User:Recent Runes/Pronunciation

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Analysis of Pronunciation points[edit]

Sounds

Easy sound and easy spelling

Easy sound and hard spelling

Foreign sound and regular spelling

Foreign sound and irregular spelling

Hard sound and regular spelling

Hard sound and irregular spelling

/f/

f, ff, ph






/g/

g (+ a, o, u), gu

c





/gz/

x






/k/

k, c, cc

qu, ch





/ks/

x, cc






/m/

m, mm






/v/

v

f



















/S/


ch, che, sch





/Z/


g (+ e, i, y), j, ge












/d/

d






/l/

l, ll






/n/

n, nn

-n





/s/

s, ss, sc, c, ce

ç, tion -> /sj%/, x, t





/t/

t, -te

d, pt, -t, th





/(t)/


-t





/z/

z, ze, s, se

x, sion -> /zj%/












/b/

b






/p/

p

bt -> /pt/












silence

c, d, g, h, l, p, s, t, x, f, z

-r





/'/


h





/H/



u (+ i, e, y, a, é)




/J/



gn




/R/



r, rr, re






















Sounds

Easy sound and easy spelling

Easy sound and hard spelling

Foreign sound and regular spelling

Foreign sound and irregular spelling

Hard sound and regular spelling

Hard sound and irregular spelling

/a/

a, à

ai, e





/A/

â

a, as





/&/



am, an, em, en-




/@/


e, on





/(@)/


e





/e/

é, -er, ez, eff-, -es

e,

-et, ai, ê, ei, aî, err,

ess, ay





/E/

e,

è, ê,

ei, -et, ai

é,

aî, ay,

ea





/Ej/


ay, eil





/En/

aine

aîn





/Et/

-ette






/ER/

er, err, ère, aire

-er





/£/



ain, -en, ein, im, in

ym, yn, en-



/9/





eu, heu

oeu, uei

/9R/





eur


/*/






un

/2/





eu

eu, oeu, ue

/2z/





euse


elided


e





/i/

i, y






/in/

in* (*=vowel)






/j*/

i*, y* (*=vowel)

l, ll, il, ille





/ije/


ié, ier





/O/

o

au





/o/

au, eau, ô

o, o* (*=silent)





/%/



om, on




/u/

ou* (*=cons), oo, où, oû

oui





/w*/

ou* (*=vowel)






/wa/

oi, oî






/waj/


oy





/w£/



oin




/wA/


oi





/y/





u, ue

û, eû, eu


Rules


Rule

Text

IPA

Count


Level

A01 a

a

a

447


0.01

A02 a

à

a

10


0.01

A03 b

ai

a

7

clashes with E37 (gives E)

4.01

A04 b

e

a

1


4.01

A05 ?

ai

0


?

A10 b

a

A

22

may clash with E37 in "ail(le)" -> "Aj"?

4.02

A11 a

â

A

11


0.12

A12 b

as

A

5


4.02

A20 c

am

&

9

not final or before m, n or h.

2.01

A21 c

an

&

120

not final or before n or h.

2.01

A25 c

em

&

20

see also R01

2.02

A26 c

en

&

178

see R01. [ 'enn*' -> /&n*/ is special case]

2.02

C00 a

c

/

4

usually preceded by 'n' or silent '*ct' ?

0.00

D00 a

d

/

24


0.00

E00 a

e

/

200

final after silent vowel or in silent '*es'.

