericBinop rem), ("=", numBoolBinop (==)), ("<", numBoolBinop (<)), (">", numBoolBinop (>)), ("/=", numBoolBinop (/=)), (">=", numBoolBinop (>=)), ("<=", numBoolBinop (<=)), ("&&", boolBoolBinop (&&)), ("||", boolBoolBinop (||)), ("string=?", strBoolBinop (==)), ("string?", strBoolBinop (>)), ("string<=?", strBoolBinop (<=)), ("string>=?", strBoolBinop (>=)), ("car", car), ("cdr", cdr), ("cons", cons), ("eq?", eqv), ("eqv?", eqv), ("equal?", equal)] numericBinop :: (Integer -> Integer -> Integer) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal numericBinop op singleVal@[_] = throwError$ NumArgs 2 singleVal
numericBinop op params = mapM unpackNum params >>= return . Number . foldl1 op

boolBinop :: (LispVal -> ThrowsError a) -> (a -> a -> Bool) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
boolBinop unpacker op args = if length args /= 2
then throwError $NumArgs 2 args else do left <- unpacker$ args !! 0
right <- unpacker $args !! 1 return$ Bool $left op right numBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackNum strBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackStr boolBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackBool unpackNum :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Integer unpackNum (Number n) = return n unpackNum (String n) = let parsed = reads n in if null parsed then throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" $String n else return$ fst $parsed !! 0 unpackNum (List [n]) = unpackNum n unpackNum notNum = throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" notNum

unpackStr :: LispVal -> ThrowsError String
unpackStr (String s) = return s
unpackStr (Number s) = return $show s unpackStr (Bool s) = return$ show s
unpackStr notString = throwError $TypeMismatch "string" notString unpackBool :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Bool unpackBool (Bool b) = return b unpackBool notBool = throwError$ TypeMismatch "boolean" notBool

car :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
car [List (x : xs)] = return x
car [DottedList (x : xs) _] = return x
car [badArg] = throwError $TypeMismatch "pair" badArg car badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 1 badArgList

cdr :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
cdr [List (x : xs)] = return $List xs cdr [DottedList (_ : xs) x] = return$ DottedList xs x
cdr [DottedList [xs] x] = return x
cdr [badArg] = throwError $TypeMismatch "pair" badArg cdr badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 1 badArgList

cons :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
cons [x1, List []] = return $List [x1] cons [x, List xs] = return$ List $[x] ++ xs cons [x, DottedList xs xlast] = return$ DottedList ([x] ++ xs) xlast
cons [x1, x2] = return $DottedList [x1] x2 cons badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

eqv :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
eqv [(Bool arg1), (Bool arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(Number arg1), (Number arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(String arg1), (String arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(Atom arg1), (Atom arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(DottedList xs x), (DottedList ys y)] = eqv [List $xs ++ [x], List$ ys ++ [y]]
eqv [(List arg1), (List arg2)] = return $Bool$ (length arg1 == length arg2) &&
(and $map eqvPair$ zip arg1 arg2)
where eqvPair (x1, x2) = case eqv [x1, x2] of
Left err -> False
Right (Bool val) -> val
eqv [_, _] = return $Bool False eqv badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

data Unpacker = forall a. Eq a => AnyUnpacker (LispVal -> ThrowsError a)

unpackEquals :: LispVal -> LispVal -> Unpacker -> ThrowsError Bool
unpackEquals arg1 arg2 (AnyUnpacker unpacker) =
do unpacked1 <- unpacker arg1
unpacked2 <- unpacker arg2
return $unpacked1 == unpacked2 catchError (const$ return False)

equal :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
equal [arg1, arg2] = do
primitiveEquals <- liftM or $mapM (unpackEquals arg1 arg2) [AnyUnpacker unpackNum, AnyUnpacker unpackStr, AnyUnpacker unpackBool] eqvEquals <- eqv [arg1, arg2] return$ Bool $(primitiveEquals || let (Bool x) = eqvEquals in x) equal badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

data LispError = NumArgs Integer [LispVal]
| TypeMismatch String LispVal
| Parser ParseError
| NotFunction String String
| UnboundVar String String
| Default String

