Wampanoag/Sea and rivers

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|VVEchêkum|} `The Sea.' |Kìtthan.| } |Paumpágussit.| `The Sea-God', or, that name which they give that Deitie or Godhead which they conceive to be in the Sea.

{Obs.} |Mishoòn| an {Indian} Boat, or Canow made of a Pine or Oake, or Chestnut-tree: I have seene a Native goe into the woods with his hatchet, carrying onely a Basket of Corne

with <109/r.107> <{Of the Sea}, ctc.>

with him, & stones to strike fire when he had feld his tree (being a {chesnut}) he made him a little House or shed of the bark of it, he puts fire and followes the burning of it with fire, in the midst in many places: his corne he boyles and hath the Brook by him, and sometimes angles for a little fish; but so hee continues burning and hewing untill he hath within ten or twelve dayes (lying there at his worke alone) finished, and (getting hands,) lanched his Boate; with which afterward hee ventures out to fish in the Ocean.

|Mishoonémese.| `A little Canow.'

Some of them will not well carry above three or foure: but some of them twenty, thirty, forty men.

|Wunnauanoúnuck.| `A Shallop.' |Wunnauanounuckquèse.|- `A Skiffe.'

{Obs.} Although themselves have neither, yet they give them such names, which in their Language signifieth carrying Vessells.

|Kitônuck.| `A Ship.' |Kitónuckquese.| `A little ship.' |Mishìttouwand.| `A great Canow.' |Peewàsu.| `A little one.' |Paugautemissaúnd.| `An Oake Canow.'

Kowwow <110/r.108> <Of {the} Sea, {&c}.>

|Kowawwaúnd.| `A pine Canow.' |Wompmissaúnd.| `A chesnut Canow.' |Ogwhan.| `A boat adrift.' |Wuskon-tógwhan.| `It will goe a drift.' |Cuttunnamìinnea.| `Help me to launch.' |Cuttunnummútta.| `Let us launch.' |Cuttúnnamoke.| `Launch.' |Cuttánnummous.| `I will help you.' |Wútkunck.| `A paddle or Oare.' |Namacóuhe cómishoon.|- `Lend me your Boate.' |Paútousnenótehunck| `Bring hither my paddle.' |Comishoónhom?| `Goe you by water?' |Chémosh-chémeck.| `Paddle or row.' |Maumìnikish| {&} |Maumanetepweéas.| `Pull up, or row lustily.' |Sepâkehig.| `A Sayle.' |Sepagehommaúta.| `Let us saile.' |Wunnâgehan.| `We have a faire wind.'

{Obs.} Their owne reason hath taught them, to pull of a Coat or two and set it up on a small pole, with which they will saile before a wind ten, or twenty mile, &c.

|Wauaúpunish.| `Hoyse up.' |Wuttáutnish.| `Pull to you.' |Nókanish.| `Take it downe.' |Pakétenish.| `Let goe or let flie.' |Nikkoshkowwaúmen.| `We shall be drown'd.'

Nquawup <111/r.109> <Of {the} Sea, {&c}.>

|Nquawu pshâwmen.| `We overset.' |Wussaúme pechepaúsha.|- `The Sea comes in too fast upon us.' |Maumaneeteántass.| `Be of good courage.'

{Obs.} It is wonderfull to see how they will venture in those Canoes, and how (being oft overset as I have my selfe been with them) they will swim a mile, yea two or more safe to Land: I having been necessitated to passe waters diverse times with them, it hath pleased God to make them many times the instruments of my preservation: and when sometimes in great danger I have questioned safety, they have said to me: Feare not, if we be overset I will carry you safe to Land.

|Paupaútuckquash.| `Hold water.' |Kìnnequass.| `Steere.' |Tiáckomme kìnniquass.|- `Steere right.' |Kunnósnep.| `A Killick, or Anchor.' |Chowwophómmin.| `To cast over-boord.' |Chouwóphash.| `Cast over-board' |Touwopskhómmke.| `Cast anchor.' |Mishittáshin.| `It is a storme.' |Awêpesha.| `It caulmes.' |Awêpu.| `A calme.' |Nanoúwashin.| `A great caulme.' |Tamóccon.| `Floud.'