0.00

E01 b

e

@

42

short words & 2nd last vowel sound

3.01

E02 b

e

(@)

40

generally difficult to predict

3.02

E03 b

on

@

1

odd (monsieur)

4.33

E04 b

de

d@

11

can override E24

3.01

E05 b

de

d(@)

14


3.02

E06 b

re

r@

22


3.01

E07 b

re

r(@)

37

can override E24, (@) is difficult

3.02

E08 b

que

k@

6


3.01

E09 b

que

k(@)

5


3.02

E10 b

e

e

10

clash with E01, E30

4.03

E11 a

é

e

312


0.11

E12 a

er

e/

332


0.11

E13 a

es

e/

3

can be silent in verb endings for "tu"

0.11

E14 b

et

e/

1

(only "et") clash with E36

4.03

E15 a

ez

e/

3

common verb ending for "vous"

0.11

E16 b

ai

e

10

clash with E37 (mostly verb infinitives)

4.04

E17 b

ê

e

7

clash with E32 (always verb infinitives)

4.03

E18 b

ei

e

5

clash with E35 (always verb infinitives)

4.03

E19 b K01

esqu

ek

1

only in lesqu- (would otherwise be Esk)

4.03

E20 b I11

ay

ei

2


4.04

E21 b

aîn

en

1

clash with E42 / enchaîner

4.04

E22 b

aît

et

2

maîtrise, maîtriser

4.04

E23 b

err

eR

4

unlike English & clash with E51

4.03

E24 b S03

ess

es

15

unlike

English and may be overridden by E04, E05 or E07 if first vowel or

E30 if at end of word

4.03

E25 b

eff

ef

5

unlike

English but always true for the start of a word. "eff"

only appears at start of word anyway!

3.09







E30 a

e

E

132

often followed by 2 consonants

0.12

E31 a

è

E

22


0.12

E32 a

ê

E

16

E17 clashes but E32 is more common

0.12

E33 b

é

E

2

clashes with E11

4.05

E35 a

ei

E

7

E18 clashes and "ein" can give "£"

0.12

E36 a

et

E/

7

E14 clashes, but E36 is more common

0.12

E37 a

ai

E

27

A03,

A10 & E16 clash but E37 is more common, and consistent with

E43, E53 & E54. E61 can nasalize it.

0.12

E38 b

ea

E

1

English words

5.01

E39 b

E

3


0.12

E40 b [J06]

ay

Ej

3

difficult

4.05

E41 a [J04]

eil

Ej/

5

J04 is difficult part

1.20

E42 b

aîn

En

4

difficult (no nasalisation)

4.06

E43 a

aine

En

7

includes E37

0.12

E44 a

ette

Et/

9


0.12

E50 a R01

er

ER

50

always precedes a consonant

0.22

E51 a R02

err

ER

4

E23 clashes

0.22

E52 a R03

ère

ER

15

moderate

0.22

E54 a R03

aire

ER

18

easy (includes E37)

0.22

E56 b R01

er

ER/

6

clashes with E12 (short or English words)

4.06

E57 a R02

err

ER/

0


0.22

E60 c

aim

£

0

faim

2.03

E61 c

ain

£

23


2.03

E62 d

en

£

2

clashes with A26

4.07

E63 c

en

£/

17

final

2.03

E64 c

ein

£

4


2.03

E66 c

im

£

8


2.03

E67 c

in

£

56

Often combined with W20 in "oin".

2.03

E68 c

ym

£

1


2.03

E69 c

yn

£

1


2.03

E70 e

eu

9

9

not as final sound or followed by /z/

3.03

H00 E71 e

heu

9

5

includes E70, always in "heur".

3.03

E72 f

oeu

9

2

hard spelling

4.08

E73 e R01

eur

9R

41

includes E70

3.03

E74 f

uei

9

1

hard spelling & pronunciation

4.08

E80 e

um

*

0


3.06

E81 e

un

*

10

only words containing the word "un"!

3.06

E82 f

eu

2

4

clashes with E70. Combines with J16.

4.10

E83 e

eu

2/

9

final /2/ sound so no clash with E70

3.04

E84 e Z05

euse

2z

24

/z/ follows /2/ so no clash with E70

3.04

E83 e X00

eux

2/

15

Combines with H07.

3.04

E83 e E00

eue

2/

2

final /2/ sound so no clash with E70

3.04

E87 f

oeu

2

0

rare (oeufs)

4.10

E88 f

ue

2

0

possible clash with H02 or H05

4.10

E90 b

e


7

Elided vowel - difficult. also see M01

4.11

F01 a

ph

f

5


0.00

G00 a

g

/

4

see also O21 (always after 'n')

0.00

G01 a

gu

g

9

to give a hard /g/ sound before 'e' or 'i'.