showError :: LispError -> String
showError (UnboundVar message varname) = message ++ ": " ++ varname
showError (BadSpecialForm message form) = message ++ ": " ++ show form
showError (NotFunction message func) = message ++ ": " ++ show func
showError (NumArgs expected found) = "Expected " ++ show expected
++ " args: found values " ++ unwordsList found
showError (TypeMismatch expected found) = "Invalid type: expected " ++ expected
++ ", found " ++ show found
showError (Parser parseErr) = "Parse error at " ++ show parseErr

instance Show LispError where show = showError

instance Error LispError where
noMsg = Default "An error has occurred"
strMsg = Default

type ThrowsError = Either LispError

trapError action = catchError action (return . show)

extractValue :: ThrowsError a -> a
extractValue (Right val) = val

flushStr :: String -> IO ()
flushStr str = putStr str >> hFlush stdout

readPrompt :: String -> IO String
readPrompt prompt = flushStr prompt >> getLine

evalString :: String -> IO String
evalString expr = return $extractValue$ trapError (liftM show $readExpr expr >>= eval) evalAndPrint :: String -> IO () evalAndPrint expr = evalString expr >>= putStrLn until_ :: Monad m => (a -> Bool) -> m a -> (a -> m ()) -> m () until_ pred prompt action = do result <- prompt if pred result then return () else action result >> until_ pred prompt action runRepl :: IO () runRepl = until_ (== "quit") (readPrompt "Lisp>>> ") evalAndPrint  ### simpleparser1.hs simpleparser1.hs module Main where import System.Environment import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces) main :: IO () main = do args <- getArgs putStrLn (readExpr (args !! 0)) symbol :: Parser Char symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#"

readExpr input = case parse symbol "lisp" input of
Left err -> "No match: " ++ show err
Right val -> "Found value"



### simpleparser2.hs

simpleparser2.hs
module Main where

import System.Environment
import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces)

main :: IO ()
main = do args <- getArgs

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#" readExpr input = case parse (spaces >> symbol) "lisp" input of Left err -> "No match: " ++ show err Right val -> "Found value" spaces :: Parser () spaces = skipMany1 space  ### variableparser.hs variableparser.hs module Main where import Control.Monad import System.Environment import Control.Monad.Error import Data.IORef import Text.ParserCombinators.Parsec hiding (spaces) import System.IO hiding (try) main :: IO () main = do args <- getArgs case length args of 0 -> runRepl 1 -> runOne$ args !! 0
otherwise -> putStrLn "Program takes only 0 or 1 argument"

symbol :: Parser Char
symbol = oneOf "!$%&|*+-/:<=?>@^_~#" readExpr :: String -> ThrowsError LispVal readExpr input = case parse parseExpr "lisp" input of Left err -> throwError$ Parser err
Right val -> return val

spaces :: Parser ()
spaces = skipMany1 space

data LispVal = Atom String
| List [LispVal]
| DottedList [LispVal] LispVal
| Number Integer
| String String
| Bool Bool

parseString :: Parser LispVal
parseString = do char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
x <- many (noneOf "\"")
char ;\textcolor{string}{\texttt{'"'}};
return $String x parseAtom :: Parser LispVal parseAtom = do first <- letter <|> symbol rest <- many (letter <|> digit <|> symbol) let atom = [first] ++ rest return$ case atom of
"#t" -> Bool True
"#f" -> Bool False
otherwise -> Atom atom

parseNumber :: Parser LispVal
parseNumber = liftM (Number . read) $many1 digit parseList :: Parser LispVal parseList = liftM List$ sepBy parseExpr spaces

parseDottedList :: Parser LispVal
parseDottedList = do
tail <- char '.' >> spaces >> parseExpr
return $DottedList head tail parseQuoted :: Parser LispVal parseQuoted = do char '\'' x <- parseExpr return$ List [Atom "quote", x]

parseExpr :: Parser LispVal
parseExpr = parseAtom
<|> parseString
<|> parseNumber
<|> parseQuoted
<|> do char '('
x <- (try parseList) <|> parseDottedList
char ')'
return x

showVal :: LispVal -> String
showVal (String contents) = "\"" ++ contents ++ "\""
showVal (Atom name) = name
showVal (Number contents) = show contents
showVal (Bool True) = "#t"
showVal (Bool False) = "#f"
showVal (List contents) = "(" ++ unwordsList contents ++ ")"
showVal (DottedList head tail) = "(" ++ unwordsList head ++ " . " ++ showVal tail ++ ")"