<112/r.110> <Of {the Sea}.>

|Nanashowetamóccon| `Halfe Floud.' |Keesaqúshin.| `High water.' |Taumacoks.| `Vpon the Floud.' |Mishittommóckon.| `A great Floud.' |Maúchetan| {&} |skàt.| `Ebb.' |Mittâeskat.| `A low Ebb.' |Awánick Paúdhuck?| `Who comes there?'

{Obs.} I have knowne thirty or forty of their Canowes fill'd with men, and neere as many more of their enemies in a Sea-fight.

|Caupau~shess.| `Goe ashoare.' |Caupaushâuta.| `Let us goe ashoare.' |Wusséheposh.| `Heave out the water.' |Asképunish.| `Make fast the Boat.' |Kspúnsh| {&} |Kspúnemoke.|- `Tie it fast.' |Maumìnikish.| `Tie it hard.' |Neene Cuthómwock.| `Now they goe off.' |Kekuthomwushánnick.|- `They are gone already.'

{Generall} Observations {of the Sea}.

How unsearchable are the depth of the Wisedome and Power of God in separating from {Europe}, {Asia} and {Africa} such a mightie vast continent as {America} is? and that for so

many <113/r.111> <Of {Fish} and {Fish}.>

many ages? as also, by such a Westerne Ocean of about three thousand of {English} miles breadth in passage over?

More particular:

{They see Gods wonders that are call'd Through dread full Seas to passe, In tearing winds and roaring seas, And calmes as smooth as glasse. I have in} Europes {ships, oft been In King of terrours hand; When all have cri'd}, Now, now we sinck, {Yet God bronght safe to land. Alone 'mongst} Indians {in Canoes, Sometimes o're-turn'd, I have been Halfe inch from death, in Ocean deepe, Gods wonders I have seene.


Of {Fish} and {Fishing}.

|NAmaùs,-suck.| `Fish, Fishes.' |Pauganaùt, tamwock.|- `Cod, Which is the first that comes a little before the Spring.'

Qunna <114/r.112> <{Of the} Sea, {&c}.>

|Qunnamáug-suck.| `Lampries.' The first that come in the Spring into the fresh Rivers.

|Aumsúog|, {&} |Munnawhatteaúg.|- `A Fish somewhat like a Herring.' |Missúckeke-kéquock.| `Basse.' The {Indians} (and the {English} too) make a daintie dish of the |Uppaquóntup|, or head of this Fish; and well they may, the braines and fat of it being very much, and sweet as marrow.

|Kaúposh-shaúog.| `Sturgeon.'

{Obs.} Divers part of the Countrey abound with this Fish; yet the Natives for the goodnesse and greatnesse of it, much prize it and will neither furnish the {English} with so many, nor so cheape, that any great trade is like to be made of it, untill the {English} themselves are fit to follow the fishing.

The Natives venture one or two in a Canow, and with an harping Iron, or such like Instrument sticke this fish, and so hale it into their Canow; sometimes they take them by their nets, which they make strong of Hemp.

|Ashòp.| `Their Nets.' Which they will set thwart some little River or Cove wherein they kil Basse (at the fall of the water) with their arrows, or sharp sticks, especially if headed with Iron, gotten from the {Engish}, &c.

Aucup. <105/r.113> <Of {their nakednesse and clothing}.>

|Aucùp.| A little Cove or Creeke. |Aucppâwese.| `A very little one.' |Wawwhunnekesúog.| `Mackrell.` |Mishquammauquock.| `Red fish, Salmon.' |O[s]acontuck.| `A fat sweet fish, something like a Haddock.' |Mishcùp-paúog| `Breame.' |Sequanamauquock.|

{Obs.} Of this fish there is abundance which the Natives drie in the Sunne and smoake; and some {English} begin to salt, both wayes they keepe all the yeere; and it is hoped it may be as well accepted as Cod at a Market, and better, if once knowne.

|Taut-auog.| `Sheeps-heads.' |Neeshau~og| } |Sassammau~quock| } `Eeles.' |Nquittéconnauog.|} |Tatackommmâu~og.| `Porpuses.' |Pótop-pauog.| `Whales': Which in some places are often cast up; I have seene some of them, but not above sixtie foot long: The {Natives} cut them out in severall parcells, and give and send farre and neere for an acceptable present, or dish.

|Missêsu.| `The whole.' |Poquêsu.| `The halfe.' |Waskèke.| `The Whalebone.'