1.05

G02 b

c

g

1

'second'

4.31

G10 b Z08a

x

gz

4

only before vowels

1.26

H00 a

h

silent

28


0.00

H10 b

h

'

10

"aspirated h" prevents liaison

1.24

H01 c I01

ui

Hi

25

only

applies if no preceding vowel or letter 'q' or 'g' which would

absorb the 'u'.

1.11

H02 c E12

uer

He/

5

same conditions as H01

1.11

H03 c I05 J06

uy

Hij

3


1.21

H04 c E11

He

1

same conditions as H01

1.11

H05 c E30 L10

uel

HEl

3

same conditions as H01

1.11

H06 c A01

ua

Ha

2

same conditions as H01 or after 'r'.

1.11

H07 c E83

ueu

H2

1


3.04

I01 a

i

i

359

'i' is not followed by a vowel

0.11

I02 a

î

i

0


0.11

I05 a

y

i

10

combines with H03

0.11

I07 a J07 E11

ije

1


1.21

I08 a J08 E12

ier

ije

3


1.21

I10 a

ile

il/

6


0.11

I11 a

yle

il

1

part of E20 too. (really 'y' -> /i/)

0.11

I15 a

in

in

32

"in" is always followed by a vowel

0.11

I16 a

yn

in

0


0.11

J01 a

i

j

103

'i' is always followed by a vowel

1.19

J02 b

l

j

2

hard, only in "*ail" ?

1.20

J03 b

ll

j

19

hard, always in "*ill*"

1.20

J04 b

il

j/

3

hard, note "*ile." -> /*il/ (no rule)

1.20

J05 b

ille

ij/

2

hard, some overlap with J03 & J09

1.20

J06 a

y

j

8

'y' is always followed by a vowel

1.21

J07 b

ije

1

see I07

1.21

J08 b

ier

ije

3

see I08

1.21

J09 b

ille

j/

6

"ille" is always preceded by a vowel

1.20

J10 a E10 D00

ied

je/

4


1.19

J11 a E32

llet

jE/

1


1.20

J12 a E27 E00

ième

jEm/

3


1.19

J13 a E26 E00

ienne

jEn/

4


1.19

J15 a E65

ien

15

usually final except 'bien*'.

2.10

J20 c

gn

J

17


1.12

K01 b

qu

k

79


1.02

K02 b

ch

k

1

Rare. "ch" is followed by a consonant.

1.02

K10 a

x

ks

10

before some vowels or all consonants

0.00

K11 a

cc

ks

2

before 'e, i, y' otherwise /k/.

0.00

K12 a

x

ks/

2

like K10

0.00

L00 b

l

/

1

'l' usually /l/ or /j/.

4.24

L01 a

l

l

255

compare with J02

0.00

L02 a

ll

l

21

compare with J03

0.00

L10 a

l

l/

27


0.00

L11 a E00

le

l/

50


0.00

L12 a E00

lle

l/

15


0.00

M01 a A26 T00

ment

m&/

17


2.02

E90 M02 a A26 T00

ement

m&

33

Silent 'e' is always part of word stem.

2.02


M03 a E00

me

m/

19

Other 'm' -> /m/'s not labelled.

0.00

M04 a E00

mme

m/

7

Other 'mm' -> /m/'s not labelled.

0.00

M02 a A26 E11

ementé

m&te

1


Silent 'e' is always part of word stem.

