User:Saltrabook/Occupational medicine in General Practice

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Green Revolution[edit]

The "Green Revolution" is the name given to the most successful agricultural improvement program ever undertaken in the tropics. Funded initially by the Rockefeller Foundation, it aimed to improve corn, rice, and other cereal cultivators – breeding plants that would produce more grain for the same amount of effort.

From that point it expanded out to improved basic farming practices, particularly for rice farmers. The growth of crop yields was such that agriculture was able to outstrip population growth — per capita production increased every year following 1950 - with Asia leading the way. One of the more remarkable aspects of the Green Revolution is that the total cost of the program by 1990 was approximately US$100 million, less than what a single Boeing 747 airliner cost in 2005.

It can be concluded that the Green Revolution was a success, with only a minor flaw: although the crops gave more yield, they were more subject to disease since this was not a primary concern of the program.

In order to address this problem together with an approach to more small-scale farming crops, there is today substantial interest in creating a second Green Revolution, based on sustainable agricultural practices and geared towards (small-scale) farmers with limited financial resources.

Plant propagation[edit]

Many tropical food plants are propagated by cuttings. Seeds are necessary for plant embryos to survive the winter and other harsh conditions such as drought. However, where the weather is normally conducive to growth year-round, it is often advantageous for plants to reproduce through means other than seeds. By bypassing the seed stage plants can greatly accelerate their reproductive cycle. Despite this, anyone who wishes so, may still grow tropical crops (e.g. fruit, ...) from seed. To do so, some special seed germination techniques to germinate it more quickly may be best used.

Plant defenses[edit]

A particularly good description of plant defenses can be found at How and why do plants defend themselves? that states in part:

"Plants are faced with a dilemma; while they need to attract beneficial pollinators and seed dispensers, they must also minimize the damage caused by the marauding army of herbivores. Without some form of protection the trees would be stripped bare and smaller plants would be completely devastated, and because plants stand still, they cannot run away. This is as true in Amazonian rainforest as it is in Northern coniferous forest." - Marcus Wischik.

Many (tropical) plants use toxins to protect themselves. Cassava, one of the most important tropical food crops, produces cyanide upon ingestion unless processed to remove/reduce the cyanide content. Other plants are high in oxalates (the agent that binds calcium to form kidney stones); castor beans are the source of ricin, one of the most powerful poisons in existence; and velvet beans contain 7-10% L-DOPA. The list of toxic plants is long, but toxicity does not always mean a particular plant should be avoided, the knowledge needed to render toxic plants safe to use already exists in most communities.


The contents of a bag of commercial fertilizer is described in terms of NPK -nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); with nitrogen being the main component of most commercial fertilizers.

Oxygen is only a small part of the air; the largest component of air is nitrogen. Nitrogen is the main building block of protein; muscle in mammals and plant tissue in plants. If the level of nitrogen in the soil is increased, plant growth can be significantly increased. Legumes are a group of plants that interact with bacteria (rhizobia) in the soil to fix nitrogen from the air, and deposit the nitrogen into the soil where it is available for other plants to use. The nitrogen deposited by legumes can be readily converted into larger harvests.

Green manures are plants grown to improve the soil, suppress weeds, limit erosion, and — when legumes are used — to increase the nitrogen content of the soil. The most common type of green manure used in the tropics is Velvet bean. It produces a thick blanket of vines and leaves that in addition to infusing the soil with nitrogen also smother most weeds. In addition it has reasonable tolerance to drought, low soil fertility, and highly acidic soil. Alternatives to the Velvet bean include the Lablab bean, the Jack bean, and for use above 500 m altitude, the Scarlet runner bean.

Once the blanket is several centimeters thick, it is chopped down with a machete, and the vines are chopped up. This produces thick mulch on top of the ground that both inhibits weed growth and adds vital nutrients to the soil. Corn or other crops are then planted directly into this mulch.

Slash/mulch is popular in southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras; and in recent years has gained a following in many areas of the tropics, from Brazil to central Africa. Where it has been embraced it has pushed aside slash and burn agriculture, and allowed farmers to utilize the same land continuously for many years.

