Web 2.0 and Emerging Learning Technologies/Innovative Pedagogies
Innovative Pedagogies with web 2.0 Technologies
Innovative Pedagogies with web 2.0 Technologies
1 The changing roles of technology in teaching
1.1 Connotative changes: From “content propagating” to “content interaction”
Although “Innovative Pedagogies with Technologies” has almost become a cliche, yet as the advent of web 2.0 and the gradual maturity of various application tools, this sentence might have its new meaning. In the early days of the development of web 2.0, when interactive technology is not yet widely used by people, the application forms of technology in pedagogy include the following ways (as in table 1).
Table 1 The application forms of web 2.0 in pedagogy of the early days (Summarized by Lee Chen-feng, 2007)
From table 1, we can find only items 3-3 and 3-4 are considered highly interactive.? The interactivity to be incorporated in the Internet is similar to what proposed by the Constructivism. The constructivism holds the beliefs that the society group intelligence is very important in affecting and helping the learning. That is, the practice of group intelligence, such as cooperative learning, can usually achieve the instructional goals more efficiently and effectively. For instance, this chapter was finished on the E-campus 3 learning platform, one course-management software created by the National Chiao Tung University in Taiwan. Before uploading this chapter onto this Web 2.0 wikibook, I had been encouraged to post a draft on a discussion board, in order to soliciting suggestions from the teacher and the peers. The open and public discussions might have in turn resulted in critical changes in my writings with its friendly collaborative functions. Therefore, my experiences of the writing process can be seen a best practice of using collaborative tools to accelerate the learning outcome in a limited time.
1.2 Functional Changes: From “content presentation tools” to “content boardrooms”
Today, to meet the learning needs of information-oriented society, we might be able to expand the explanation scope of the social constructivism. Siemens (2007) has proposed one learning concept of “In digital age, we can learn by using various external application equipments” (p. 30-31)., We can imagine that external group intelligence is like the information or knowledge interconnection network provided by the series-connected information network. For instance, we can access knowledge from Google scholar. Google scholar is a knowledge-index of database which exists in the service equipment of Google company. But, it’s entity exist in the other service equipments of Internet. It may be argued that knowledgeable articles are the group intelligence created by public. In the past, if an individual wants to learn through the help of external group intelligence, it must be completed through face-to-face interpersonal interaction. In the digital era, one can learn through the external group intelligence via Internet. Teachers and students can thus access to and update the knowledge they need at any time through the real display of the group intelligence exhibited by various of technology applications under the concept of web 2.0 in the external application equipments. This group intelligence seems to be a collection place of individual intelligence. Therefore, to the modern people, what is learning? Can we say that learning is to maintain and manage our own internal and external knowledge network? Thus, in order to facilitate efficient and effective learning, if the teacher can introduce technology tool that bears the concept of web 2.0 during the planning of learning strategy, it is going to be very helpful to the achievement of this goal.
2 The changing technology’s role accelerate the changing in learning
2.1 Users increase influences the learning patterns changing
Due to its highly interactive natures, users of Web 2.0 technologies increase quickly – those web 2.0 tools are often represented in the forms of blogs, wiki, podcast internet photo album, video blog, RSS Browser, Memo Pad, etc. As the public gradually use Web 2.0 tools in such interactive way. It represent that there are more and more people communicate with others via interactive technology. Of course,? these people also include teachers and students. The appearance may develop from a certain climate to a communicative pattern for daily life. Thus, the technology applications with Web 2.0 not only an information collector or a dispensable teaching-aided media for the teacher, but also it may become a very important factor for the learning patterns changing. For instance, the teacher can preserve syllabuses and establish forum on one's own blog. We know today’s students, those who are considered digital natives in digital age, prefer or are used to anonymous talk among teachers and students in Internet. The students can avoid some besetments in this way. These besetments are like teacher's authority, non-coordination relation between teachers and students, etc. However, in the teaching activities of digital era, no doubt, technology has now occupied a very important place in addition to teachers and students.