2.02

E90 M01 a E61

emain

1

lendemain

4.11

N99 b

ng

N

1

English pronunciation (pressing)

5.01

N99 b

n

n/

1

English pronunciation (zen)

5.01

N10 a

ne

n/

19


0.00

N11 a

nne

n/

5


0.00

E90 N12 a E44

enette

nEt

1

pichenette

4.11

O01 a

o

O

182


0.12

O03 b

au

O

2

clashes with O13

4.14

O05 a M04

omm

Om

7

like O01 + m

0.12

O10 b

o

o

6

"oé" & "éo" "oc." + odd hard cases

4.15

O11 b

o

o/

3


3.07

O12 a

ô

o

11


0.11

O13 a

au

o

46


0.11

O14 a

eau

o

17


0.11

O15 T00

ot

o/

3


3.07

O15 S00

os

o/

8


3.07

O15 P00

op

o/

2


3.07

O18 Z01

os

oz

7


3.08

O18 Z05

ose

oz

2


3.08

O20 c

om

%

17


2.04

O21 c

on

%

134


2.04

O22 c P91

ompt

%t

4


2.05

O23 c G91

ongt

%t

1


2.05

P00 a

p

/

15


0.00

P01 b

bt

pt

2


4.27

P90 d

p


1

see T12

-

R00 b

r

/

1

monsieur

4.32

R01 c

r

R

715

Level may be 0.21 to 0.23

0.23

R02 c

rr

R

24

Level may be 0.21 to 0.23

0.23

R03 c

re

R/

129

Level may be 0.21 to 0.23

0.23

R01 c E06

re

R@

22


3.01

R01 c E07

re

R(@)

37


3.02

S00 a

s

/

94


0.00

S01 b

ç

s

10

before 'a, o, u'.

1.06

S02 a

sc

s

4

before 'e, i, y'.

0.00

S03 a

ss

s

74


0.00

S05 b

s

s/

3

clashes with S00

4.17

S06 a

ce

s/

28


0.00

S07 a

se

s/

7

always preceded by a consonant

0.00

S08 b

x

s

2

unusual + clash with K10. six, dix.

4.18

S10 a E12

cer

se/

14


0.11

S11 a E12

ser

se/

8


0.11

S20 a J01 A01

cia

sja

2


1.22

S21 a J01 E10

cier

sje

1


1.22

S22 b J01 O21

tion

sj%/

30


2.06

S23 b J01 O01

tion(n)

sjOn

3

hard; /sj/ is produced as in S22

2.07

S24 f E88

cue

s2

0

no examples!

4.10

S25 b J01 E26

tie

sjE

1

hard

4.25

S30 b

ch

S

88


1.03

S31 b

che

S/

15

like S30 + E00

1.03

S32 b

sch

S

1

hard: schéma

1.03

T00 a

t

-

176

associated with many other rules

0.00

T01 b

th

t

6


1.07

T02 b

d_

t

0

in liaison?

999

T03 b

t_

t

0

in liaison?

999

T04 b

t

t/

0

final t not silent, see Y10.

999

T05 a

te

t/

75


0.00

T07 b

t

(t)

2

but & (huit drops /t/ before a consonant)

4.22

T10 a S30

tch

tS

1

match

1.03

T11 b S30

sh

(t)S

1

smash

4.30

P90 T12 b

pt

t

1

sept

4.23

U01 a

oo

u

1

English

5.01

U02 a

ou

u

132


0.12

U03 a

u

1

0.12

U04 b

oui

u

4

always followed by 'll'.

4.20

U05 a

u

2


0.12

V01 b

w

v

0

German words?

5.01

V02 b

f

v

1

only in liasons (neuf)

4.26

W01 a

ou

w

10

before vowels

1.14

W02 b

w

w

0

English words?

5.01

W03 b

wh

w

0

English words?

5.01

W10 a

oi

wa

66


1.15

W11 b

oy

waj

5

hard

1.16

W12 b

oi

wA

5

clash with W10

1.17

W13 a

wa

1

hard

1.15

W20 a E67

oin

15


2.09

X00 a

x

/

29


0.00

Y01 e

u

y

137


3.05

Y02 e

û

y

4


3.05

Y03 e

ue

y/

11

'ue' always at end of word

3.05

Y10 T04

eût

yt/

0

odd (in être)

4.21

Z00 a

z

/

0

part of E15

0.00

Z01 a

s

z

55

between vowels

0.00

Z02 a

s_

z

0

liaisons?

