The present tense in Welsh can translate as either the 'present indicative' or the 'present progressive'. For example, Dwi'n siarad can translate as I speak', I do speak', I am speaking.
The present tense in Welsh can also be used to describe what is happening in the future:
Dwi'n gweithio yfory.
- I'm working tomorrow.
|I do, I am||Rydw i||We do, We are||Rydyn ni|
|You do, you are||Rwyt ti||You do, you are||Rydych chi|
|He does, He is||Mae e/o||They do, They are||Maen nhw|
|Use the linking particle yn to connect Verb-Nouns. Yn shortens to 'n after a vowel, as in the following examples.|
Dwi'n siarad Cymraeg.
- I speak Welsh. I do speak Welsh. I am speaking Welsh.
Mae hi'n mynd i'r theatr.
- She goes to the theatre. She does go to the theatre. She is going to the theatre.
Maen nhw'n canu.
- They sing. They do sing. They are singing.
|Remember: If using the particle with a noun or adjective, the noun must undergo a soft-mutation if possible.|
- I'm a teacher
Mae hi'n bump oed.
- She is 5 years old.
|I don't, I am not||Dydw i ddim||We don't, We aren't||Dydyn ni ddim|
|You don't, you aren't||Dwyt ti ddim||You don't, you aren't||Dydych chi ddim|
|He doesn't, He isn't||Dyw e ddim, Dydy o ddim||They don't, They aren't||Dydyn nhw ddim|
|Use the linking particle yn after the ddim (not).|
Dwi ddim yn siarad Cymraeg.
- I don't speak Welsh. I am not speaking Welsh.
Dyw/Dydy hi ddim yn mynd i'r theatr.
- She doesn't go to the theatre. She isn't going to the theatre.
Dydyn nhw ddim yn canu.
- They don't sing.
Dyw hi ddim yn athrawes.
- She isn't a teacher.
There are also colloquial ways of expressing the negative in the "I", "you" (ti), we and they forms:
Sai'n -- Sai'n hoffi, I don't like So ti'n -- So ti'n mynd, You're not going Smo ni'n -- Smo ni'n ysmygu, We don't smoke So nhw'n -- So nhw'n siarad, They don't speak
|Do I? Am I?||Ydw i||Do we? Are we?||Ydyn ni|
|Do you? Are you?||Wyt ti?||Do you? Are you?||Ydych chi?|
|Does he? Is he?||Ydy e?||Do they? Are they?||Ydyn nhw?|
|Yes: I do, I am||Ydw / Nac ydw||Yes: We do, We are||Ydyn / Nac ydyn|
|Yes: You do, you are||Wyt / Nac wyt||Yes: You do, you are||Ydych / Nac ydych|
|Yes: He does, He is||Ydy / Nac ydy||Yes: They do, They are||Ydyn / Nac ydyn|
|Remember: Welsh does not use 'yes' or 'no' responses. Instead, you answer with a more direct 'I do' or 'He is' type response.|
A: Wyt ti'n mynd i'r parc?
B: Ydw. Dwi'n mynd i'r parc.
- A: Are you going to the park?
- B: I am (yes). I'm going to the park.
A: Ydy hi'n hoffi ffilmiau?
B: Ydy. Mae hi'n hoffi ffilmiau.
- A: Does she like films?
- B: She does (yes). She likes films.
A: Ydy Brad yn chwarae heddiw?
B: Nac ydy. Dydy Brad ddim yn chwarae heddiw.
- A: Is Brad playing today?
- B: He isn't. Brad isn't playing today.
Mae and Oes
|The third-person form mae of bod (to be) can be translated as 'there is'. |
The interrogative form of mae is Oes? 'Is there?'
Oes also serves as a 'yes' response. Yes, there is. The no response is Nac oes.
The negative form is Does dim 'There isn't'.
Oes bwyd yn y tŷ?
- Is there food yn the house?
Oes. Mae llawer o fwyd yma.
- Yes (There is). There is a lot of food here.
Oes rhaglen dda ar y teledu heno?
- Is there a good programme on the television tonight?
Nag oes. Does dim unrhywbeth da.
- No (There isn't). There isn't anything good.
|The mae/oes pattern is used in a number of expressions in Welsh, for example: possession. The English sentence, 'I have a car' must be expressed as 'There is a car with me' in Welsh. Here are a few of the uses of mae and oes:|
Possession Oes car gyda chi?
- Do you have a car?
- (lit. 'Is there a car with you?')
Oes. Mae car gyda fi.
- Yes. I have a car.
- (lit. 'There is a car with me.')
Conditions Mae ofn arna i.
- I'm afraid.
- (lit. There is fear on me.)
Mae hiraeth arna i.
- I'm homesick.
- (lit. There is homesickness on me.)