unwordsList :: [LispVal] -> String
unwordsList = unwords . map showVal

instance Show LispVal where show = showVal

eval :: Env -> LispVal -> IOThrowsError LispVal
eval env val@(String _) = return val
eval env val@(Number _) = return val
eval env val@(Bool _) = return val
eval env (Atom id) = getVar env id
eval env (List [Atom "quote", val]) = return val
eval env (List [Atom "if", pred, conseq, alt]) =
do result <- eval env pred
case result of
Bool False -> eval env alt
otherwise -> eval env conseq
eval env (List [Atom "set!", Atom var, form]) =
eval env form >>= setVar env var
eval env (List [Atom "define", Atom var, form]) =
eval env form >>= defineVar env var
eval env (List (Atom func : args)) = mapM (eval env) args >>= liftThrows . apply func
eval env badForm = throwError $BadSpecialForm "Unrecognized special form" badForm apply :: String -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal apply func args = maybe (throwError$ NotFunction "Unrecognized primitive function args" func)
($args) (lookup func primitives) primitives :: [(String, [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal)] primitives = [("+", numericBinop (+)), ("-", numericBinop (-)), ("*", numericBinop (*)), ("/", numericBinop div), ("mod", numericBinop mod), ("quotient", numericBinop quot), ("remainder", numericBinop rem), ("=", numBoolBinop (==)), ("<", numBoolBinop (<)), (">", numBoolBinop (>)), ("/=", numBoolBinop (/=)), (">=", numBoolBinop (>=)), ("<=", numBoolBinop (<=)), ("&&", boolBoolBinop (&&)), ("||", boolBoolBinop (||)), ("string=?", strBoolBinop (==)), ("string?", strBoolBinop (>)), ("string<=?", strBoolBinop (<=)), ("string>=?", strBoolBinop (>=)), ("car", car), ("cdr", cdr), ("cons", cons), ("eq?", eqv), ("eqv?", eqv), ("equal?", equal)] numericBinop :: (Integer -> Integer -> Integer) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal numericBinop op singleVal@[_] = throwError$ NumArgs 2 singleVal
numericBinop op params = mapM unpackNum params >>= return . Number . foldl1 op

boolBinop :: (LispVal -> ThrowsError a) -> (a -> a -> Bool) -> [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
boolBinop unpacker op args = if length args /= 2
then throwError $NumArgs 2 args else do left <- unpacker$ args !! 0
right <- unpacker $args !! 1 return$ Bool $left op right numBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackNum strBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackStr boolBoolBinop = boolBinop unpackBool unpackNum :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Integer unpackNum (Number n) = return n unpackNum (String n) = let parsed = reads n in if null parsed then throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" $String n else return$ fst $parsed !! 0 unpackNum (List [n]) = unpackNum n unpackNum notNum = throwError$ TypeMismatch "number" notNum

unpackStr :: LispVal -> ThrowsError String
unpackStr (String s) = return s
unpackStr (Number s) = return $show s unpackStr (Bool s) = return$ show s
unpackStr notString = throwError $TypeMismatch "string" notString unpackBool :: LispVal -> ThrowsError Bool unpackBool (Bool b) = return b unpackBool notBool = throwError$ TypeMismatch "boolean" notBool

car :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
car [List (x : xs)] = return x
car [DottedList (x : xs) _] = return x
car [badArg] = throwError $TypeMismatch "pair" badArg car badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 1 badArgList

cdr :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
cdr [List (x : xs)] = return $List xs cdr [DottedList (_ : xs) x] = return$ DottedList xs x
cdr [DottedList [xs] x] = return x
cdr [badArg] = throwError $TypeMismatch "pair" badArg cdr badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 1 badArgList

cons :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
cons [x1, List []] = return $List [x1] cons [x, List xs] = return$ List $[x] ++ xs cons [x, DottedList xs xlast] = return$ DottedList ([x] ++ xs) xlast
cons [x1, x2] = return $DottedList [x1] x2 cons badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

eqv :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
eqv [(Bool arg1), (Bool arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(Number arg1), (Number arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(String arg1), (String arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(Atom arg1), (Atom arg2)] = return $Bool$ arg1 == arg2
eqv [(DottedList xs x), (DottedList ys y)] = eqv [List $xs ++ [x], List$ ys ++ [y]]
eqv [(List arg1), (List arg2)] = return $Bool$ (length arg1 == length arg2) &&
(and $map eqvPair$ zip arg1 arg2)
where eqvPair (x1, x2) = case eqv [x1, x2] of
Left err -> False
Right (Bool val) -> val
eqv [_, _] = return $Bool False eqv badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