Cornell University has taken a leading role in researching the effects of mulches and slash/mulch practices in the tropics.[1]

Small-scale irrigation[edit]

In most places in the tropics sufficient precipitation occurs to grow enough food to feed the local population; however, it may not fall in a timely or convenient manner. Making maximum use of the water that does fall is an ongoing challenge.

Water is a particularly important issue in dryland farming. The ability to collect and store water at a low cost and without damaging the environment, is what opens up deserts and other arid regions to farmers. When it rains in dryland areas, the rain storms are normally heavy, and the soil unable to absorb the large amounts of rain that comes down. This leads to excessive surface run-off that needs to be captured and retained.

Commercial farms growing cash crops often use irrigation techniques similar to or identical to what would be found on large scale commercial farms located in temperate regions; as an example, the Israeli drip-irrigation lines.

Water harvesting pits[edit]

One of the simplest forms of irrigation - the farmer digs bathtub sized pits into his fields and lines them with plastic sheets to collect rainwater. Then once the dry season sets in the farmer uses the collected water to irrigate his crops. The technique is especially useful in mountainous areas, where rapid run-off otherwise occur.

During years with normal precipitation the growing season can be increased by an extra month or more by using harvesting pits. An extra month in many places means an extra crop can be grown. For instance if the local growing season is 5 months long, and the farmers main crop takes 3 or 4 months to grow, an extra month may be enough time to grow a secondary crop. During times of drought, what rain does fall can be collected in the pits and used to secure the farmer's main crop.

Bucket drip irrigation[edit]

An irrigation system consisting of a bucket hung from a pole, with a hose coming out of the bottom, and holes punched into the hose. The bucket is filled, and gravity feeds the water to the plants. As a rule about 40 litres of water per day are needed for every 100 plants, although this can vary depending upon what is being grown.

Treadle pumps[edit]

The treadle pump is a human-powered pump designed to lift water from a depth of seven metres or less. A treadle is lever device pressed by the foot to drive a machine, in this case a pump. The treadle pump can do most of the work of a motorized pump, but costs considerably less to purchase, and needs no fossil fuel as it is driven by the operators body weight and leg muscles. It can lift five to seven cubic metres of water per hour from wells and boreholes up to seven metres deep and can also be used to draw water from lakes and rivers. Most treadle pumps used are of local manufacture, as they are simple and inexpensive to build.

Standard treadle pumps are suction pumps, and were first developed in the early 1980s in Bangladesh. Most treadle pumps manufactured in Africa are pressure treadle pumps; a modification to the original design that means water is forced out of the pump under pressure. Pressure treadle pumps are more versatile as they allow farmers to pump water uphill, or over long distances, or fill elevated tanks.

Pest control[edit]

Crop rotation[edit]

Crop rotation is the cornerstone pest control in the tropics. When a single crop is planted repeatedly in the same soil, insects and diseases that attack that crop are allowed to build up to unmanageable levels, greatly reducing the farmer's harvest.

The most basic form of crop rotation is also the simplest: never plant the same thing in the same place twice. This results in naturally breaking the cycles of weeds, insects and diseases that attack food crops. Rotations are used to prevent or at least partially control several pests and at the same time to reduce the farmer's reliance on chemical pesticides. Crop rotations often are the only economically feasible method for reducing insect and disease damage.

Crop rotation replaces a crop that is susceptible to a serious pest with another crop that is not susceptible. Each food crop comes with its own set of pests that attack that particular crop. By planting a different crop each time, the farmer is able to starve out those pests. Often a set of three or four crops are planted on a rotating basis, ensuring that by the time the first crop is replanted, the pests that attack it are substantially reduced.

Another side benefit of crop rotation is it improves the soil. Constantly growing the same crop in the same location will strip the soil of the nutrients that particular crop requires. Rotating to a different crop will reduce the pressure placed on the soil. Or if a green manure is used as part of the rotation sequence, the soil can actually be improved.

Integrated pest management[edit]

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) was developed as an alternative to the heavy use of chemical pesticides. Eliminating all insect pests requires the extensive use of chemical pesticides, which over time can become self-defeating. Farmers end up using more and more chemicals with diminishing effect as pests quickly adapt –while at the same time natural predator insects are eliminated from the farm. Under IPM chemicals should be a secondary line of defense, while building up the number of natural predators on a farm is the main goal. The IPM approach calls for keeping the pest populations below the levels at which they cause economic injury, not total eradication.

