Women's Health/Endocrinology of Lactation

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Hyperprolactinaemia, or excess serum prolactin, is associated with hypoestrogenism, anovulatory infertility, oligomenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, unexpected lactation, and loss of libido in women, and erectile dysfunction and loss of libido in men.[1] 1. Physiological

  • Coitus
  • Exercise
  • Lactation
  • Pregnancy
  • Sleep
  • Stress


  • Anesthetics
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Antihistamines (H2)
  • Antihypertensives
  • Cholinergic agonist
  • Drug-induced hypersecretion
  • Catecholamine depletor
  • Dopamine receptor blockers
  • Dopamine synthesis inhibitor
  • Estrogens
    • Oral contraceptives
    • Oral contraceptive withdrawal
  • Neuroleptics
  • Antipsychotics
  • Neuropeptides
  • Opiates and opiate antagonists

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3. Pathological

  • Hypothalamic-pituitary stalk damage
    • Granulomas
    • Infiltrations
    • Irradiation
    • Rathke's cyst
  • Trauma
    • Pituitary stalk resection
    • Suprasellar surgery
  • Tumors
    • Craniopharyngioma
    • Germinoma
    • Hypothalamic metastases
    • Meningioma
    • Suprasellar pituitary mass extension
  • Surgery


  • Pituitary
    • Acromegaly
    • Idiopathic
    • Lymphocytic hypophysitis or parasellar mass
    • Macroadenoma (compressive)
    • Macroprolactinemia
    • Plurihumoral adenoma
    • Prolactinoma
  • Systemic disorders
    • Chest-neurologic chest wall trauma
    • Herpes Zoster
    • Chronic renal failure
    • Cirrhosis
    • Cranial radiation
    • Epileptic seizures
    • Polycystic ovarian disease
    • Pseudocyesis
    • Chronic low levels of thyroid hormone

References[edit]

  1. Melmed S, Kleinberg D 2008 Anterior pituitary. 1n: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, eds. Willams textbook of endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 185-261