Prefered attribution styles
The smallest attribution that is acceptable (if space is painfully tight) is my alias, "Willscrlt", which is generally (but not 100%) unique across the Internet; it would also be very nice if you could hyperlink my alias to "" or to my Wikimedia Commons profile, " " to eliminate any ambiguity. You could also use my real name, "Will Murray", but you must further identify which Will Murray by either providing my website address, "Will Murray ( )", or my alias, "Will Murray (“Willscrlt”)". Combining all of that together, along with a link to the source material, results in my preferred attribution given here:
- When used in printed media (books, magazines, etc.):
Will Murray a.k.a. "Willscrlt" ( ), Source: //en.wikibooks.org/wiki/User:Willscrlt/Attribution
- When used on Wikimedia Foundation wikis or other sites that understand wiki formatting:
[[Wikibooks:en:User:Willscrlt/Attribution|Attribution]] by Will Murray ("[[Wikibooks:en:User:Willscrlt|Willscrlt]]") at
- When used online or in digital media (HTML, PDF, etc.):
<a href="">Attribution</a> by Will Murray ("<a href=" ">Willscrlt</a>") at <a href=" ">http://willmurray.name/</a>
You may alter the text or reformat the attribution to match layout or other standards, but please include as much relevant information as you can. Hyperlinks should be active whenever possible.
Citing dates and versions
Generally you should cite the specific version of the wiki page, image, or other material since wikis are frequently updated and the information you are referencing may change or even disappear. In MediaWiki (the software that powers sites like Wikipedia, Wikibooks, and Wikimedia Commons, the date that the resource was last modified is shown at the bottom of every page. Resources also have a link to a "permanent version" (also called a "permanent link" on several sites). These permanent version links (or "permalinks") link directly to the exact revision of the resource as it exists at that moment in time. Even if somebody completely changes the material later, by using a permalink, your citation still makes perfect sense to anyone following that link in the future.
Bibliographical citation styles
If you wish to cite my work for educational, technical, or professional publication, one of the following formats may be more appropriate. All of these would satisfy any attribution requirements that might be required to reuse the work.
- I am not an expert on citations, styles change over time, and free style guide resources occasionally disagree with each other on some of the finer points of formatting. I have no need or desire to purchase each of the style guides below to verify that everything is 100% correct, so use this as a general guide only. Chances are, if you need to use one of these styles, you probably know better than I how it should be formatted. If you spot errors, please let me know so I can fix them.
- If you are citing a collaborative work (i.e., one where multiple people contributed to the finished product, as is the case on many Wikipedia and Wikibooks pages, replace my name with "Wikibooks contributors" in the examples below.
- Be sure to read the section on citing dates and versions to better understand how to cite the correct modification dates and use permalinks.
- The section headings link to the best free style guide resource I could find for each style. Kent State University Library has links to many useful resources. Another useful reference is SourceAid's Citation Builder, which helps generate MLA, APA, CMS, and CSE citations semi-automatically.