IPM in its pure form is extremely complex, and beyond the ability of most farmers to manage; however, the underlying principals have gained widespread acceptance in the tropics, with most governments sponsoring IPM educational programs.

Pioneering crops[edit]

Pioneering crops are used in places where the land has been striped bare, and the topsoil has been entirely lost to erosion, or where desertification has started. The intent is not to grow food or cash crops, but to repair and reinvigorate the soil in order to prepare the way for the later planting of food or cash crops. Nitrogen fixing plants and trees normally form the basis of such a reclamation project.

Hunger season[edit]

The hunger season is that period of time when all the food from the previous harvest has been consumed, and the next harvest is still some time away. Even in normal years, many households face an annual reduction in the amount of food they have available. Typically the hunger season will coincide with the start of planting the new crop, or shortly thereafter. So farmers are faced with a shortage of food at the very time they are expected to perform their heaviest labor.

One way of mitigating the effects of the hunger season is growing some non-seasonal crops close to the family home, such as bananas in humid areas, or cassava where it is arid. As an example, a family that has ten banana plants producing fruit during the hunger season is unlikely to experience excessive hardship. Sweet potato, pigeon pea, and Moringa oleifera should also be considered.

Major constraints[edit]

Mild winters[edit]

Winters are mild in the tropics; there is no frost, no snow, and no ice, so the insect population flourishes year-round. In temperate areas winter eliminates most insect pests prior to the emergence of new crops, so plants coming up in the spring have a chance to take hold and grow prior to being attacked. In the tropics plants enter a world already full of hungry adult insects.

Acidic soils[edit]

Soils in the humid tropics are normally highly acidic and nutrient poor; decomposition is rapid because of high temperatures, high humidity, and frequent heavy rains. Heavy rains, especially monsoon rains, lead to rapid nutrient leaching, and chemical weathering of the soil. Standard temperate strategies for improving nutrient poor soil, such as composting, have limited application in such an environment due to rapid leaching.

Aluminum is the most common metal found in the Earth's crust. It is found in all soils and in all environments, from temperate to tropical. In a soluble state it is highly toxic to plant life, as it inhibits root growth; however, in neutral and alkaline soils common to the temperate zones it is insoluble and therefore inert. Soil fertility is directly influenced by how acidic it is, as the more acidic the higher the level of aluminum toxicity; in areas where the pH drops below 5, aluminum becomes soluble and can enter into plant roots where it accumulates.

Approximately a third of all tropical soils are too acidic to support traditional food crops. These highly acidic tropical soils represent the largest untapped arable land left in the world, and therefore more productive utilization of these lands is key to expanding the world food supply.

Winrock International states "In the humid tropics, the relative importance of acid soils is greatest in Latin America (81%), but also significant in Africa (56%) and Asia (38%)" [2].

Traditionally on commercial farms aluminum toxicity is countered by adding lime to the soil, which neutralizes the acid and renders the aluminum inert. However, many small land holders and resource-poor farmers cannot afford lime, and instead rely on slash-and-burn agriculture. As the original plant life is burnt, the ash acts to neutralize the acidic soil and makes the area acceptable for food plants. In time acidity increases and only native plants will grow, forcing the farmer to move on and clear a new area.

Soil color in humid areas is related to the level of oxidation that has occurred in the soil, with red soil being the result of iron oxidation, and yellow soil being the result of aluminum oxidation.


Salinization occurs naturally in arid areas where not enough rain falls to wash soluble salts down and out of the root zone. Irrigation makes the situation worse, since surface water and groundwater contain more salt than rainwater does. Salt tends to build up in the soil as water is added through irrigation. As water is used by plants and evaporates from the soil surface, the salt in the water concentrates in the soil. The high temperatures and low humidity in arid regions means that salinization often accompanies irrigation.

Day-length sensitive plants[edit]

Some plants have a photoperiod (photoperiodism) requirement for a certain number of hours of daylight before they will grow, flower, or produce fruit. Without this they will not complete their life-cycle and will not produce fruit and seeds. For this reason seeds brought from the temperate zones may not perform as expected, or at all in the tropics. Some plants are genetically keyed to only start producing when a certain number of hours of daylight is reached, the same number of hours as is found in their native habitat. With the shorter daylight hours experienced in the tropics, that switch never gets thrown.