?

Z03 b

x_

z

1

dix

1.25

Z04 a

z

z

5


0.00

Z05 a

se

z/

40


0.00

Z06 b

z

z/

0

final 'z' not silent, in some names only?

4.34

Z07 a

ze

z/

3


0.00

(Z08)

x

gz


part of G10

-

Z10 b J01 O21

sion

zj%/

4

unlike English

2.08

Z20 b

g

Z

44

'g' always followed by 'i', 'y' or 'e' for /Z/, otherwise gives /g/.

1.04

Z21 b

j

Z

34

always true

1.04

Z22 b

ge

Z

31


1.04

Z22 b O21

geon

Z%

1


2.04

Z23 b A21 T00

geant

Z&/

1

similar to Z22

2.01



0.00# Easy rules (C00, D00, E00, F01, G00, H00, K10, K11, K12, L01, L02, L10, L11, L12, M03,

M04,

N10, N11, P00, S00, S02, S03, S06, S07, S10, S11, T00, T05, X00, Z00,

Z01, Z04, Z05, Z07)

0.01#

Essential words needed early in lessons

11

0.11# Easy consonants and vowels /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ (A01, A02, E11, E12, E13, E15, I01, I02,

I05, I10, I11, I15, O12, O13, O14) 110

0.12# Easy consonants and vowels /A/ /E/ /O/ /u/ (A11, E30, E31, E32, E35, E36, E37, E39,

E43, E44, O01, O05, U02, U03, U05) 52

0.13# Easy consonants and both sets of vowels (rules for 0.11 & 0.12) 59


0.21# Easy consonants + /R/ and vowels /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/

(0.11 rules + R01, R02, R03) 71

0.22#

Easy consonants + /R/ and vowels /A/ /E/ /O/ /u/ (0.12 + E50..E52

+ R01, R02, R03) 51

0.23#

Easy consonants + /R/ and both sets of vowels (rules

for 0.21 & 0.22) 83


1.02#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'qu' or 'ch' -> /k/

(K01, K02) 35

1.03#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'ch', 'che' or 'sch' -> /S/

(S30, S31, S32) 46

1.04#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + /Z/

(Z20, Z21, Z22) 41

1.05#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'gu' -> /g/

(G01) 6

1.06#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'ç' -> /s/

(S01) 13

1.07#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'th' -> /t/

(T01) 2


1.11#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'u' -> /H/

(H01...H07) 22

1.12#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'gn' -> /J/

(J20) 6

1.14#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'ou' -> /w/

(W01) 6

1.15#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'oi' or 'oî'

-> /wa/ (W10, W13) 47

1.16#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'oy' -> /waj/

(W11) 3

1.17#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'oi' -> /wA/

(W12) 4


1.19#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'i' -> /j/

(J01, J10, J12, J13) 33

1.20#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'l' or 'll' -> /j/

(J02...J05, J09, J11) 10

1.21#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'y' -> /j/ + 'ié' or 'ier' -> /ije/ (I07, I08, J06, J07, J08)

8

1.22#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'cia' -> /sja/ or 'cier' ->

/sje/ (S20, S21) 2


1.24#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'h' -> /'/ (aspirated h)

(H10) 5

1.25#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'x' -> /z/

(Z03) 1

1.26#

Easy vowels and easy consonants + 'x' -> /gz/

(G10, Z08) 1


2.01#

Easy vowels and all consonants + 'am' or 'an' -> /&/ (nasal) (A20, A21) 82 2.02# The above + 'em' or 'en' -> /&/ (nasal)

(A25, A26) 119

2.03#

The above + 'aim','ain','ein','im','in', 'ym' or 'yn' -> /£/

(E60 E61 E64 E66 E67 E68 E69) 60

2.04#

The above + 'om' or 'on' -> /%/ (nasal)

