Visual Basic for Applications/Clipboard VBA
Summary[edit | edit source]
There are three main ways to pass text to and from the clipboard with VBA code.
- The DataObject method:
- This is perhaps the simplest implementation.
- Its main restriction is that the contents of the clipboard will be lost when the launching application is closed; generally this is not a problem when running Excel modules, but should be borne in mind.
- Some users elsewhere report bugs. See DataObject Bugs Forum for details of the bugs and one suggested fix. All of the procedures on this page are tested and work well in both Windows 7 and Windows 8.1 for Excel 2010. The DataObject method has recently been adopted for the VBA Indenter module, in this same series.
- Other methods avoid these restrictions. In the unlikely event of problems with these procedures, either of the next two methods would suffice.
- An example of the DataObject method is given in section two of this page.
- User form control methods:
- When user forms are to be displayed, then the copy and paste methods of the text box can be used. These methods work well and are well tested.
- When no user form is to be displayed, a hidden form can be used. The form with a text box, is loaded but never displayed. Then, the invisible user form's controls can still then be coded as normal. The text box must have its Multiline property set to true for most useful text transfers. It will be found best, in general,to set the form's ShowModal property to False; this allows for convenient code tracing and avoids many other confusions.
- An example of the hidden user form method is given in section four. Another example in section three, for a visible user form, shows how to track the active text box prior to copy.
- API methods:
- These methods make use of Windows libraries, and have copious declarations in their module headings. That said, they work well, and are described by Microsoft documentation as being the most suitable.
- One example of API use is displayed in section five. See Send-Information-to-the-Clipboard for more details.
DataObject Method[edit | edit source]
- These methods make used of a DataObject . They are by far the most adaptable, since any text that can be placed in a variable can then be placed onto the clipboard using the PutInClipboard method. Text can also be brought into a VBA string variable with the GetFromClipboard method. The procedures CopyToClip() and GetFromClip() in the example below first send text to the clipboard, then fetch it again, before displaying the text in a message box. Set a reference to Microsoft Forms 2 in the editor options for this; if you cannot find it just add a user form to your project and it will be added to the selections.
- Reports of bugs in DataObject methods are reported elsewhere. These apply to Windows versions beyond Win 7, and are reported to involve an unusual persistence between the object and the clipboard. If difficulty is found with these methods then either the dummy userform method or the API methods could be tried.
Sub testCopyAndPaste() 'demonstrates copy and paste of text to variables 'loads clipboard with date-time text then 'fetches it back for display 'Only good for text and clipboard content lost 'when application closes. Dim sStrOut As String, sStrIn As String 'get the current date-time string sStrOut = Now 'copy text to clipboard CopyToClip sStrOut 'retrieve from clipboard sStrIn = GetFromClip 'display recovered text MsgBox sStrIn End Sub Function CopyToClip(sIn As String) As Boolean 'passes the parameter string to the clipboard 'set reference to Microsoft Forms 2.0 Object Library. 'If ref not listed, inserting user form will list it. 'Clipboard cleared when launch application closes. Dim DataOut As DataObject Set DataOut = New DataObject 'first pass textbox text to dataobject DataOut.SetText sIn 'then pass dataobject text to clipboard DataOut.PutInClipboard 'release object variable Set DataOut = Nothing CopyToClip = True End Function Function GetFromClip() As String 'passes clipboard text to function name 'If clipboard not text, an error results 'set reference to Microsoft Forms 2.0 Object Library. 'If ref not listed, inserting user form will list it. 'Clipboard cleared when launch application closes. Dim DataIn As DataObject Set DataIn = New DataObject 'clipboard text to dataobject DataIn.GetFromClipboard 'dataobject text to function string GetFromClip = DataIn.GetText 'release object variable Set DataIn = Nothing End Function
Visible User Form Method[edit | edit source]
The code module below provides the VBA code for a form module, (shown here as UserForm1). In it there are command button click routines for textbox Copy and Paste. To use the copy procedure the user simply selects some text then presses the button on the user form. To paste the contents of the clipboard into a textbox, the user must first place the insertion point somewhere within a textbox before pressing the requisite button.
In order to clarify which textbox is active, there is a mouse-up event for each, where a number is loaded into a module-level variable whenever a mouse is used in the box. Although this code is made for three textboxes, it can easily be extended to any number.