data Unpacker = forall a. Eq a => AnyUnpacker (LispVal -> ThrowsError a)

unpackEquals :: LispVal -> LispVal -> Unpacker -> ThrowsError Bool
unpackEquals arg1 arg2 (AnyUnpacker unpacker) =
do unpacked1 <- unpacker arg1
unpacked2 <- unpacker arg2
return $unpacked1 == unpacked2 catchError (const$ return False)

equal :: [LispVal] -> ThrowsError LispVal
equal [arg1, arg2] = do
primitiveEquals <- liftM or $mapM (unpackEquals arg1 arg2) [AnyUnpacker unpackNum, AnyUnpacker unpackStr, AnyUnpacker unpackBool] eqvEquals <- eqv [arg1, arg2] return$ Bool $(primitiveEquals || let (Bool x) = eqvEquals in x) equal badArgList = throwError$ NumArgs 2 badArgList

data LispError = NumArgs Integer [LispVal]
| TypeMismatch String LispVal
| Parser ParseError
| NotFunction String String
| UnboundVar String String
| Default String

showError :: LispError -> String
showError (UnboundVar message varname) = message ++ ": " ++ varname
showError (BadSpecialForm message form) = message ++ ": " ++ show form
showError (NotFunction message func) = message ++ ": " ++ show func
showError (NumArgs expected found) = "Expected " ++ show expected
++ " args: found values " ++ unwordsList found
showError (TypeMismatch expected found) = "Invalid type: expected " ++ expected
++ ", found " ++ show found
showError (Parser parseErr) = "Parse error at " ++ show parseErr

instance Show LispError where show = showError

instance Error LispError where
noMsg = Default "An error has occurred"
strMsg = Default

type ThrowsError = Either LispError

trapError action = catchError action (return . show)

extractValue :: ThrowsError a -> a
extractValue (Right val) = val

flushStr :: String -> IO ()
flushStr str = putStr str >> hFlush stdout

readPrompt :: String -> IO String
readPrompt prompt = flushStr prompt >> getLine

evalAndPrint :: Env -> String -> IO ()
evalAndPrint env expr =  evalString env expr >>= putStrLn

evalString :: Env -> String -> IO String
evalString env expr = runIOThrows $liftM show$ (liftThrows $readExpr expr) >>= eval env until_ :: Monad m => (a -> Bool) -> m a -> (a -> m ()) -> m () until_ pred prompt action = do result <- prompt if pred result then return () else action result >> until_ pred prompt action runOne :: String -> IO () runOne expr = nullEnv >>= flip evalAndPrint expr runRepl :: IO () runRepl = nullEnv >>= until_ (== "quit") (readPrompt "Lisp>>> ") . evalAndPrint type Env = IORef [(String, IORef LispVal)] nullEnv :: IO Env nullEnv = newIORef [] type IOThrowsError = ErrorT LispError IO liftThrows :: ThrowsError a -> IOThrowsError a liftThrows (Left err) = throwError err liftThrows (Right val) = return val runIOThrows :: IOThrowsError String -> IO String runIOThrows action = runErrorT (trapError action) >>= return . extractValue isBound :: Env -> String -> IO Bool isBound envRef var = readIORef envRef >>= return . maybe False (const True) . lookup var getVar :: Env -> String -> IOThrowsError LispVal getVar envRef var = do env <- liftIO$ readIORef envRef
maybe (throwError $UnboundVar "Getting an unbound variable" var) (liftIO . readIORef) (lookup var env) setVar :: Env -> String -> LispVal -> IOThrowsError LispVal setVar envRef var value = do env <- liftIO$ readIORef envRef
maybe (throwError $UnboundVar "Setting an unbound variable" var) (liftIO . (flip writeIORef value)) (lookup var env) return value defineVar :: Env -> String -> LispVal -> IOThrowsError LispVal defineVar envRef var value = do alreadyDefined <- liftIO$ isBound envRef var
then setVar envRef var value >> return value
else liftIO \$ do
valueRef <- newIORef value
writeIORef envRef ((var, valueRef) : env)
return value

bindVars :: Env -> [(String, LispVal)] -> IO Env
bindVars envRef bindings = readIORef envRef >>= extendEnv bindings >>= newIORef
where extendEnv bindings env = liftM (++ env) (mapM addBinding bindings)
addBinding (var, value) = do ref <- newIORef value
return (var, ref)