2.2 The philosophical view and characteristics of interactive technology
Teachers and students are both the main role in the classroom of ancient era. The teaching tools which are like little blackboard are just a second role in a classroom corner. Nowadays, due to the advent of Web 2.0 technology, technology makes the teaching tools be a main role,. Thus, in this article, we consider the role of technology is a general name for all the tools used in the classroom “from the ancient era to today”. But technology is no longer just a second role. Due to the advancement in the technology itself, the role of technology in teaching activity is gradually positioned as learning partner to most people. For example, Jonassen (2000) had proposed that learners should shift from “learning from computer” to “learning with computer”. However, the role of technology is still like a learning partner on the side. Today, due to the application evolution of technology in the digital era, a philosophical concept of “people-based” has now gradually been replaced by “computer-based” paradigm. It is a way of thinking that is based on a user-centric belief. The performance of technology itself is no longer the focus. Technology is only seen as a tool to achieve the learning or pedagogical goals. Since the focus is to achieve interaction and sharing among learners, technology usually appears in concise form so that the users can use them easily and barrier-free. All these changes have made technology become the same importance element with teacher and student in the teaching activity. Technology is no longer just a second role of the green leaf beside the red flower.
3 The applications and impact of interactive technology in teaching
3.1 The learning structure and pedagogies with interactive technology
In this section, we can further describe the rationale of “Interactive and sharing technology” can be as euqally important as the teacher and student in the new pedagogy thinking.
- For the teachers, technology with Web 2.0 can be used as teacher’s knowledge-management tool and media for multiple sides dialogue. In a hybrid teaching environment, discussion facilitated online can transfer to reflection and discussion face to face, resulting in collective meaning-making.
- For the students, Web 2.0 can be used as convenient way for learning from course designed by teacher and open platform for discussion among classmates and teacher.
- For the interactions between students and teachers, the features of Web 2.0 can promote the coordinated cooperation between teachers and students. It is not only can be used as new meeting place for knowledge innovation but also can be used as the base of social action (As in figure 2).
3.2 Making the most of interactive technology in teaching
In the learning architecture shown in Figure 2, teachers and students can all position themselves in the central learning positions with the aids of interactive technology. Each member participating in the pedagogical process, either from the aspects of learning or information-sharing, will have freedom or equal opportunities for participation. This equal opportunity in learning will definitely optimize the effectiveness and the efficiency in the entire teaching process.
Drucker (1999) had proposed that the factor to accelerate sociological development. He believed that it is not that technology, or information technology,? but that is the information to play a role in the rapid sociological development. Just let technology get back to its role of serving the meaningful use or inquiry by people. People can use various forms of technology for communication, free of charges. However, as we can see, the pedagogies are changing along with the role changes of technology. These pedagogical changing is shown as follows:
- Learning can be more efficient and effective with the aids of technology.
- Teachers, students, and technology play a role throughout the learning process.
- The change has been prominent from the teacher-centered to the student-centered practice.
It is a very concise and organized statement of the changes of instructors’ and students’ role with web 2.0 technologies. Along with the general description of future trends of teaching and learning, some specific examples and application cases might help reader to have a better picture of what is really going on with those technologies.
5 Closing Remarks
Since the use of Web 2.0 in teaching is to achieve the learning goal more efficiently and effectively, educators and researchers also need to consider the following aspects during their daily practices, as described in the following sections of this wikibook.
- Student Generated Content, Peer-To-Peer Learning, Connectionism
- Instructional Design Models and Emerging Learning Technologies
- Assessing and Evaluating the Impact of Web 2.0 and Emerging Learning Technologies
- Research on the Impact and Effectiveness of the Web 2.0 and Emerging Learning Technologies
- Professional Development and Overcoming Instructor and Administrative Assistance
Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Computers as mindtools for schools. Prentice Hall, Inc. New Jersey.
Siemens, G. (2006). Connectivism: Learning Theory or Pastime of the Self-Amused?
Drucker, P. (1999). Management Challenges for the 21st Century ,Harper Business