Wussúck <106/r.114> <Of {Fishes}.>

|Wussúckqun.| `A taile.' |Aumau~og.| `They are fiishing.' |Ntaúmen.| `I am fishing.' |Kuttau~men?| `Doe you fish?' |Nnattuckqunnu~wem.| `I goe afishing.' |Aumáchick,| } |Natuckqunnuwâchick.|-} `Fishes.' |Aumaúi.| `He is gone to fish.' |Awácenick kukkattineanaúmen?|- `What doe you fish for?' |Ashau~nt-teau~g.| `Lobsters.' |Opponenau~hock.| `Oysters.' |Sickíssuog.| `Clams.'

{Obs.} This is a sweet kind of shelfish, which all {Indians} generally over the Countrey, Winter and Summer delight in; and at low water the women dig for them: this fish, and the naturall liquor of it, they boile, and it makes their broth and their |Nasau~mp| (which is a kind of thickned broth) and their bread seasonable and savory, instead of Salt: and for that the {English} Swine dig and root these Clams wheresoever they come, and watch the low water (as the {Indian} women do) therefore of all the {Euglish} Cattell, the Swine (as also because of their filthy disposition) are

most <107/r.115> <{Of Fishes}.>

most hatefull to all Natives, and they call them filthy cut throats &c.

|Séqunnock.| `A Horse-fish.' |Poquaúhock.|

{Obs.} This the English call Hens, a little thick shel-fiish, which the Indians wade deepe and dive for, and after they have eaten the meat there (in those which are good) they breake out of the shell, about halfe an inch of a blacke part of it, of which they make their |Suckau~hock|, or black money, which is to them pretious.

|Meteaúhock.| `The Periwinckle.' Of which they make their |Wómpam|, or white money, of halfe the value of their |Suckáwhock|, or blacke money, of which more in the Chapter of their Coyne.

|Cumménakiss,| |Cummenakìssamen| `Have you taken store?' |Cummuchickinneanâwmen?|- |Numménakiss.| `I have taken store.' |Nummuchikineanâwmen.|- `I have killed many.' |Machàge.| `I have caught none.' |Aúmanep,| `A fishing-line.' |Aumanápeash.| `Lines.'

The <108/r.116> <Of {Fish},&c.>

The Natives take exceeding great paines in their fishing, especially in watching their seasons by night; so that frequently they lay their naked bodies many a cold night on the cold shoare about a fire of two or three sticks, and oft in the night search their Nets; and sometimes goe in and stay longer in frozen water.

|Hoquaùn aúnash.| `Hooke, hookes.' |Peewâsicks.| `Little hookes.' |Maúmacocks.| `Great hookes.' |Nponamouôog.| `I set nets for them.' |Npunnouwaúmen.| `I goe to search my nets.' |Mihtúckquashep.| `An Eele-pot.' |Kunnagqunneúteg.| `A greater sort.' |Onawangónnakaun.| `A baite.' |Yo onawangónnatees| `Baite with this.' |Moamitteau~g.| `A little sort of fish', halfe as big as Sprats, plentifull in Winter.

|Paponaumsu~og.| `A winter fish', which comes up in the brookes[check spelling] and rivulets; some call them Frost fish, from their comming up from the Sea into fresh Brookes, in times of frost and snow.

|Qunôsuog.| `A fresh fish'; which the {Indians} break the Ice in fresh ponds, when they take also many other sorts: for, to my knowledge the Country yeelds many sorts of other fish, which I mention not.