### stdlib.scm

stdlib.scm
(define (caar pair) (car (car pair)))
(define (cadr pair) (car (cdr pair)))
(define (cdar pair) (cdr (car pair)))
(define (cddr pair) (cdr (cdr pair)))
(define (caaar pair) (car (car (car pair))))
(define (caadr pair) (car (car (cdr pair))))
(define (cadar pair) (car (cdr (car pair))))
(define (caddr pair) (car (cdr (cdr pair))))
(define (cdaar pair) (cdr (car (car pair))))
(define (cdadr pair) (cdr (car (cdr pair))))
(define (cddar pair) (cdr (cdr (car pair))))
(define (cdddr pair) (cdr (cdr (cdr pair))))
(define (caaaar pair) (car (car (car (car pair)))))
(define (caaadr pair) (car (car (car (cdr pair)))))
(define (caadar pair) (car (car (cdr (car pair)))))
(define (caaddr pair) (car (car (cdr (cdr pair)))))
(define (cadaar pair) (car (cdr (car (car pair)))))
(define (caddar pair) (car (cdr (cdr (car pair)))))
(define (cadddr pair) (car (cdr (cdr (cdr pair)))))
(define (cdaaar pair) (cdr (car (car (car pair)))))
(define (cdaadr pair) (cdr (car (car (cdr pair)))))
(define (cdadar pair) (cdr (car (cdr (car pair)))))
(define (cdaddr pair) (cdr (car (cdr (cdr pair)))))
(define (cddaar pair) (cdr (cdr (car (car pair)))))
(define (cddadr pair) (cdr (cdr (car (cdr pair)))))
(define (cdddar pair) (cdr (cdr (cdr (car pair)))))
(define (cddddr pair) (cdr (cdr (cdr (cdr pair)))))

(define (not x)            (if x #f #t))
(define (null? obj)        (if (eqv? obj '()) #t #f))
(define (id obj)           obj)
(define (flip func)        (lambda (arg1 arg2) (func arg2 arg1)))
(define (curry func arg1)  (lambda (arg) (func arg1 arg)))
(define (compose f g)      (lambda (arg) (f (g arg))))

(define (foldl func accum lst)
(if (null? lst)
accum
(foldl func (func accum (car lst)) (cdr lst))))

(define (foldr func accum lst)
(if (null? lst)
accum
(func (car lst) (foldr func accum (cdr lst)))))

(define (unfold func init pred)
(if (pred init)
(cons init '())
(cons init (unfold func (func init) pred))))

(define fold foldl)
(define reduce fold)

(define zero?              (curry = 0))
(define positive?          (curry < 0))
(define negative?          (curry > 0))
(define (odd? num)         (= (mod num 2) 1))
(define (even? num)        (= (mod num 2) 0))
(define (max x . num-list) (fold (lambda (y z) (if (> y z) y z)) x num-list))
(define (min x . num-list) (fold (lambda (y z) (if (< y z) y z)) x num-list))
(define (list . objs)       objs)
(define (length lst)        (fold (lambda (x y) (+ x 1)) 0 lst))
(define (append lst . lsts) (foldr (flip (curry foldr cons)) lst lsts))
(define (reverse lst)       (fold (flip cons) '() lst))
(define (mem-helper pred op) (lambda (acc next) (if (and (not acc) (pred (op next))) next acc)))
(define (memq obj lst)       (fold (mem-helper (curry eq? obj) id) #f lst))
(define (memv obj lst)       (fold (mem-helper (curry eqv? obj) id) #f lst))
(define (member obj lst)     (fold (mem-helper (curry equal? obj) id) #f lst))
(define (assq obj alist)     (fold (mem-helper (curry eq? obj) car) #f alist))
(define (assv obj alist)     (fold (mem-helper (curry eqv? obj) car) #f alist))
(define (assoc obj alist)    (fold (mem-helper (curry equal? obj) car) #f alist))

(define (map func lst)      (foldr (lambda (x y) (cons (func x) y)) '() lst))
(define (filter pred lst)   (foldr (lambda (x y) (if (pred x) (cons x y) y)) '() lst))

(define (sum . lst)         (fold + 0 lst))
(define (product . lst)     (fold * 1 lst))
(define (and . lst)         (fold && #t lst))
(define (or . lst)          (fold || #f lst))
(define (any? pred . lst)   (apply or (map pred lst)))
(define (every? pred . lst) (apply and (map pred lst)))
`