User:Vuara/Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Dictionary
LIWC Dictionary (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Dictionary)
The WordStat version of the LIWC Dictionary is currently distributed with the original LIWC 2001 software package. You can order the LIWC software directly from Lawrence Erlbaum Associates web site. The LIWC 2001 software is available in both Windows and Mac format. However, the WordStat version of the dictionary can only be used on a Windows compatible computer with the WordStat content analysis software.
The LIWC2001 Dictionary is composed of 2,290 words and word stems. Each word or word-stem defines one or more word categories or subdictionaries. For example, the word 'cried' is part of four word categories: sadness, negative emotion, overall affect, and a past tense verb. Hence, if it is found in the target text, each of these four subdictionary scale scores will be incremented. As in this example, many of the LIWC2001 categories are arranged hierarchically. All anger words, by definition, will be categorized as negative emotion and overall emotion words.
Each of the 74 preset LIWC2001 categories is composed of a list of dictionary words that define that scale. The table below provides a comprehensive list of the LIWC2001 dictionary categories with sample scale words, and relevant scale word counts.
The LIWC dictionary is also available Spanish and German. French, Italian and Dutch versions are currently under development. To obtain information about those versions of the LIWC, please contact James W. Pennebaker.
Of the 2,290 words and word stems included in the original LIWC dictionary, only one entry (e.g. LIKE) could not be included in the WordStat version because of specific disambiguation rules used . We are confident that this minor difference won't affect very much the numerical results or conclusions of a content analysis.
Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process. Psychological Science, 8, 162-166.
Pennebaker, J.W., & Francis, M.E. (1996). Cognitive, emotional, and language processes in disclosure. Cognition and Emotion, 10, 601-626.
Pennebaker, J.W., & King, L.A. (1999). Linguistic styles: Language use as an individual difference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1296-1312.
Pennebaker, J. W., Mayne, T., & Francis, M. E. (1997). Linguistic predictors of adaptive bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 863-871.
Pennebaker, J.W. (2002). What our words can say about us: Toward a broader language psychology. Psychological Science Agenda, 15, 8-9.
Newman, M.L., Pennebaker, J.W., Berry, D.S., & Richards, J.M. (2001). Lying words: Predicting deception from linguistic styles. Paper submitted for publication.
LIWC 2001 Dimensions and Sample Words
DIMENSION ABBREV. EXAMPLES
I. STANDARD LINGUISTIC DIMENSIONS
Total pronouns Pronoun I, our, they, you're 70
1st person singular I I, my, me
1st person plural We we, our, us
Total first person Self I, we, me
Total second person You you, you'll
Total third person Other she, their, them
22 Negations Negate no, never, not 31 Assents Assent yes, OK, mmhmm 18 Articles Article a, an, the 3 Prepositions Preps on, to, from 43 Numbers Number one, thirty, million 29
II. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES
Affective or Emotional Processes Affect happy, ugly, bitter 615
Positive Emotions Posemo happy, pretty, good
Positive feelings Posfeel happy, joy, love
Optimism and energy Optim certainty, pride, win
Negative Emotions Negemo hate, worthless, enemy
Anxiety or fear Anx nervous, afraid, tense
Anger Anger hate, kill, pissed
Sadness or depression Sad grief, cry, sad
72 Cognitive Processes Cogmech cause, know, ought 312
Causation Cause because, effect, hence
Insight Insight think, know, consider
Discrepancy Discrep should, would, could
Inhibition Inhib block, constrain
Tentative Tentat maybe, perhaps, guess
Certainty Certain always, never
30 Sensory and Perceptual Processes Senses see, touch, listen 111
Seeing See view, saw, look
Hearing Hear heard, listen, sound
Feeling Feel touch, hold, felt
30 Social Processes Social talk, us, friend 314
Communication Comm talk, share, converse 124 Other references to people Othref 1st pl, 2nd, 3rd per prns 54 Friends Friends pal, buddy, coworker 28 Family Family mom, brother, cousin 43 Humans Humans boy, woman, group 43
Time Time hour, day, oclock 113 Past tense verb Past walked, were, had 144 Present tense verb Present walk, is, be 256 Future tense verb Future will, might, shall 14 Space Space around, over, up 71 Up Up up, above, over 12 Down Down down, below, under 7 Inclusive Incl with, and, include 16 Exclusive Excl but, except, without 19 Motion Motion walk, move, go 73
IV. PERSONAL CONCERNS
Occupation Occup work, class, boss 213 School School class, student, college 100 Job or work Job employ, boss, career 62 Achievement Achieve try, goal, win 60 Leisure activity Leisure house, TV, music 102 Home Home house, kitchen, lawn 26 Sports Sports football, game, play 28 Television and movies TV TV, sitcom, cinema 19 Music Music tunes, song, cd 31 Money and financial issues Money cash, taxes, income 75 Metaphysical issues Metaph God, heaven, coffin 85 Religion Relig God, church, rabbi 56 Death and dying Death dead, burial, coffin 29 Physical states and functions Physcal ache, breast, sleep 285 Body states, symptoms Body ache, heart, cough 200 Sex and sexuality Sexual lust, penis, fuck 49 Eating, drinking, dieting Eating eat, swallow, taste 52 Sleeping, dreaming Sleep asleep, bed, dreams 21 Grooming Groom wash, bath, clean 15
APPENDIX: EXPERIMENTAL DIMENSIONS
Swear words Swear damn, fuck, piss 29 Nonfluencies Nonfl uh, rr* 6 Fillers Fillers youknow, Imean 6