The code assumes that there is a user form UserForm1, with TextBox1, TextBox2, TextBox3, CommandButton1 and CommandButton2 in it. In addition, note that there is a module level variable in the code. Since the VBA code is fairly generic it applies to most MS Office applications.
Option Explicit Dim nActTxtBx As Integer Private Sub CommandButton1_Click() 'this is the "Paste at Cursor" button 'pastes clipboard active textbox's insertion point 'ie; the textbox last clicked with mouse Dim oTxt1 As Control, oTxt2 As Control, oTxt3 As Control Dim oFrm As UserForm, oTxt As Control, s As Long Set oFrm = UserForm1 Set oTxt1 = oFrm.TextBox1 Set oTxt2 = oFrm.TextBox2 Set oTxt3 = oFrm.TextBox3 'get the textbox with the focus Select Case nActTxtBx Case 0 MsgBox "Please place the insertion point." Exit Sub Case 1 Set oTxt = oTxt1 Case 2 Set oTxt = oTxt2 Case 3 Set oTxt = oTxt3 Case Else Exit Sub End Select s = oTxt.SelStart With oTxt .Paste .SetFocus .SelStart = s End With Set oFrm = Nothing: Set oTxt = Nothing Set oTxt1 = Nothing: Set oTxt2 = Nothing Set oTxt3 = Nothing End Sub Private Sub CommandButton2_Click() 'this is the "Copy Selected Text" button 'copies selected text from textbox to clipboard 'ie; the textbox last clicked with mouse Dim oTxt1 As Control, oTxt2 As Control, oTxt3 As Control Dim oFrm As UserForm, oTxt As Control Set oFrm = UserForm1 Set oTxt1 = oFrm.TextBox1 Set oTxt2 = oFrm.TextBox2 Set oTxt3 = oFrm.TextBox3 'get reference to active textbox Select Case nActTxtBx Case 0 MsgBox "Please make a selection." Exit Sub Case 1 Set oTxt = oTxt1 Case 2 Set oTxt = oTxt2 Case 3 Set oTxt = oTxt3 Case Else Exit Sub End Select 'check that a selection was made 'MsgBox oTxt.SelLength If oTxt.SelLength = 0 Then MsgBox "No selection found." Exit Sub End If With oTxt .Copy .SetFocus .SelStart = 0 End With Set oFrm = Nothing: Set oTxt = Nothing Set oTxt1 = Nothing: Set oTxt2 = Nothing Set oTxt3 = Nothing End Sub Private Sub TextBox1_MouseUp(ByVal Button As Integer, ByVal Shift As Integer, _ ByVal X As Single, ByVal Y As Single) 'loads an integer to denote active textbox when mouse makes selection nActTxtBx = 1 End Sub Private Sub TextBox2_MouseUp(ByVal Button As Integer, ByVal Shift As Integer, _ ByVal X As Single, ByVal Y As Single) 'loads an integer to denote active textbox when mouse makes selection nActTxtBx = 2 End Sub Private Sub TextBox3_MouseUp(ByVal Button As Integer, ByVal Shift As Integer, _ ByVal X As Single, ByVal Y As Single) 'loads an integer to denote active textbox when mouse makes selection nActTxtBx = 3 End Sub
Hidden User Form Method[edit | edit source]
This code should be placed in a standard module. The project needs a user form called Temp, with a single TextBox1 set with MultiLine=true. TextBox contents are always text.