(O20, O21) 90

2.05#

The above + 'p' or 'g' elided after 'om' or 'on'

(O22, O23, G91, P91) 5

2.06#

The above + 'tion' -> /sj%/ (S22)

21

2.07#

The above + 'tion(n)' -> /sjOn/ (S23)

1

2.08#

The above + 'sion' -> /zj%/ (Z10)

3

2.09#

The above + 'oin' -> /w£/ (nasal) (W20)

12

2.10#

The above + 'ien' -> /j£/ (J15, E63)

15


3.01#

Easy vowels and all consonants + nasal vowels + @

(E01, E04, E06, E08) 43

3.02#

Easy vowels and all consonants + nasal vowels + @ + (@)

(E02, E05, E07, E09) 84

3.03#

The above + 'eu' -> /9/ (not final)

(E70, E71, E73) 40

3.04#

The above + 'eu' -> /-2/ (final) or 'eus' -> /2z/

(E83, E84) 27

3.05#

The above + 'u', 'û' or 'ue' -> /y/

(Y01, Y02, Y03) 125

3.06#

The above + 'um' or 'un' -> /*/

(E80, E81) 9

3.07#

The above + final 'o', 'op', 'os', 'ot' -> /o/ (final)

(O11, O15) 10

3.08#

The above + 'os' or 'ose' -> /oz/ (O18)

9

3.09#

The above + 'eff-' -> /ef/ (initial)

(E25) 5


4.01#

Irregular spelling 'ai' or 'e' -> /a/

(A03, A04) 7

4.02#

Irregular spelling 'a' or 'as' -> /A/

(A10, A12) 25

4.03#

Irregular spelling 'e', '-et', 'ê', 'ei', 'err', 'ess'

-> /e/ (E10, E14, E17, E18, E19, E23, E24) 42

4.04#

Irregular spelling 'ai', 'aî', 'ay' -> /e/

(E16, E20, E21, E22) 15

4.05#

Irregular spelling 'é', 'ay' -> /E/

(E33, E40) 5

4.06#

Irregular spellings 'aîn' -> /En/, '-er' -> /ER/ (E42, E56)

10

4.07#

Irregular spellings 'en-' -> /£/

(E63) 2

4.08#

Irregular spellings 'oeu', 'uei' -> /9/

(E72, E74) 3

4.10#

Irregular spellings 'eu', 'oeu', 'ue' -> /2/

(E82, E87, E88) 3

4.11#

Irregular spellings 'e' -> // (elided inside word)

(E90) 9


4.14#

Irregular spellings 'au' -> /O/ (O03)

2

4.15#

Irregular spellings 'o' -> /o/ (O10)

6

4.17#

Irregular spelling '-s' -> /s/ (final 's' not silent)

(S05) 3

4.18#

Irregular spelling '-x' -> /s/ (S08)

2

4.20#

Irregular spellings 'oui' -> /u/ (U04)

4

4.21#

Irregular spellings 'eû', 'eu' -> /y/ (Y04, Y10)

0

4.22#

Irregular spellings 't' -> (t) (T07)

2

4.23#

Irregular spellings 'p' -> // (elided)

(P90) 5

4.24#

Irregular spellings '-l' -> // (silent at end of word)

(L00) 1

4.25#

Irregular spellings 'tiel' -> /sjEl/ (S25)

1

4.26#

Irregular spellings 'f' -> /v/ (V02)

1

4.27#

Irregular spellings 'b' -> /p/ (P01)

2


4.30#

Irregular spellings 'sh' -> /(t)S/

(T11) 1

4.31#

Irregular spellings 'c' -> /g/ (G02)

1

4.32#

Irregular spellings '-eur' -> /2/

(R00) 1

4.33#

Irregular spellings 'on' -> /@/

(E03) 1

4.34#

Irregular spellings '-z' -> /-z/ (final 'z' not silent)

(Z06) 0


5.01#

Foreign words

(E38, U01, N99, V01) 2</BODY></HTML>