User:Vuara/Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Dictionary

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LIWC Dictionary (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Dictionary)

The WordStat version of the LIWC Dictionary is currently distributed with the original LIWC 2001 software package. You can order the LIWC software directly from Lawrence Erlbaum Associates web site. The LIWC 2001 software is available in both Windows and Mac format. However, the WordStat version of the dictionary can only be used on a Windows compatible computer with the WordStat content analysis software.

Dictionary information


The LIWC2001 Dictionary is composed of 2,290 words and word stems. Each word or word-stem defines one or more word categories or subdictionaries. For example, the word 'cried' is part of four word categories: sadness, negative emotion, overall affect, and a past tense verb. Hence, if it is found in the target text, each of these four subdictionary scale scores will be incremented. As in this example, many of the LIWC2001 categories are arranged hierarchically. All anger words, by definition, will be categorized as negative emotion and overall emotion words.

Each of the 74 preset LIWC2001 categories is composed of a list of dictionary words that define that scale. The table below provides a comprehensive list of the LIWC2001 dictionary categories with sample scale words, and relevant scale word counts.

The LIWC dictionary is also available Spanish and German. French, Italian and Dutch versions are currently under development. To obtain information about those versions of the LIWC, please contact James W. Pennebaker.

WordStat format

Of the 2,290 words and word stems included in the original LIWC dictionary, only one entry (e.g. LIKE) could not be included in the WordStat version because of specific disambiguation rules used . We are confident that this minor difference won't affect very much the numerical results or conclusions of a content analysis.

Selected References

Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process. Psychological Science, 8, 162-166.

Pennebaker, J.W., & Francis, M.E. (1996). Cognitive, emotional, and language processes in disclosure. Cognition and Emotion, 10, 601-626.

Pennebaker, J.W., & King, L.A. (1999). Linguistic styles: Language use as an individual difference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1296-1312.

Pennebaker, J. W., Mayne, T., & Francis, M. E. (1997). Linguistic predictors of adaptive bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 863-871.

Pennebaker, J.W. (2002). What our words can say about us: Toward a broader language psychology. Psychological Science Agenda, 15, 8-9.

Newman, M.L., Pennebaker, J.W., Berry, D.S., & Richards, J.M. (2001). Lying words: Predicting deception from linguistic styles. Paper submitted for publication.

LIWC 2001 Dimensions and Sample Words


  1. WORDS


Total pronouns Pronoun I, our, they, you're 70

         1st person singular I I, my, me 


         1st person plural We we, our, us 


    Total first person Self I, we, me 


    Total second person You you, you'll 


    Total third person Other she, their, them 

22 Negations Negate no, never, not 31 Assents Assent yes, OK, mmhmm 18 Articles Article a, an, the 3 Prepositions Preps on, to, from 43 Numbers Number one, thirty, million 29


Affective or Emotional Processes Affect happy, ugly, bitter 615

    Positive Emotions Posemo happy, pretty, good 


         Positive feelings Posfeel happy, joy, love 


         Optimism and energy Optim certainty, pride, win 


    Negative Emotions Negemo hate, worthless, enemy 


         Anxiety or fear Anx nervous, afraid, tense 


         Anger Anger hate, kill, pissed 


         Sadness or depression Sad grief, cry, sad 

72 Cognitive Processes Cogmech cause, know, ought 312

    Causation Cause because, effect, hence 


    Insight Insight think, know, consider 


    Discrepancy Discrep should, would, could 


    Inhibition Inhib block, constrain 


    Tentative Tentat maybe, perhaps, guess 


    Certainty Certain always, never 

30 Sensory and Perceptual Processes Senses see, touch, listen 111

    Seeing See view, saw, look 


    Hearing Hear heard, listen, sound 


    Feeling Feel touch, hold, felt 

30 Social Processes Social talk, us, friend 314

    Communication  Comm  talk, share, converse 
     Other references to people  Othref  1st pl, 2nd, 3rd per prns 
     Friends  Friends  pal, buddy, coworker 
     Family  Family  mom, brother, cousin 
     Humans  Humans  boy, woman, group 
Time Time   hour, day, oclock  113 
     Past tense verb  Past  walked, were, had  144 
     Present tense verb  Present  walk, is, be  256 
     Future tense verb  Future  will, might, shall  14 
Space  Space  around, over, up  71 
     Up  Up  up, above, over  12 
     Down  Down  down, below, under  7 
     Inclusive  Incl  with, and, include  16 
     Exclusive  Excl  but, except, without  19 
Motion  Motion  walk, move, go  73 
Occupation  Occup  work, class, boss  213 
     School  School  class, student, college  100 
     Job or work  Job  employ, boss, career  62 
     Achievement  Achieve  try, goal, win  60 
Leisure activity  Leisure  house, TV, music  102 
     Home  Home  house, kitchen, lawn  26 
     Sports  Sports  football, game, play  28 
     Television and movies  TV  TV, sitcom, cinema  19 
     Music  Music  tunes, song, cd  31 
Money and financial issues  Money  cash, taxes, income  75 
Metaphysical issues  Metaph  God, heaven, coffin  85 
     Religion  Relig  God, church, rabbi  56 
     Death and dying  Death  dead, burial, coffin  29 
Physical states and functions  Physcal  ache, breast, sleep  285 
     Body states, symptoms  Body  ache, heart, cough 200 
     Sex and sexuality  Sexual  lust, penis, fuck  49 
     Eating, drinking, dieting  Eating  eat, swallow, taste  52 
     Sleeping, dreaming  Sleep  asleep, bed, dreams  21 
     Grooming  Groom  wash, bath, clean  15 
Swear words  Swear  damn, fuck, piss  29 
Nonfluencies  Nonfl  uh, rr*  6 
Fillers  Fillers  youknow, Imean  6