Option Explicit Sub TestClipboardProcs() 'run this CopyToClipboard "The string" & vbCrLf & _ "to copy..." MsgBox GetClipboard2 End Sub Function GetClipboard2() As String 'PASTES clipboard into function name as a text string 'project needs userform named Temp 'with TextBox1 in it set with property Multiline=true Dim oTxt1 As Control, oFrm As UserForm Dim s As Long 'load the temporary form Load Temp Set oFrm = Temp Set oTxt1 = oFrm.TextBox1 s = oTxt1.SelStart With oTxt1 .Paste .SetFocus .SelStart = s End With GetClipboard2 = oTxt1.Value Set oTxt1 = Nothing Set oFrm = Nothing Unload Temp End Function Function CopyToClipboard(sStr As String) As Boolean 'COPIES parameter variable text string value to clipboard 'project needs userform named Temp 'with TextBox1 in it set with property Multiline=true Dim oTxt1 As Control, oFrm As UserForm If sStr = "" Then MsgBox "Clipboard cannot hold an empty string." Exit Function End If 'load the temporary form Load Temp Set oFrm = Temp Set oTxt1 = oFrm.TextBox1 oTxt1.Value = sStr 'copy textbox value to clipboard With oTxt1 .SelStart = 0 'set up the selection .SelLength = .TextLength .Copy .SetFocus .SelStart = 0 End With Set oTxt1 = Nothing Set oFrm = Nothing Unload Temp CopyToClipboard = True End Function
API Method[edit | edit source]
The code below was tested on an Office 2010 version of Excel, 32 bit system, and worked well. Since that time, with 64 bit 2019 Excel, the code will not work in its current state, but needs further changes to the declarations for 64 bit use.
The following VBA code makes use of API calls, and is recommended by Microsoft in their MS Access page Send-Information-to-the-Clipboard. Such methods should overcome the current bugs in the DataObject methods for Windows 8 and 10. The code should be copied into a standard module in its entirety.
Option Explicit 'Declarations for functions SetClipboard() and GetClipboard() ''from https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/office/vba/access/concepts/windows-api/send-information-to-the-clipboard Private Declare Function OpenClipboard Lib "user32.dll" (ByVal hWnd As Long) As Long Private Declare Function EmptyClipboard Lib "user32.dll" () As Long Private Declare Function CloseClipboard Lib "user32.dll" () As Long Private Declare Function IsClipboardFormatAvailable Lib "user32.dll" (ByVal wFormat As Long) As Long Private Declare Function GetClipboardData Lib "user32.dll" (ByVal wFormat As Long) As Long Private Declare Function SetClipboardData Lib "user32.dll" (ByVal wFormat As Long, ByVal hMem As Long) As Long Private Declare Function GlobalAlloc Lib "kernel32.dll" (ByVal wFlags As Long, ByVal dwBytes As Long) As Long Private Declare Function GlobalLock Lib "kernel32.dll" (ByVal hMem As Long) As Long Private Declare Function GlobalUnlock Lib "kernel32.dll" (ByVal hMem As Long) As Long Private Declare Function GlobalSize Lib "kernel32" (ByVal hMem As Long) As Long Private Declare Function lstrcpy Lib "kernel32.dll" Alias "lstrcpyW" (ByVal lpString1 As Long, ByVal lpString2 As Long) As Long Sub TestCopyPasteAPI() 'API methods for clipboard Dim sIn As String, sOut As String sIn = "Sausages" SetClipboard sIn sOut = GetClipboard MsgBox sOut End Sub Public Sub SetClipboard(sUniText As String) 'sets the clipboard with parameter string Dim iStrPtr As Long, iLen As Long Dim iLock As Long Const GMEM_MOVEABLE As Long = &H2 Const GMEM_ZEROINIT As Long = &H40 Const CF_UNICODETEXT As Long = &HD OpenClipboard 0& EmptyClipboard iLen = LenB(sUniText) + 2& iStrPtr = GlobalAlloc(GMEM_MOVEABLE Or GMEM_ZEROINIT, iLen) iLock = GlobalLock(iStrPtr) lstrcpy iLock, StrPtr(sUniText) GlobalUnlock iStrPtr SetClipboardData CF_UNICODETEXT, iStrPtr CloseClipboard End Sub Public Function GetClipboard() As String 'gets the clipboard text in function name Dim iStrPtr As Long, iLen As Long Dim iLock As Long, sUniText As String Const CF_UNICODETEXT As Long = 13& OpenClipboard 0& If IsClipboardFormatAvailable(CF_UNICODETEXT) Then iStrPtr = GetClipboardData(CF_UNICODETEXT) If iStrPtr Then iLock = GlobalLock(iStrPtr) iLen = GlobalSize(iStrPtr) sUniText = String$(iLen \ 2& - 1&, vbNullChar) lstrcpy StrPtr(sUniText), iLock GlobalUnlock iStrPtr End If GetClipboard = sUniText End If CloseClipboard End Function