Low economic input in Africa, constraining the export of tropical crops[edit]

In Africa, there are very few registered African companies that sell their products through a commercial distributor' into Supermarkets. This phenomenon can be clearly seen if one walks into a supermarket (not a normal market, where this isn't the case); almost all products come from Western companies. [citation needed]

Although tropical crops have high value at supermarkets, most crops are not sold at all or have very limited supply because of the small amounts and fluctuating supply. At normal markets (not supermarkets), these food items are available, but only local crops within season. Of course because the availability meets demand in these places, prices are lower and the returns are lower than they would be in the West.

Availability of inexpensive Western crops and food[edit]

Western food, as it is subsidized by the EU and the USA, is for certain products, such as chicken, cheaper than its counterparts in the developing world. Besides the matching food products being cheaper, the availability of Western surrogates for certain food has also proven disastrous. At least in certain continents as Africa, Western surrogate foods are thought to be 'better' and more modern by African people, who thus switch from their traditional ingredients and meals to Western counterparts (see article below).

This availability of inexpensive foreign food is not only damaging to the indigenous economy, but also for the health of the people themselves (sparking obesity, heart problems, and a lack of certain vitamins and minerals). This is believed to be because certain Western food (not only hamburgers but also the main staple food) is not qualified for them (as strange as it may seem). Because of these problems, the traditional African food is again slowly being distributed within the continent (e.g. in Nairobi, the Tusker Supermarket).

Vulnerability to climate change[edit]

A combination of factors make the tropics one of the world's most vulnerable regions to the negative impacts of climate change on agriculture. These include:

  • High population density across much of the tropics[1]
  • High proportion of developing nations with high incidence of poverty and underdevelopment[2]
  • Large percentage of population in these countries highly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood
  • Dependence on rain-fed agricultural systems, especially in the arid/semi-arid tropics
  • Shortening of growing seasons and increases in temperature beyond the extremes already experienced in some areas[3]
  • Projected decrease in crop yields at low latitudes in contrast to high latitudes[4]

The fact that climate change and temperature increases are expected to negatively affect crop yields in the tropics could have troublesome implications for poverty and food security, mainly because populations in the area are so dependent on agriculture as their only means of survival. A study by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security matched future climate change "hotspots" with regions that are already suffering from chronic poverty and food insecurity to pinpoint regions in the tropics that could be especially vulnerable to future changes in climate.[5][6] These include regions such as West Africa which are already dependent on drought- and stress-resistant crop varieties and thus left with little room to manoeuvre when the climate becomes even drier.[7] The study notes that East and West Africa, India, parts of Mexico and Northeastern Brazil will experience a shortening of growing seasons by more than 5%, negatively impacting a number of important crop staples.[8]

Common tropical horticulture crops[edit]

Main page: List of fruits#Tropical_fruits

Common agricultural crops[edit]


  1. Cohen JE, Small C (1998). Hypsographic demography: The distribution of human population by altitude. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences 95:14009-14014
  2. Sachs JD (2001). Tropical Underdevelopment Working paper 8119, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, USA.
  3. Battisti DS, Naylor RL (2009). Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat Science 323(5911):240-244.
  4. Easterling WE, Aggarwal PK, Batima P, Brander KM, Erda L, Howden SM, Kirilenko A, Morton J, Soussana JF, Schmidhuber J, et al. (2007). Food, fibre and forest products. In Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL, eds, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, pp 273–313.
  5. "Climate change threatens world food supply" (2008). Regency Foundation Networx, London, UK. Accessed 4 October 2012.
  6. Ericksen P, Thornton P, Notenbaert A, Cramer L, Jones P, Herrero M. 2011. "Mapping hotspots of climate change and food insecurity in the global tropics". CCAFS Report no. 5. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark.
  7. "Climate change threatens world food supply" (2008). Regency Foundation Networx, London, UK. Accessed 4 October 2012.
  8. "CCAFS reseases study on hotspots of vulnerability to climate-induced food insecurity" (2011). International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Climate Change Policy and Practice Knowledgebase, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Accessed: 4 October 2012.

External links[edit]