The United Mexican States, commonly known as Mexico, is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico is a federation made up of thirty-one states and a federal district. The capital is Mexico City, whose metropolitan area is one of the world's most populous.
Almost 300 years after New Spain was created, on September 16, 1810, independence from Spain was declared by Priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, in the small town of Dolores, Guanajuato. This was the cause of a long war that ended in 1821 which eventually led to the independence and creation of the First Mexican Empire. The Empire's territory included the area of the current Mexican republic as well as the present-day U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, parts of Colorado and Wyoming, and all current Central American countries except for Panama and Belize. Agustín de Iturbide was the first and only emperor. The Central American states separated, forming the Federal Republic of Central America. In 1824, a republican constitution was drafted creating the United Mexican States with Guadalupe Victoria as its first President.
Covering almost 2 million square kilometres, Mexico is the fifth-largest country in the Americas by total area and the 14th largest independent nation in the world. Mexico is also the 11th most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.
Mexico is located in the southern portion of North America. It is also located in a region known as Middle America. Mexico is considered part of North America along with Canada and the United States.
Mexico's total area is 1,972,550 km2, making it the world's 14th largest country by total area, and includes approximately 6,000 km2 of islands in the Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of California. On its north, Mexico shares a 3,141 km border with the United States. To the north Mexico shares a border with the United States and to its south, Mexico shares a border with Guatemala and a border with Belize.